7th Grade Science Curriculum Overview

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1 7th Grade Science Curriculum Overview

2 Philosophy and Common Beliefs Science Curriculum Philosophy Statement Northbrook/Glenview District 30 utilizes a rigorous science curriculum built on essential questions, Project 2061 learning goals, formative and summative assessments, and research on effective teaching and learning practices. The goal of the science program is to increase science literacy within all students. In a culture that is increasingly pervaded by science, mathematics, and technology, science literacy requires understandings and habits of mind that enable citizens to grasp what those enterprises are up to; make some sense of how the natural and designed worlds work; think critically and independently; recognize and weigh alternative explanations of events and design trade-offs; and deal sensibly with problems that involve evidence, numbers, patterns, logical arguments, and uncertainties (AAAS,1993, p. xi). The common core of learning to be achieved through this curriculum is designed to provide a foundation upon which additional knowledge can be acquired throughout one s lifetime. Concepts deemed important today and believed important for tomorrow comprise the curriculum. The essential concepts and skills contained in the curriculum meet the criteria of having a significant value and utility. This common core of learning should provide students a foundation for improving their long-term employment prospects, along with the quality of the nation s workforce, and providing a base for some student to go on to specialize in science, mathematics, or technology or in related fields; assisting them in making personal, social, and political decisions; acquainting them with ideas that are so significant in the history of ideas or so pervasive in our culture as to be necessary for understanding that history and culture; enhancing the experiences of their student years, a time in life that is important in its own right (AAAS, 2001, pp ). Quality science programs require students do science. Scientific inquiry is emphasized throughout the curriculum. Only instructional resources that support active engagement of students were selected for inclusion in the curriculum. Students are provided significant opportunities to use scientific inquiry to explore and explain scientific concepts. Inquiry is a multifaceted activity that involves making observations; posing questions; examining books and other sources of information to see what is already known; planning investigations; reviewing what is already known in light of experimental evidence, using tools to gather, analyze, and interpret data; proposing answers, explanations, and predictions; and communicating the results (National Research Council, 1996, p. 23). While inquiry is emphasized, it is one of multiple instructional methods used to develop students knowledge, understandings, and skills. Students work extensively with physical models. Cooperative and collaborative work experiences are also highlighted throughout the curriculum, with particular emphasis on understanding the value of sharing findings. References: American Association for the Advancement of Science. (1989). Science for All Americans. New York: Oxford University Press. American Association for the Advancement of Science. (1993). Benchmarks for Science Literacy. New York: Oxford University Press. American Association for the Advancement of Science and The National Science Teachers Association (2001). Atlas of Science Literacy. Washington, D.C.: American Association for the Advancement of Science.

3 American Association for the Advancement of Science (2001). Designs for Science Literacy. New York: Oxford University Press. National Research Council. (1996). National Science Education Standards. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Northbrook School District 27 White Paper(2005). Northbrook, IL. Project 2061 Web Site: Unit Map Physics 7th Grade Science Curriculum Maps Essential Questions: Why do some things stop and others keep going? Enduring Understandings (what students should be able to understand): What determines how fast or high an object will go Why some things stop Why some things keep going What students should know (vocabulary, facts, and information): Energy appears in different forms. Kinetic energy is associated with the speed of an object. Gravitational energy is associated with the height of an object above a reference point. Elastic energy is associated with the stretching of an elastic object. Within a system, energy can be transformed from one form to another Energy appears in different forms. Thermal energy is associated with the temperature of an object. Sound energy is associated with sound waves. Atoms and molecules are perpetually in motion. Increased temperature means greater average energy of motion of atoms and molecules. Thermal energy is almost always a product in an energy transformation. Most processes involve the transfer of energy from one system to another. Energy can be transferred in different ways. Energy cannot be created or destroyed. Whenever some energy seems to show up in some place, some will be found to disappear from another. When energy appears to be lost, often it actually has been transferred to a system that is so large that the effect of the transferred energy is imperceptible. Energy appears in different forms. Chemical energy is associated with the chemical composition of a substance. Light energy is associated with light waves. Electrical energy is associated with closed circuits with power sources.

