2 Causes of Latin American Revolutions 1. Enlightenment Ideas writings of John Locke, Voltaire, & Jean Rousseau; Thomas Jefferson and Thomas Paine. 2. Creole discontent at being left out of government jobs and trade concessions. 3. Inspiration of American and French Revolutions. 4. Preoccupation of Spain & Portugal in fighting the Napoleonic Wars.
3 Napoleon on the March Provides a model & a diversion!
4 Latin American Revolutions!
5 Reasons for Nationalist Movements Latin Americans resented restrictions that forbade them to trade with countries other than Spain. Latin Americans resented restrictions that prevented them from manufacturing their own goods. The American and French Revolutions encouraged freedom and self-rule.
6 Wealthy colonial residents of Latin America were frustrated by the political and economic power of colonial officials and angered by high taxes and imperial monopolies. They were inspired by the Enlightenment thinkers and by the examples of the American and French Revolutions
7 The Portuguese royal family fled to Brazil, where King John VI maintained his court for over a decade Napoleon s s invasion of Portugal and Spain in 1807 and 1808 led dissenters in Venezuela, Mexico, and Bolivia to overthrow Spanish colonial officials in
8 The Spanish authorities quickly reasserted control, but a new round of revolutions began in 1810
9 Spanish South America, A creole-led led revolutionary junta declared independence in Venezuela in Spanish authorities were able to rally free blacks and slaves to defend the Spanish Empire because the junta s s leaders were interested primarily in pursuing the interests of creole landholders
10 Simón Bolívar emerged as the leader of the Venezuelan revolutionaries. Bolívar used the force of his personality in order to attract new allies (including slaves and free blacks) to his cause and to command the loyalty of his troops
11 Bolívar defeated the Spanish armies in 1824 and tried to forge Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador into a single nation. This project was a failure, as were Bolívar var s s other attempts to create a confederation of the former Spanish colonies
12 Bolivar s s Failure After uniting Venezuela, Columbia, & Ecuador into Gran Columbia, he left to help free the rest of Latin America. He died a year later, with his goal of uniting all of South America unfulfilled!
13 Buenos Aires was another important center of revolutionary activity in Spanish South America In 1816, after Ferdinand regained the Spanish throne, local junta leaders declared independence as the United Provinces of Rio de la Plata The new government was weak and the region quickly descended into political chaos.
14 Mexico, In 1810, Mexico was Spain s s richest and most populous colony However, the Amerindian population of central Mexico had suffered from dislocation due to mining and commercial enterprises Also they suffered and a cycle of crop failures and epidemics
15 On September 16, 1810 a parish priest, Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla urged the people to rise up against the Spanish authorities. The resulting violent rebellion took place under the leadership of Hidalgo and then, after Hidalgo s s capture and execution, under José María Morelos. Loyalist forces defeated the insurrection and executed Morelos in 1815
16 In 1821, news of a military revolt in Spain inspired Colonel Agustín de Iturbide to declare Mexico s s independence with himself as emperor. In early 1823 the army overthrew Iturbide and Mexico became a republic
17 Brazil, to 1831 King John VI of Portugal ruled his kingdom from Brazil until 1821, when unrest in Spain and Portugal led him to return to Lisbon. King John s s son Pedro remained in Brazil, where he ruled as regent until 1822, when he declared Brazil to be an independent constitutional monarchy with himself as king
18 Pedro s s liberal policies (including opposition to slavery) alienated the political slave-holding elite He incurred heavy losses of men and money as he attempted to control Uruguay by military force. Street demonstrations and violence led Pedro I to abdicate in favor of his son, Pedro II, who reigned until republicans overthrew him in 1889
20 1. Independence for Spanish & Portuguese Latin America By the mid-1820s, revolts create many newlyindependent nations. $ Toussaint L Ouverture Haiti $ Bolívar, San Martín, & O Higgins in: Paraguay, Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Peru, Bolivia, the United Provinces of Central America, and Gran Columbia!
21 2. No Unity! Failure of Bolivar s dream for a united South America: $ Many newly independent countries struggle with civil wars. By 1830s, geographic factors (mts., the Amazon, etc.) plus cultural differences defeated attempts at unification.
