Nationalistic Movements in SW Asia/Middle East

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1 Nationalistic Movements in SW Asia/Middle East Dates of Independence for Nations of SW Asia/Middle East Nationalistic issues of Palestinian Arabs remain unresolved

2 Ottoman Empire Falls Ottoman empire begins to decline in the 1700 s with the loss of Greece and North Africa During WWI, Ottomans side with Germans as Central Powers A million Christian Armenians are killed during an Armenian Genocide launched by the Ottomans in WWI British and French forces convince Arabs to revolt against the Ottomans Ottoman Empire is dismantled at end of WWI Turkey is all that remains under Ottoman control

3 Fall of the Ottoman Empire British and French forces convince Arabs to revolt against the Ottomans The Ottoman Empire collapses by the end if WWI Turkey is all that remains under Ottoman control

4 Modernization of Turkey By 1923 the last Ottoman sultan is driven out of Turkey Mustafa Kemal becomes President and transforms Turkey into a modern state President Kemal eliminates Arabic elements from the Turkish Language and adopts the Roman alphabet

5 Modernization of Turkey Kemal forces people to adopt last names Kemal outlaws all Muslim customs and traditions Kemal gives equal rights to women, including the right to vote Kemal s changes to Turkey are lasting and profound

6 The Beginnings of Modern Iran A similar process is underway in Persia In 1908 oil is discovered in Persia while foreign investors flood the country However, most of the money is taken by foreigners, fueling a Persian nationalist movement

7 The Beginnings of Modern Iran In 1921 Reza Khan takes over the government and becomes Shah (King) Shah Khan follows Kemal s example and modernizes Persia renaming the country Iran During WWII Shah Kahn harbors a large number of Nazi s in Iran

8 Arab Nationalism Arab ethnic group is united by language Despite promises of independence after WWI, Britain and France end up controlling the Arab mandates of Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria San Remo Agreement gives economic control to Britain and France This begins the cry for Arab Unity 1932 Saudi Arabia is formed and is very poor 1930 s oil is discovered in Saudi Arabia and it soon becomes very wealthy

9 The Birth of Modern Zionism 1897 Zionism is the national liberation movement of the Jewish people who sought to restore their independence in their ancestral homeland. The dream of restoration and return had been at the core of Judaism and Jewish identity for 2,000 years. Zionists integrated this historic dream with modern political ideals. Socialist Zionism, Political, Cultural, Religious, Revisionist All believed in the idea of the new Jew

10 Palestine Birthplace of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Judaism: Israel = Biblical Promised Land Occupied by Moses and Hebrews around 1000 B.C. Invaded and occupied by Philistines Greeks and Romans call it Land of Philistines, which becomes Palestine. Region of Jesus Christ s birth, ministry, and death. Ownership changes hands frequently. Muslims capture in 640 built Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem in 691 Spot where Mohammed stopped on his way to heaven. Holiest site in Islam outside Saudi Arabia. Ottoman Turks control from 1500 s-1900 s

11 The Problem of Palestine Great Britain controls the mandate of Palestine after WWI Palestine is ancient home of the Jewish people but few Jews live there 1917 Britain issues the Balfour Declaration which supports the idea of a Jewish homeland British also promise to protect the rights of non-jewish people in Palestine International Support for Zionism Balfour Declaration, 1917 League of Nations Palestine Mandate, 1920

12 The Problem of Palestine Palestine at the time was 98% Muslim and they were angry Jewish settlers begin to arrive as Nazi persecution increases Tensions between Jews and Muslims also increased in Palestine In 1939 Britain tries to restrict Jewish immigration to Palestine and places a limit of 75,000 Jews per year by 1944 Jews were no longer allowed to migrate to Palestine

13 Conflict escalates between Jews and Palestinian Arabs in Palestine Nazi Holocaust of Jews is exposed with end of WWII Genocide of the Holocaust has eliminated 2/3 of European Jews by 1945 Britain is no longer able to maintain control in Palestine Nationalism in Palestine increases, as does conflict between Jewish and Palestinian Arab ethnic groups In 1947 Britain relinquishes control of Palestine to UN UN decree in 1947 partitions Palestinian territory defining the lands of Jews and Palestinian Arabs in Palestine Both groups believe they have the Godgiven right to the land

14 UN Partition of Palestine 1947 Jews Accept Palestinian Arabs Reject Plan for Division May 14, 1948 Jews declare Israel a nation May 15, 1948 Arab nations declare war on Israel Egypt, Syria, Transjordan, Lebanon and Iraq Fighting continues until Jan Israel prevails and gains territory in Galilee to the north and the Negev Desert to the south. Jerusalem is divided between Israel and Jordan. Fate of 700k Palestinian refugees is left undecided.

15 Jewish and Arab Refugees Rescued From The 1948 War Map of Jewish refugees Fleeing from Arab countries 160,000 Arabs accept Israel s offer of citizenship. 472, ,000 Arabs sought refuge from the fighting in neighboring Arab countries. 850,000 Jews lived in Arab/Muslim lands in Persecuted by nine Arab countries after 1948 and forced to flee, hundreds of thousands found refuge in Israel. 70,000 Jews were forced out of the Mandate land occupied by Jordan, Egypt and Syria in 1948.

16 Victims of the Arab War Against Israel Jewish and Arab Refugees Israel quickly absorbed Jewish refugees and dismantled the refugee camps. Arab countries, with the exception of Jordan, refused to absorb the Palestinian-Arab refugees. Palestinian camps grew into working-class neighborhoods of adjacent cities. Palestinian Refugee Camp Typical temporary camps (Ma abarot) Israel built for flood of Jewish refugees

17 Arab States Wars Against Israel Change Territorial Boundaries Jordan annexs area it renames the West Bank. Egypt occupies Gaza Israel defends itself against Arab states in 1967, it captures vital buffer zones: Golan Heights, Sinai, Gaza, and the West Bank. Israel immediately offers to trade land for peace. Arab states reject the offer.

18 Eight Major Wars Between Israel and Arab World in 62 Years Israel s War of Independence Sinai War Six Day War War of Attrition Yom Kippur War First Lebanon War Persian Gulf War Lebanon War II or Hezbollah War

19 Six Day War 5-10 JUNE 1967 Egypt, Jordan, and Syria begin military mobilization. Israel launches surprise pre-emptive strike. Destroys most of Egyptian Air Force on the ground. Knocks out 350 aircraft in first three hours.

20 5-10 JUNE 1967 Israel Defeats Egypt, Jordan and Syria Armored forces supported by air and infantry quickly take Sinai, Golan Heights, West Bank (including Arab portion of Jerusalem and Gaza). Destroyed over 200 tanks in two days. UN arranges ceasefire, but terms did not specify exactly what land Israel was required to give up.

21 Trading Land for Peace 1979 Israel ceded the Sinai for peace with Egypt 2000 Israel withdrew from security zone in southern Lebanon 2005 Israel completed a 100% withdrawal from Gaza

22 Israel is 1/8 of 1% of the Middle East Israel s Size 290 miles long, 418km long (6-hour drive) 85 miles wide, 137km wide (90-minute drive) 9 miles wide, 14.4km wide (narrowest point)

23 Ethnic and Religious Groups of Israel 80% of Israelis are Jews of different ethnicities and races from over 80 countries Israel officially recognizes over 15 religions, from Islam and Christian denominations to the Baha I Faith Refugees from Muslim countries and their descendants make up about half of Israel s Jewish population. 20% of Israelis are non-jews, including Druze, Bedouin, Muslims, and Christian Arabs.

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