4 Electrical energy can be produced from a variety of energy sources and can be transformed into almost any other form of energy. Electrical circuits are used to distribute energy quickly and conveniently to distant locations. People have invented ingenious ways of deliberately bringing about energy transformations that are useful to them. Skills (what students should be able to do): Observe describe, and compare the motion of devices. Identify 2 variables that determine the amount of kinetic energy an object has Analyze data to find the mass and speed are related to the amount of kinetic energy Analyze data to find that height and mass are related to the amount of gravitational energy Use evidence to explain how various factors influence the amount of elastic energy present in a phenomenon Create and analyze energy conversion diagrams involving kinetic and gravitational energy Explain the operation of using a simple pendulum using an energy conversion diagram Predict what will happen to the magnitude of different types of energy in an apparatus over time Identify temperature and mass as factors that determine the amount of thermal energy an object has Predict that a guitar string's vibrations should die out as it generates sound Identify thermal energy by investigating energy transformations between gravitational, kinetic, elastic, and thermal energy of the bouncing and colliding balls Construct energy conversion diagrams for given phenomena Analyze the relationship between temperature, thermal energy, and kinetic energy of molecules in solids, liquids, and gases. Explain how energy is transferred between systems Explain how sound is related to a bouncing ball's inability to return to its original height Collect data to make evidence based arguments about energy transfer Explain how energy is converted in systems Explain how energy is conserved in systems Determine the factors for electrical energy Explain why mass and type of substance are factors in determining the amount of chemical energy present Analyze various energy transformations that are related to electrical energy Use simple materials and tools to produce electricity Construct simple electrical circuits using a motor, battery, and connecting wires

5 Identify the chemical energy can be transformed into other types of energy Use the concept of light energy to explain why some things stop and start Unit Map Chemistry Essential Questions: How can I make new stuff from old stuff? Enduring Understandings (what students should be able to understand): How stuff is the same and different How I can make new substances Do new substances always come from old substances What students should know (vocabulary, facts, and information): A substance has characteristic properties, such as density, a boiling point, and solubility, all of which are independent of the amount of the sample Atoms may stick together in well-defined molecules or may be packed together in large arrays. Different arrangements of atoms into groups compose all substances Substances react chemically in characteristic ways with other substances to form new substances with different characteristic properties The idea of atoms and molecules explains chemical reactions: when substances interact to form new substances, the atoms that make up the molecules of the original new substances combine in new ways to form the molecules of the new substances. No matter how substances within a closed system interact with one another, or how they combine more break apart, the total weight [mass] of the system remains the same The idea of atoms explains the conservation of matter: If the number of atoms stays the same no matter how they are rearranged, then their total mass stays the same Skills (what students should be able to do): Define a substance as something that is made of the same type of material (atom or molecule) throughout, and a mixture as something that contains more than one type of material (atom or molecule). Define a property as a unique characteristic that helps identify a substance and distinguish one substance from another. A property does not depend on the amount of the substance. A property of a substance is always the same. Identify items as substances or mixtures. Identify characteristics as properties or non-properties. Design an investigation to determine whether two items are the same substance. They make a prediction, identify variables, control variables, and communicate scientific procedures

6 Conduct a scientific investigation to gather data about properties of substances, such as color, hardness, density, melting point, and solubility. Analyze and interpret data about properties of substances to identify the substance and determine whether two items are the same substance or different substances Construct a scientific explanation that includes a claim about whether two items are the same substance or different substances, evidence in the form of properties of the substances, and reasoning that different substances have different properties. Construct molecular models to represent a substance as made of the same type of atom or molecule throughout, and a mixture as containing more than one type of atom or molecule. Use molecular models to identify a sample item as either: a substance because it is made of the same type of atom or molecule throughout, or a mixture because it contains more than one type of atom or molecule. Define a chemical reaction as a process in which two or more substances interact [and their atoms combine in new ways] to form new substances with different properties from the old substances. [The new substances are made of the same atoms as the old substances, but the atoms are arranged in new ways.] Identify processes as chemical reactions, phase changes, or mixing. Design an investigation to determine whether a process is a chemical reaction. They make a prediction, identify variables, control variables, and communicate scientific procedures. Conduct a scientific investigation to gather data about properties of substances before and after a process (chemical reaction, phase change, mixing). Construct a scientific explanation that includes a claim about whether a process is a chemical reaction, evidence in the form of properties of the substances and/or signs of a reaction, and reasoning that a chemical reaction is a process in which substances interact to form new substances so that there are different substances with different properties before compared to after the reaction. Construct molecular models to represent the arrangements of atoms and molecules composing substances before and after a chemical reaction. Use molecular models of substances before a chemical reaction to reason and represent that during the reaction, two or more substances interact, and their atoms combine in new ways to form new substances. The new substances are made of the same atoms as the old substances, but the atoms are arranged in new ways. Use molecular models of substances before and after a process to identify the process as either: a chemical reaction because the molecular models represent that the atoms composing the old substances before the process combined in new ways to form new substances after the process, or a non-