22 3. Independence Brought More Poverty The wars disrupted trade. The wars devastated the cities and the countryside.
23 4. Left Many Countries in the Control of Caudillos WHO WERE THEY?: $ Mid-19c dictators military authoritarianism. $ Mostly wealthy creole aristocrats. $ Immediately followed the fight for independence. $ Posed as reformers with goals to improve the economy and better the lives of the common people.
24 4. Left Many Countries in the Control of Caudillos WHO WERE THEY?: $ BUT Overthrew governments and took away basic human rights. $ Some attempted to make improvements, but most just cared about themselves and their families and friends [nepotism]. $ Power changes usually occurred at bayonet-point [coup d etats!]
25 Additional Problems 5. Feuds among leaders. 6. Geographic barriers. 7. The social hierarchy continued from the past. 8. Conservatives favored the old social order. 9. Liberals wanted land reform. 10. Dependence on foreign nations for capital and for economic investments.
26 The Problem of Order, , 1890, Constitutional Experiments Leaders in both the United States and in Latin America espoused constitutionalism. In the United States, the colonists prior experience with representative government contributed to the success of constitutionalism; In Latin America, inexperience with popular politics contributed to the failure of constitutions
27 In Canada, Britain responded to demands for political reform by establishing responsible government in each of the provinces in the 1840s. In 1867 the provincial governments of Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia entered into a confederation to form the Dominion of Canada with a central government in Ottawa.
28 In Latin America, lack of experience with elected legislatures and municipal governments led the drafters of constitutions to experiment with untested and impractical political institutions. Latin American nations also found it difficult to define the political role of the church and to subordinate the army and its prestigious leaders to civilian government
29 Personalist Leaders Successful military leaders in both the United States and Latin America were able to use their military reputations as the foundations of political power. Latin America s s slow development of stable political institutions made personalist politics much more influential than it was in the United States
30 The first constitutions of nearly all the American republics excluded large numbers of poor citizens from full political participation. This led to the rise of populist leaders who articulated the desires of the excluded poor and who at times used populist politics to undermine constitutional order and move toward dictatorship.
31 Personalist leaders dominated national politics by identifying with the common people, but in practice, they promoted the interests of powerful property owners. Personalist leaders were common in both the United States and Latin America, but in Latin America, the weaker constitutional tradition, less protection of property rights, lower literacy levels, and less developed communications systems allowed personalist leaders to become dictators
32 The Threat of Regionalism After independence the relatively weak central governments of the new nations were often not able to prevent regional elites from leading secessionist movements In Spanish America, all of the post-independence efforts to create large multistate federations failed. Central America split off from Mexico in 1823 and then broke up into five separate nations; Gran Colombia broke up into Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador; and Uruguay, Paraguay, and Bolivia declared their independence from Argentina
33 Regionalism threatened the United States when the issue of slavery divided the nation, leading to the establishment of the Confederacy and the U.S. Civil War The Confederacy failed because of poor timing; the new states of the Western Hemisphere were most vulnerable during the first decades after independence. The Confederacy s s attempt to secede from the United States came when the national government was well-established established and strengthened by experience, economic growth, and population growth
34 Foreign Interventions and Regional Wars During the 19th century wars between Western Hemisphere nations and invasions from the European powers often determined national borders, access to natural resources, and control of markets. By the end of the nineteenth century, the United States, Brazil, Argentina, and Chile had successfully waged wars against their neighbors and established themselves as regional powers.
35 European military intervention included the British attack on the United States in the War of 1812, the United States war with Spain in , 1899, French and English naval blockades of Argentina, an English naval blockade of Brazil, and Spanish and French invasions of Mexico. When the French invaded Mexico in 1862 they ousted President Benito Juárez and established Maximilian Habsburg as emperor. Juárez drove the French out in 1867; Maximilian was captured and executed.
36 The United States defeated Mexico and forced the Mexican government to give up Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and Colorado in Chile defeated the combined forces of Peru and Bolivia in two wars ( and ). 1881). Chile gained nitrate mines and forced Bolivia to give up its only outlet to the sea.
