# Earth, and Physical Sciences 2003.

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1 Unit/Lesson Plan Title: Roller Coaster Potential or Kinetic??? Primary Subject: Science/Physics Integrated Subjects: Technology, Reading and Math Grade Level: 7th grade Length of Unit/Lesson: 2 weeks Research Sources: Textbook, Glencoe Science: An Introduction to the Life, Earth, and Physical Sciences Internet, Amusement Park Physics-Roller Coasters: and interactives/parkphysics/index.html Roller Coasters-Inventing the Scream Engine: How Stuff Works-RollerCoasters: Converting Energy Funderstanding-Coasters Unit/Lesson Summary: Students will design a roller coaster out of pipe insulation and duct tape that a marble will roll down continuously once released. Students must follow specifications and limitations in their technical design. They will be responsible for coming up with their own sketches designs, construction, test and analysis of their structures. Students will understand that energy cannot be created or destroyed but only changed from one form to another. Also, that all energy can be considered to be either kinetic energy (energy of motion) or potential energy (depends on relative position), or energy contained by a field (electromagnetic waves). Students will create an ibook describing potential and kinetic energy.

2 Key Vocabulary: Gravity Energy Force Mechanical Energy Kinetic Energy Potential Energy Conservation of Energy Essential Standard 7.P.2 Understand forms of energy, energy transfer and transformation and conservation in mechanical systems. Clarifying Objectives 7.P.2.1 Explain how kinetic and potential energy contribute to the mechanical energy of an object. 7.P.2.2 Explain how energy can be transformed from one form to another(specifically potential energy and kinetic energy) using a model or diagram of a moving object (roller coaster, pendulum, or cars on ramps as examples). Essential Questions: How do roller coaster designs obey the laws of Physics? Where do the forces act in the roller coaster that converts Potential Energy (PE) to Kinetic Energy (KE)? Explain why loops are always placed at the beginning of rides instead of at the end. Have you ever wondered... Why do roller coasters begin with a really steep hill and continue with smaller hills and loops? Materials/Resources Needed: Foam Pipe Insulation halves Duct tape

3 Marbles Paper Pencil Computer with internet access ibook author application for ibook Exploration/Engagement Activities: Students will use the internet to see how energy and forces are acting on roller coasters. They will practice building roller coasters on parkphysics. Accommodations for Differentiated Instruction:may include EC and ESOL modifications such as read alouds, abbreviated assignments and assessments, and collaborative group work. Cross-Curricular Integration: Technology including research opportunities, creating a digital book and Vernier LabQuest usage. Assessments: Pre-and Post- test, technological design of roller coaster, assessment of digital ibook and a short video (3-5 minutes demonstrating kinetic, potential or the law of conservation of energy. Extension Activities: Amusement park rides, water park rides, and rides in the local playgrounds. Created by: Karen Bostic- 7th grade Science teacher at Corriher-Lipe Middle School bosticka@rss.k12.nc.us

4 Supporting Documents Teaching Notes-Copyright 2009 LessonSnips Kinetic and Potential Energy Most of us think of energy as the power our bodies have to move or do work. We have a lot of energy when we are rested or excited, and less energy when we are tired or bored. But that is only one kind of energy. Energy is working all around us. It powers cars and gives us light. Energy keeps us warm and creates sound. Without energy, we could not grow, move, or even stay alive! To understand energy and how it helps make life possible, we must learn that there are two kinds of energy: kinetic and potential. Kinetic Kinetic is another word for motion. Scientists use it to define energy that is moving. For example, waves in the ocean have kinetic energy, because they are moving. Something as big as a plane in flight has kinetic energy, but size is not important. Atoms, which are the tiniest particles of matter, are also in motion. They have kinetic energy, too. Kinetic energy can appear in many forms. Potential Energy Radiant energy is kinetic energy that shows up as light, radio waves, and x-rays. Thermal energy is kinetic energy that we call heat. Heat is actually caused by the movement of vibrating molecules. Electrical energy is kinetic energy that exists in the movement of electrical charges. Lightening and the electricity that powers your home are two examples.

5 Sound is also kinetic energy. It is created when a force causes an object or other matter to vibrate. We hear sound because force causes our eardrums to move. Motion energy is the simplest form of kinetic energy. It comes from the movement of matter from one place to another. Water flowing is an example of motion energy. So is wind. Scientists believe that energy is not created or destroyed. It simply gets transferred from one object or substance to another. So, if an object is not moving, how can it have energy? The other category of energy is potential energy. You might have learned that the word potential means a person has the ability to succeed. If you have great potential, you will likely reach your goals. Potential energy has the ability to become kinetic energy. Potential energy is stored energy that will possibly become energy in motion. It is also the energy of position, which means that an object s power comes from gravity. Potential energy also appears in several forms. Gravitational energy comes from the potential power gravity can have on the object. Before he jumps from a plane, a skydiver has a great deal of stored, gravitational energy. He has more gravitational energy than a bungee jumper, because he is much higher. Summing Up Kinetic and Potential Energy (Cont d)