7 chemical reaction (phase change or mixing) because the molecular models represent the same substances before and after the process. Define that the principle of conservation of mass is that the total mass before a chemical reaction is equal to the total mass after a reaction in a closed system because no material (atoms) can enter or leave the system. Material (atoms) is neither created nor destroyed in chemical reactions. Identify the type of system, open or closed, for a process Design an investigation to determine whether total mass remains the same before compared to after a process. They make a prediction, identify variables, control variables, and communicate scientific procedures. Conduct a scientific investigation to gather data about mass before and after a process Construct a scientific explanation that includes a claim about the mass before compared to after a chemical reaction, evidence that includes the mass before and after the reaction and the type of system, and reasoning that mass before and after the reaction must be equal because of the principle of conservation of mass. Use molecular models of substances before and after a chemical reaction to reason that the number of each type of atom is the same before compared to after the reaction, which is why mass is conserved. Provide an accurate scientific description of a concept. Classify an item, phenomenon, or process as an example of a concept. Design and conduct scientific investigations Use appropriate tools and techniques to gather analyze, and interpret data Organize information in simple tables and graphs and identify relationships they reveal. Think critically and logically to make the relationships between evidence and explanation. Models are often used to think about processes that happen too quickly, or on too small a scale to observe directly Unit Map Biology Essential Questions: What s going on inside of me? Enduring Understandings (what students should be able to understand): What is inside of me How cells get the things they need How my systems can keep up the pace What students should know (vocabulary, facts, and information): All living things are composed of cells, from just one to many millions, whose details are visible only through a microscope.

8 Different body tissues and organs are made up of different kinds of cells. Within cells, many of the basic functions of organisms- such as extracting energy from food and getting rid of waste-are carried out. The way in which cells function is similar in all living organisms Cells repeatedly divide to make more cells for growth and repair Like other animals, human beings have body systems for obtaining and providing energy, defense, reproduction, and the coordination of body functions. Various organs and tissues function to serve the needs of cells for food, air and waste removal. Organs and organ systems are composed of cells and help to provide all cells with basic needs. For the body to use food for energy and building materials, the food must first be digested into molecules that are absorbed and transported to cells. Food provides molecules that serve as fuel and building material for all organisms. Thinking about things as systems means looking for how every part relates to others. The output from one part of a system (which can include material, energy or information) can become input to other parts. Such feedback can serve to control what goes on in the system as a whole. Any system is usually connected to other systems, both internally and externally. Thus a system may be thought of as containing subsystems and as being a subsystem of a larger system. Skills (what students should be able to do): Describe cells from a multi-cellular organism. Explain why single-celled organisms are living things Identify cells and their parts that are visible through a microscope Compare characteristics of cells in single-celled organisms and multi-cellular organism Identify the levels of organization of structures in a body system. Compare different parts of the bone s structure. Construct a scientific explanation with claim, evidence, and reasoning of how a single celled organism obtains food, uses food for energy, and releases waste Analyze results from an experiment with a physical model and apply the findings to how cells obtain food through diffusion. Design an experiment with a physical model to determine what substances can enter and leave cells through diffusion Identify mitosis as the process of non-sexual cell division that is the basis of growth and repair. Explain why the body is a system. Explain how the structures and processes of the digestive system provides energy to the body.

9 Analyze observations from experiments with a physical model and apply the findings to the body system. Identify the basic structure and function of the nervous system. Analyze data from an experiment to support the claim that exhaled air contains less oxygen than inhaled air. Analyze body temperature data to determine the body s ability to maintain homeostasis. Identify voluntary and involuntary processes of the body. Identify homeostasis as a characteristic of living things. Analyze data to determine density of touch receptors Explain how the structures and processes of the circulatory system move food to the cells Analyze how the structures and processes of the respiratory system move oxygen to the cells and carbon dioxide away from the cells. Describe how the circulatory and respiratory systems work together to meet the needs of the cell for food, air, and waste removal. Analyze data collected in experiments to determine how rates of respiration and circulation change to respond to the body s needs. Evaluate data to determine where food is used in the body. Analyze the functions of mechanical and chemical digestion in breaking food into simple molecules. Construct a scientific explanation about where and how food is used in the body Identify a system. Explain why the body is a system. Develop descriptions, explanations, predictions and models using evidence. Think critically and logically to make the relationships between evidence and explanation. Represent, analyze, and generalize a variety of patterns with tables, graphs, words, and when possible, symbolic rules.

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