37 Argentina and Brazil fought over control of Uruguay in the 1820s, but finally recognized Uruguayan independence. Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay then cooperated in a five-year war against Paraguay in which Paraguay was defeated, occupied, lost territory, and was forced to open its markets to foreign trade.
38 Native Peoples and the Nation-State When the former colonies of the Western Hemisphere became independent, the colonial powers ceased to play a role as mediator for and protector of the native peoples. Independent Amerindian peoples posed a significant challenge to the new nations of the Western Hemisphere, but Amerindian military resistance was overcome in both North and South America by the end of the 1880s.
39 In the United States, rapid expansion of white settlements between 1790 and 1810 led to conflict between the forces of the American government and Amerindian confederations like that led by Tecumseh and Prophet in Further white settlement led to the Indian Removal Act of 1830, which forced the resettlement of eastern Amerindian peoples to land west of the Mississippi River.
40 Amerindians living on the Great Plains had become skilled users of horses and firearms, and thus offered more formidable resistance to the expansion of white settlement. Horses and firearms had also made the Plains peoples less reliant on agriculture and more reliant on buffalo hunting. The near extinction of the buffalo, loss of land to ranchers, and nearly four decades of armed conflict with the United States Army forced the Plains Amerindians to give up their land and accept reservation life.
41 In Argentina and Chile native people were able to check the expansion of white settlement until the 1860s, when population increase, political stability, and military modernization gave the Chilean and Argentinean governments the upper hand. In the 1870s the governments of both Argentina and Chile crushed native resistance and drove surviving Amerindians onto marginal land.
42 In Mexico, plantation owners in the Yucatán n Peninsula had forced Maya communities off their land and into poverty. In 1847, when the Mexican government was busy with its war against the United States, Maya communities in the Yucatán rose in a revolt (the Caste War) that nearly returned the Yucatán n to Maya rule.
43 The Colossus of the North US dominated affairs in the Americas Monroe Doctrine. US takes Texas and Mexican Cession. US gains independence for Cuba. Roosevelt Corollary US will police the America. US sent troops to Cuba, Haiti, Mexico, Honduras, Nicaragua. US built Panama Canal Yankee imperialism.
USHC 2.2: Explain how the Monroe Doctrine and the concept of Manifest Destiny affected the United States relationships with foreign powers, including the role of the United States in the Texan Revolution
CHAPTER 25 The Consolidation of Latin America, 1830 1920 From Colonies to Nations Latin American creoles were increasingly critical of the policies of their home countries. Criticism was also voiced by
Images of the French Revolution and Napoleon Review A little information about Napoleon Map Work and the Congress of Vienna Reading Who are these people? What do these images represent? What in the World
Liberación!: Independence in Latin America Grade Level: Grade 6 Presented by: Terri Littlejohn, Washington Elementary, Rochester, MN Length of Unit: 15 days I. ABSTRACT The revolutions in the United States
CHAPTER 21 Revolutionary Changes in the Atlantic World, 1750 1850 I. Prelude to Revolution: The Eighteenth-Century Crisis A. Colonial Wars and Fiscal Crises 1. Rivalry among the European powers intensified
Becoming a World Power 1872-1912 The Imperialist Vision Imperialism economic and political domination of a strong nation over a weaker one Became popular with countries in Europe Imperialism (cont) Protectorates
Revolution and Enlightenment C H A P T E R 1 7 The Scientific Revolution 1 7. 1 A Revolution in Astronomy Ptolemaic system: (geocentric) 2 nd century A.D.; Earth at center of Universe Copernicus: (heliocentric)
The Bill of Rights did not come from a desire to protect the liberties won in the American Revolution, but rather from a fear of the powers of the new federal government. Assess the validity of the statement.
