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2 ENERGY is the ability to do WORK or cause change Name 2 things that ARE energy or that HAVE energy WORK is when a FORCE moves an object a FORCE is a push or a pull

3 There are two main kinds of energy POTENTIAL ENERGY STORED energy or Energy that is NOT being used KINETIC ENERGY Energy in MOTION or Energy that IS being used Examples: Examples:

4 Demonstrate POTENTIAL ENERGY using the ball on your table AND draw a picture showing what potential energy looks like. Now, use the same ball to demonstrate KINETIC ENERGY. Again, draw a picture to show what kinetic energy looks like.

5 Write a P or a K under each picture on your paper to tell whether the pictures are showing POTENTIAL or KINETIC energy. zzzz P K K K P

6 Elastic Potential Energy Elastic potential energy is associated with objects that can be stretched or compressed. Elastic potential energy can be stored in rubber bands, bungee chords, trampolines, springs, an arrow drawn into a bow, etc.

7 Gravitational Potential Energy Gravitational Energy is the energy of position or place. A rock resting at the top of a hill contains gravitational potential energy. Hydropower, such as water in a reservoir behind a dam, is an example of gravitational potential energy.

8 DIFFERENT FORMS OF ENERGY Both potential & kinetic energy come in many forms. Six of the most common ones are: MECHANICAL ENERGY Energy of moving parts THERMAL (HEAT) ENERGY Energy of the heat IN an object CHEMICAL ENERGY Energy in chemical bonds of food, gas, batteries, burning wood etc.

9 DIFFERENT FORMS OF ENERGY (continued) ELECTRICAL ENERGY Moving electrical charges ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY Light energy, X-rays, radio waves NUCLEAR ENERGY Stored in the nucleus of an atom & released when atoms are split or joined together, nuclear reactors, atomic bombs, stars, sun

10 ENERGY CONVERSIONS (ENERGY TRANSFORMATIONS) Energy can be converted (transformed or changed) from one form to another. For example 1) Food has POTENTIAL CHEMICAL energy. 2) When you eat it, the bonds in the atoms are broken and the energy is released to your cells. 3) Your body CHANGES the chemical energy to KINETIC MECHANICAL ENERGY when you run, jump, write, walk. 4) Finally, your body creates THERMAL (HEAT) ENERGY you can feel because the molecules inside you are moving!

11 Think about the energy conversions taking place with a flashlight. Use the flow chart in your notes to show each form of energy that occurs. Batteries CHEMICAL ENERGY Wires ELECTRICAL ENERGY Light & Heat ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY

12 Label the ENERGY CONVERSIONS in your notes. ELECTRIC PENCIL SHARPENER WIRES GEARS & BLADES electrical energy mechanical energy

13 HEATING PAD WIRES HEAT electrical energy thermal energy

14 PLANT SUN PHOTOSYNTHESIS Plant changes sunlight and water into sugar (food) for plant! electromagnetic energy chemical energy

15 Energy Transformations Conversions Between Forms of Energy A change from one form of energy to another is called energy conversion. Most forms of energy can be converted into any other form. Ex. Toaster converts electrical energy to thermal energy. Your body converts chemical energy in the food you eat into the mechanical energy you need to move your muscles. Usually heat energy is also formed in an energy conversion. Electrical Energy into Thermal Energy Chemical Energy into Mechanical Energy

16 DO NOW With your elbow buddy: Take the index card from the yellow bin. Keeping the fold up, use two hands to pull the ends out to flatten out the card. Predict what will happen to the card as you let go. Test and then explain your prediction. Use the terms potential and kinetic energy.

17 Energy Conversion in a Pendulum A continuous conversion between kinetic and potential energy takes place in a pendulum. At the highest point in its swing, the pendulum has only potential energy. As it starts to swing downward, it speeds up and its potential energy changes to kinetic energy 1 5 Potential Energy 2 3 4

18 Energy Conversion in a Waterfall The water at the top of the falls has gravitational potential energy because it is higher than at the bottom. As the water falls, its height decreases, and loses its potential energy. At the same time, its kinetic energy increases because its velocity (speed) increases. The potential energy is converted into kinetic energy. Kinetic Energy Qu ic k Tim e and a TI FF (Unc om p res s ed ) de c om pre s s o r are ne ede d to s e e th is p ic tu re. Gravitational Potential Energy

19 Law of Conservation The law of conservation of energy states that when one form of energy is converted to another, no energy is destroyed in the process. Energy cannot be created or destroyed, so the total amount of energy is the same before and after any process. All energy is accounted for. Conserving Energy When you hear or read about conserving energy, don t get confused with the law of conservation of energy. Conserving energy means saving energy, or not wasting it! In Science, energy is always conserved because its total quantity does not change. age=about_home-basics

20 There are two TYPES of energy: potential and kinetic The energy we use comes from many sources: Fossil fuel (coal, oil, natural gas), nuclear power, Sun, wind, geothermal, hydropower. Most of this we convert into electricity. There are 6 forms of energy: mechanical, chemical, nuclear, electromagnetic, thermal, electrical. Energy can change from one form into another but is not created or destroyed.

21 electricity school house rock Where do we get electricity? Energy conversions from fossil fuel: G8K5_UvU

22 Electricity from Nuclear energy

23 Electricity from hydropower

24 Electricity from Wind energy

25 Electricity from geothermal

26 Electricity from the sun

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