March 18, Forms of Energy. Energy Sources. Potential Energy. Kinetic Energy. Nuclear Energy. Electricity. Heat. Sound

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1 Forms of Energy Energy Sources Potential Energy Kinetic Energy Nuclear Energy Electricity Heat Sound

2 March 18, 2013

3 Do Now: How are energy and work related? Energy is the ability to do work; work is a transfer of energy. What is the difference between kinetic and potential energy? Kinetic energy is the energy of motion, and potential energy is an object's energy due to its position or shape. Explain why a high-speed collision might cause more damage to vehicles than a low-speed collision. A high-speed collision would cause more damage to vehicles because the vehicles would have more kinetic energy due to their high speed KE = mv 2 /2. The vehicles would do more work on one another, resulting in large amounts of damage.

4 Produced Thermal Chemical Electrical Sound Light Nuclear heat; particles moving according to temperatur e breaking/ joining chemical bonds moving electrons vibrations of a material that cause vibrations of air molecules vibrations of electrically charged particles; don't cause other particles to vibrate. K/P/M K P M/P/K M/K/P K P Result/ Use Example heat/ temp change steam; frozen lake burning, food energy wood burning, gasoline, sugar electrical devices, power light bulbs; power plants music; instrument s guitar strings; piano strings light microwave light stars two or more nuclei join together; one nucleus splits apart nuclear energy; sun; nuclear power plants

5 **Speed has a greater impact on kinetic energy than does mass because speed is squared. When mass doubles, kinetic energy doubles. But when speed doubles, kinetic energy quadruples. The term "speed" is used here because the object's direction does not matter. March 18, 2013

6 Kinetic energy = mv 2 2 Gravitational potential energy= (weight) (height) Mechanical Energy = potential energy + kinetic energy

7 What determines an object's thermal energy? An object's thermal energy depends on its temperature, the arrangement of its particles, and the number of particles in the object. Describe why chemical energy is a form of potential energy. When a substance forms, work is done to bond particles of matter together. The energy that creates the new bonds is stored in the substance as potential energy. Explain how sound energy is produced when you beat a drum. When you beat a drum, you give it mechanical energy by moving the drumskin back and forth (vibrating). The vibrations cause air particles to vibrate, transmitting energy that results in sound. When you hit a nail into a board using a hammer, the head of the nail gets warm. In terms of kinetic and thermal energy, describe why you think this happens. The kinetic energy of the moving hammer is transferred to the head of the nail, causing particles in the nail to move faster. The faster the particles move, the greater their thermal energy.

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9 1. What is an energy conversion? An energy conversion is a change from one form of energy to another. Any form of energy can be converted into any other. form of energy. 2. Describe an example in which electrical energy is converted into thermal energy. In an iron, electrical energy is converted into thermal energy. 3. Describe an energy conversion involving chemical energy. When you light a natural-gas stove, the chemical energy in the natural gas is converted into thermal energy. 4. Describe the kinetic-potential energy conversions that occur when you bounce a basketball. When you bounce a basketball, you give it kinetic energy. At the moment the ball hits the ground, its kinetic energy is greatest and its potential energy is zero. At that moment, the change of shape of the ball that occurs when it hits the ground gives the ball some potential energy that is used when the ball moves back upward. When the ball bounces back up toward your hand, its kinetic energy is converted into potential energy because its position changes. At the moment the ball is at the top of its bounce, its kinetic energy is zero.

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11 March 18, 2013

12 What is the role of machines in energy conversions? Machines can transfer energy from one object to another as they make work easier. For example, when you use a crowbar to remove a hubcap, you transfer energy to the crowbar, and the crowbar transfers energy to the hubcap. The way the energy is transferred determines how much easier the work is to do. Give an example of a machine that is an energy converter, and explain how the machine converts one form of energy to another. Sample: A wind turbine converts the kinetic energy of wind into electrical energy. A car that brakes suddenly comes to a screeching halt. Is the sound energy produced in this conversion a useful form of energy? Explain your answer. The sound energy of the screeching is not a useful form of energy because it cannot be used to do work.

13 Describe the energy conversions that take place in a pendulum, and explain how energy is conserved. Potential energy is converted to kinetic energy, kinetic to potential, and both potential and kinetic to thermal energy because of friction. All energy is conserved because some energy becomes thermal. Why is perpetual motion impossible? In every system, some of the energy put in is converted to thermal energy that is waste energy. A machine cannot run forever unless energy is continually added. Imagine that you drop a ball. It bounces a few times, but then it stops. Your friend says that the ball has lost all of its energy. Using what you know about the law of conservation of energy, respond to your friend's statement. Energy isn't lost in the entire system of the ball, the ground, and the air around the ball; it is converted into other forms.

14 particles moving according to temperature moving electrons breaking/joining chemical bonds vibrations of a material that cause vibrations of air two or more nuclei join together; one nucleus splits apart vibrations of electrically charged particles

What Is Energy? Energy and Work: Working Together. 124 Chapter 5 Energy and Energy Resources

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