USHC 2.1: Summarize the impact of the westward movement on nationalism and democracy, including expansion, displacement of Native Americans, conflicts over states rights and federal power during the era
AMERICAN *IMPERIALISM NOTES *Imperialism When stronger nations extend economic, political, or military control over weaker nations Like Pacman Gobbling up the little dots As nations industrialized, they
The Loyalists were colonists who stayed loyal to Britain and King George III during the American Revolution. They were against American independence. There were about 500,000 Loyalists when the American
U.S I Quarterly Assessment Practice Test Circle the best answer to each question. 1. Which of the following is NOT an argument in support of imperialism or expansionism? A. The United States should become
Built across Panama Allows ships to travel from Atlantic to Pacific Lake Titicaca (worlds highest navigable lake) Lake Maracaibo in Venezuela Major oil & natural gas deposits in Mexico & Venezuela Gold
The Haitian Revolution What was the Haitian Revolution? Who was Toussaint L'Ouverture? What role did race play in the Revolution? What was the Haitian Revolution?! The Haitian Revolution was a political
Colonial & Revolutionary Periods SAMPLE APUSH ESSAY TOPICS 1) Analyze the cultural and economic responses of TWO of the following groups to the Indians of North America before 1750. British French Spanish
World History Course Summary Department: Social Studies All World History courses (Honors or otherwise) utilize the same targets and indicators for student performance. However, students enrolled in Honors
Westward Expansion and Conflict When the United States won its independence from Great Britain at the end of the Revolutionary War in 1783, the country nearly doubled in size. After 1783, the United States
Modern World History Curriculum Source: This image from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/file:francois-louis-joseph_watteau_001.jpg has been licensed for use through the GNU Free Documentation License Agreement.
World History 2, Quarter 1, Unit 1 of 3 Consequences Political Revolution Overall days: 14 (1 day = 50-55 minutes) Overview Purpose In this unit, students investigate the popular revolutionary movements
Chapter 21: American Expansion and International Politics: 1870-1914 Nationalism and U.S. Expansion Diplomatic relations is a relationship between government officials of different nations with frequent
Fight for North America: The Emergence of Colonial and Native Societies (1607-1754) Essential Question #1 If the goal of colonization was to create new empires for the European powers, why did the Europeans
Name Date Mastering the Content Circle the letter next to the best answer. Assessment: The Civil War 1. Which of these was a Northern advantage at the start of the Civil War? A. highly trained soldiers
Department of History Xavier University Essay Contest 2011 The Declaration of the Rights of Man and its Impact on the Nation of Haiti American citizens live in a world that continuously discusses the need
I N V E S T I C E D O R O Z V O J E V Z D Ě L Á V Á N Í CIVIL WAR IN THE USA TASK 1: When and how did USA gain independence? TASK 2: Describe the political structure of the USA. USA before the Civil War
Reasons for U.S. Involvement in War The United States has waged several wars throughout its history. These wars have in some ways differed drastically. For example, during the Revolutionary War, cannons
Unit 2 Review Game 1. Two part question: (a) What caused the French & Indian War? (b) Name the two European nations that fought in the French & Indian War. 2. Two part question: (a) What was the name of
Test: US History Chapter 9 Test Date: 12/10/2010 Time: 20:36:40 America/New_York User: sarverr IP: 18.104.22.168 Test Pilot Submission Confirmation Thank you for your submission! E-Mail notification to
1 2 Creating an Empire 1865 1917 The Roots of Imperialism What arguments were made in favor of American expansion in the late nineteenth century? The Spanish-American War What were the most important consequences
Chapter 17 Outline I. Comparing Atlantic Revolutions A. The revolutions of North America, Europe, Haiti, and Latin America influenced each other. 1. they also shared a set of common ideas 2. grew out of
1776-1870 Watch the video Write a short (2 minute-)commentary on the clip giving the reason stated by the songwriter why Latin Americans (and Caribbean people) often oppose US intervention. State whether
Napoleonic France, 1799 1815 Napoleon Bonaparte as a young Officer 1 2 1796 Napoleon crossed the Alps & drove the Austrians out of Northern Italy. He then turned N. Italy into the Cisalpine Republic and
The American Revolution During the second half of the eighteenth century, North American colonists of the British Empire became increasingly frustrated and disillusioned with being subjected to monarchical
CHAPTER 19 WORLD HISTORY Objectives The French Revolution and Napoleon 1. Explain the conflicts that divided the three French estates. 2. Describe the demands for reform made by French citizens in 1789.
