2. The chinampas of the Amerindians in central Mexico was a(n) A) weapon. B) religion. C) human sacrifice. D) temple. E) agricultural technique.

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1 Name: Date: NOTE: You will enter these answers on the scantron provided to you for the test. You will be given another scantron in class Monday so you can enter your answers on that form Monday night. Good Luck! 1. The scientific evidence explaining the history of the peoples of the Americas is that they A) originated in the upland regions of Mesoamerica. B) migrated across the Atlantic Ocean. C) crossed into America from Russian Siberia. D) originally came from the islands of the South Pacific. E) were the earliest of all human beings on Earth. 2. The chinampas of the Amerindians in central Mexico was a(n) A) weapon. B) religion. C) human sacrifice. D) temple. E) agricultural technique. 3. Mayans made notable intellectual achievements in the field of A) astronomy. B) mathematics. C) a yearly calendar. D) the recording of history. E) All of these 4. The Aztec success in conquering Mexico can be attributed primarily to their A) god of war, Huitzilopochtli. B) strong agricultural and commercial economy. C) superior military technology. D) having the largest population in all of the Americas. E) association of war as a part of their religious faith. 5. To prevent the end of the world, the Aztecs believed that they had to A) build magnificent pyramids for their gods. B) sacrifice butterflies and snakes. C) sacrifice human beings. D) sacrifice livestock. E) destroy all competing societies. Page 1

2 6. In Aztec society, social status and mobility depended upon A) military performance. B) wealth. C) one's date of birth. D) intelligence. E) religious devotion. 7. At the time of the Spanish arrival in 1519, they found Tenochtitlán A) in full rebellion against the Aztec emperor. B) having severe economic problems. C) exceptionally clean and elegant compared to cities in Spain. D) a provincial outpost of the Aztec empire. E) in the midst of a water shortage. 8. All the following statements regarding the Incas are true except A) their empire was at its peak in the late 13th century. B) they took their name from an important governing family. C) they developed one of the most extraordinary empires in the Americas. D) they were a small, militaristic group. E) they were centered in Peru. 9. The Aztecs and Incas were similar in all the following ways except they A) were military-minded people. B) ruled very ethnically diverse peoples. C) ritually sacrificed human beings. D) governed primarily by means of imperial unification. E) used subject people as labor. 10. The Inca kingdom was linked by A) their use of horses. B) common ethnicity among the population. C) the use of bull roarers for communication. D) an advanced system of roads, some of which were paved. E) All of these Page 2

3 11. The mita in the Inca Empire was A) the system of conscripting labor from villages. B) the system for drafting soldiers. C) the compulsory educational system. D) the system of maintenance for the royal mummies. E) the system of collecting taxes. 12. The Inca ayllu was A) regimented lives for the common people. B) a substantial degree of state-supplied social welfare. C) the basic unit of Inca society. D) a strictly regulated economy. E) a system of public works projects. 13. Which Mesoamerican group practiced human sacrifice? A) Maya B) Aztec C) Olmec D) Toltec E) All of these 14. The Mexica are more commonly known as the A) Toltecs. B) Maya. C) Wari. D) Olmecs. E) Aztecs. 15. The Aztecs formed their empire by A) ruthlessly conquering other peoples. B) marrying into neighboring tribes to create a homogeneous society. C) negotiating to divide desired geographic areas. D) peacefully coexisting on the basis of mutual interests. E) creating a voluntary association league that offered protection in numbers. Page 3

4 16. The stated purpose of human sacrifice among the Aztecs was A) to punish enemies. B) to enhance the power of the emperor. C) intimidation and conquest. D) to meet Huitzilopochtli's need for a diet of human hearts. E) entertainment. 17. The Aztec god that was the focus of the cult of the hummingbird was called A) Quetzalcoatl. B) Nahuatl. C) Huitzilopochtli. D) acllas. E) Trochilidae. 18. At the start of the nineteenth century, the upper levels of Latin America's colonial bureaucracies were dominated by A) Creoles. B) peninsulares. C) merchants. D) clergy. E) mestizos. 19. Peninsulares were A) natives of Latin America who were educated in Spain. B) persons of mixed European and Native American descent. C) persons of European descent born in Latin America. D) persons from the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico. E) natives of Spain or Portugal living in Latin America. 20. In colonial Spanish Latin America, a person's status depended primarily upon A) wealth. B) one's heritage and skin color. C) one's profession. D) level of education. E) family name. Page 4

5 21. After the United States, the second nation in the Western Hemisphere to gain independence was A) Canada. B) Brazil. C) Peru. D) Haiti. E) Argentina. 22. The revolution led by Toussaint L'Ouverture A) was the first successful uprising of a non-european people against a colonial power. B) was the first triumph for the Creole elite in Latin America. C) was supported by Napoleon Bonaparte. D) failed to end slavery in that nation. E) was opposed by Thomas Jefferson who feared it would spread to the United States. 23. In 1822, Emperor Pedro I began his rule of A) Cuba. B) Panama. C) Brazil. D) Colombia. E) Argentina. 24. Simón Bolívar created Gran Colombia, which unified A) the peoples of all Spanish-speaking America. B) the Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking territories. C) Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador into one nation. D) Central and South America into one coalition. E) Haiti, Antigua, and Brazil into one nation. 25. The Mexican revolutionaries José María Morelos and Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla were A) lawyers. B) priests. C) military officers. D) labor union organizers. E) physicians. Page 5

6 26. The greatest advocate of a unified set of nations in South America was A) Tupac Amaru II. B) Lucas Alamán. C) Toussaint L Ouverture. D) Porfirio Diaz. E) Simón Bolívar. 27. Revolutionary feelings among Latin American Creoles were sparked by all of the following except A) resentment at being excluded from political power. B) increased taxation and no representative voice. C) the enhanced role of the Church in politics. D) enlightenment political writings like those of the revolutions in France and North America 28. For many of the pre-spanish civilizations of the Americas we know only a small amount about their culture, language, and religions because A) much of it is not translatable B) the Spanish conquistadores ordered the destruction of much of the evidence as a method of control C) many scholars disagree on various interpretations D) so much of it overlaps and we cannot decipher which pieces apply to the individual civilizations 29. All of the following are true about the Aztec/Mexica except A) Warriors were identified at birth with ritual and honor B) Warriors were trained at a young age in the art of war C) Warriors were essential to the success of the imperialist Mexica D) Warriors were very similar to those in Sparta of Ancient Greece E) Warriors were considered the highest class among the Mexica 30. Cortes was able to conquer the Mexica because A) Their city was defenseless, once the conquistadores were allowed in. B) He captured their ruler, Moctezuma C) the Mexica people turned against their rulers D) Both A and B E) Both A and C Page 6

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