1. One goal of the eclaration of Independence was to. establish a new monarchy for the independent states.. convince the ritish Parliament to prevent the start of war.. explain why the colonists felt the
Objective: What were the causes and effects of the French Revolution? Warm-Up: Choose one. 1. Write about a time when you or someone you know had to stand up for what was right. 2. What do you think you
Phase I 1700 s French society is divided into 3 estates: 1) Roman Catholic Clergy 1% 2) Nobility 2% 3) The Rest (bourgeoisie) 97% 1774 Louis XVI takes the throne; France has tremendous debts from war and
Chapter 5: Rome and the Rise of Christianity, 600 B.C. A.D. 500 Rome began as a small village and became the seat of power of one of the greatest empires the world has known. The Romans were greatly influenced
President Woodrow Wilson & Entry into WWI At the beginning of his term President Woodrow Wilson once remarked, It would be an irony of fate if my administration had to deal chiefly with foreign affairs.
Masonry and the Independence of Brazil Erlo Roth, M.M. Brazil - 1 With nearly 200 million people, Brazil is the largest country in Latin America It has about one half of the area and population of South
Copyright 2014 Edmentum - All rights reserved. AP US History Blizzard Bag 2014-2015 Era of American Revolution 1. Lord Cornwallis did which of the following? A. He organized French assistance. B. He commanded
The Civil War Chapter 13 Section 1: The Two Sides The Civil War border states US8.10 Students analyze the multiple causes, key events, and complex consequences of the Civil War It was the most devastating
CRCT Social Studies Review- 6th Grade Geography- Physical and Political Locations Physical Features: 1. Ural Mtns. The mountain range that separates Europe from Asia. It is located in Russia 2. Pyrenees
The American Civil War The American Civil War By ReadWorks Source: United States Marines The American Civil War lasted from 1861 to 1865. It was the result of a period of many tense years between the Northern
Chapter 7, Section 1 The Imperialist Vision Building Support for Imperialism Big Ideas: Imperialism: The economic and political domination of a strong nation over weaker ones. Imperialism was the result
Jefferson Charts a New Course CREATE A TWO COLUMN *Jefferson s first goal limit the federal gov t s power over states and citizens. *Jefferson thought the federal gov t under Washington and Adams had become
9 Strategic Leader Evaluation Paper: George Washington 1 Ralph D. Sawyer, Sun Tzu Art of War, (Colorado, Westview Press, 1994): p.167. 2 http://www.milum.net/strategic_leadership.htm 3 http://leadership.au.af.mil/af/afldm.htm
The Making of a Nation: The French and Indian War During the eighteenth century, Spain, France, and Britain controlled land in North America. Spain controlled Florida. France was powerful in the northern
Lesson 1: The Constitution and Governance OVERVIEW In this lesson, students explore constitutional government. First, students read and discuss an introductory reading about the origin and principles of
Name: Period: Date: Dean - U.S. History Crisis in the Colonies & The American Revolution Unit Assessment 1. What date was the Declaration of Independence written? a. September 17, 1774 b. January 4, 1776
The Causes of the French and Indian War The End of the French Threat 1. relations between England & the colonies had been positive until the 1760s 2. England & France were the two main rivals for leadership
Name: Global 10 Section Global Regents Pack #8 Turning Points Revolutions Neolithic Agricultural Scientific Industrial Latin American Russian/Bolshevik Chinese Communist Revolution French Revolution Nomad
Chapter 8 Notes Rise to World Power Section 1: Expanding Horizons American Foreign Policy The influence of the United States began to extend to other world regions. Some Americans supported a foreign policy
THE UNIFICATION OF ITALY Historical background. The Roman Empire. The Italian culture. The French Revolution and The Napoleonic Wars. The Vienna settlement. Mazzini and the idea of an Italian state (Risorgimento).
Chapter 2, Section 4: Launching the New Nation With George Washington the first president, the United States begins creating a working government for its new nation. Opening Activity: In a paragraph discuss
The Great War Begins Main Idea Europe in 1914 was on the brink of war. After an assassination, the nations of Europe were drawn one by one into what would be called the Great War, or World War I. Content
Directions: Use the map and your knowledge of world geography to answer the questions below. FIJI Yasawa Group Naviti Lautoka Tavua Mt. Tomanivi 4,341 aft. (1,323 m) Nadi Sigatoka Korolevu Viti Levu 178
Chapter 9: The Policies of Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson Department of State, Department of Treasury, Department of War, Attorney General, Postmaster General : 5 government departments established
Name: Instructions: Read each question carefully. Read the four answer choices. Mark the best answer. Copyright 2000-2002 Measured Progress, All Rights Reserved : 1. A settlement at Jamestown was started
1 2 3 4 5 6 Imperial Breakdown 1763 1774 The Crisis of Imperial Authority What new challenges did the British government face in North America after 1763? Republican Ideology and Colonial Protest How did
America: Pathways to the Present Chapter 10 Becoming a World Power (1890 1915) Copyright 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. All rights reserved.
The Americans (Survey) Chapter 6: TELESCOPING THE TIMES Launching the New Nation CHAPTER OVERVIEW As the new government takes hold, the United States sees the growth of political parties. A land purchase
HIST-WG Singleton WG Unit 3 Quiz [Exam ID:2KDA0G] Scan Number:240 1 The country highlighted in black is A Bolivia B Brazil C Chile D Argentina 2 What coastal desert extends from the Andes to the Pacific
Bernardo de Galvez - Revolutionary War Standards: 1. History. The student understands the impact of significant national and international decisions and conflicts during the American Revolutionary War.
Name: Date: 1. President Lincoln's decision on what to do about the situation at Fort Sumter in the first weeks of his administration can best be characterized as A) ill thought out. B) rash and hotheaded.
Problems After the War War increased tensions between British & the Colonists. 1. England becomes more involved in the running of the colonies. 2. Proclamation Line of 1763 3. Standing Army 4. How to pay
UNIT Y213: THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND THE RULE OF NAPOLEON NOTE: BASED ON 2X 50 MINUTE LESSONS PER WEEK TERMS BASED ON 6 TERM YEAR. Key Topic Term Week Number Indicative Content Extended Content Resources
Ch. 29 Conflict in the Middle East Section 2, The Arab-Israeli Conflict Learning Target 7: I can identify and explain at least two (2) causes and at least three (3) effects of the Arab-Israeli conflict.
Alexander Hamilton Background Information: Alexander Hamilton was born in the British West Indies in 1755, the son of James Hamilton and Rachel Lavine, who were not yet married. Hamilton s father abandoned
Test - Social Studies Grade 8 Unit 03: American Revolution 2013-2014 A. I 1. In 1776, thirteen colonies in North America did which of the following? A. established the United States of America B. ratified
Facts About Central America and the Caribbean Section 1 Workbook 14 Directions: Circle the word(s) in parentheses that best complete(s) each sentence. 1) In the north, Central America borders (Colombia,
By the end of the 18th century the Army had become the single biggest purchaser of slaves. Slave account, 1801. NAM 1975-08-55-3 War with Revolutionary and Napoleonic France spread to the Caribbean, and
6 th Grade Western Hemisphere Social Studies Standards at a Glance: Geography is both physical and cultural The 5 Themes of Geography Analyze and Apply Location, Place, H-E Interaction, Movement, Region
Mr. Long Anderson High School Cincinnati, Ohio THE ROAD TO REVOLUTION 1756-1775 A4W 10.9.17 TWO REVOLUTIONARY AMERICA 4 ROAD TO REVOLUTION, 1754-1775 (Ch 4) A. Relationship with Britain B. The French and
Modern World History Curriculum Source: This image from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/file:view_of_bradford.jpg is in the public domain because its copyright has expired. Unit 4: Nationalism, Industrialism,
First Quarter History 2. North America, originally inhabited by American Indians, was explored and colonized for economic and religious reasons. I can explain how some groups in Europe were treated badly
Non- fiction: The Civil War - The Emancipation Proclamation Slavery, the Civil War & Reconstruction The Emancipation Proclamation On September 22, 1862, President Lincoln declared that all slaves in the
Paul Pelham 1/14/16 World History European Timeline Post Dark Ages (1400-1750) As the western continent of Europe ascends from the crippling and intellectually stunting period of the dark ages (7th-13th