6 Chemical energy is stored inside of atoms and molecules. These tiny particles are held together with bonds that have stored or chemical energy. Stored mechanical energy is energy that is stored in an object before a force causes it to move. For example, when a rubber band is stretched, it has stored mechanical energy, or the potential to be in an object in motion. Nuclear energy is stored in the information center of an atom: the nucleus. The nucleus is like the brain of an atom, and directs all of its activities. It is held together by a powerful energy. When a nucleus is divided or combined with another nucleus, this potential energy becomes one of the most powerful forces in the universe. Scientists tell us that all energy is in motion, or has the potential to be in motion. Even objects that appear to be perfectly still have stored energy. This energy changes from potential to kinetic when it is acted upon by some force. Scientists have learned to harness this power and release energy when it is needed. In order to make sure our planet lives for a long time, scientists continue to look for ways to safely store, use, and recycle energy. The exercises on the next page will help you better understand the differences between kinetic and potential energy. Copyright 2009 LessonSnips

7 Pre-Post test on Kinetic and Potential Energy Kinetic and Potential Energy Questions Read each question and circle the correct answer. 1. Energy A. Thermal and light appears in two forms. What are they? A. Kinetic and electric B. Potential and kinetic C. Stored and active 2. Kinetic A. Stored energy energy can be described as: A. Energy in motion B. A chemical reaction C. Connected energy 4. Which of the following is NOT an example of kinetic energy? A. Gravity B. Sound C. Heat D. Light 5. Which of the following is NOT an example of potential energy? A. Gravitational pull B. Nuclear energy

8 C. Chemical bonds D. Electricity 6. Which of the following has no energy? A. A wrecking ball B. A pot of water C. A moving vehicle D. None of the above Read the descriptions below and identify each activity as an example of potential or kinetic energy by writing P or K on the line. 1. The energy that exists before baking soda and vinegar combine to create carbon dioxide gas. 2. A child on his way down a playground slide. 3. Exploding fireworks. 4. Ocean waves. 5. A stunt driver at the top of a ramp. 6. The flexed string of an archer s bow. 7. Boiling water. 8. A glowing neon sign. 9. The sun. 10. The bond between hydrogen and oxygen that creates water.

9 Copyright 2009 LessonSnips Kinetic and Potential Energy Answers Multiple Choice 1. C 2. B 3. A 4. D 5. D Identification 1. P 2. K 3. K 4. K 5. P 6. P 7. K 8. K 9. K 10. P Copyright 2009 LessonSnips

10 Roller Coaster - Kinetic or Potential Energy???? Introduction An amusement park has decided to open a theme park to be located in Landis, NC. It is an exciting time for the citizens of Landis. Finally, this small town will be put on the map for something big. The residents are anxiously anticipating the grand opening of the amusement park. However, the operators of the amusement park need your help. They want to design a new roller coaster with a car that runs as smoothly as a marble would down the track. Your team has been hired to design this new roller coaster track for this theme park. Your task is to design a model of the track you would like to build for this amusement park. Your model must demonstrate the law of conservation of energy, gravity, force, momentum, and especially kinetic and potential

11 energy. You are only allowed to use the following materials to build your model Foam pipe insulation and duct tape. You will be testing your design with a marble. The operators require: Three separate roller coaster design sketches on paper that includes at least one loop and one funnel. The sketches must include labels of potential and kinetic energy. A name that catches peoples attention A color scheme. The coaster must meet all specifications. You will have up to 3 class periods to build the coaster and submit it on the final day for testing. Specifications The marble must roll continuously once it is released. Only duct tape may be used. You may use the room, walls, tables, floors, to create your design using the pipe insulation and tape to connect it. Coasters may not reach vertical height of more than 36 inches but not less than 28 inches. Coasters must have at least one loop. Coasters must have at least one funnel or helix. Timing begins when the marble is released from the starting device and ends when the marble crosses the finish line. Draw each of the roller coasters your team builds on a separate sheet of paper.

12 Label the hills with the correct height, greatest potential energy and greatest kinetic energy. Label where the transformation of potential to kinetic energy begins. Materials foam pipe insulation duct tape marble You will need to research roller coasters and the physics involved in roller coasters. After you build your roller coaster you will need to time your marble through your track. Repeat the timing at least three times. Measure your height of your hills.

13 Follow up: Calculate the potential energy of your marble: PE= mxgxh Trial 1: Trail 2: Trail 3: Calculate the maximum velocity of your marble. Marble= distance/shortest time Calculate the kinetic energy of your marble. KE= 1/2mv2 Trail 1: Trail 2: Trail 3: Write a conclusion explaining three to four forces acting on the roller coaster and how these forces affect motion.

14 Explain two to three forms of energy used by the roller coaster to transfer energy. And explain the difference between two of them. What changes did you make between your original design of your roller coaster and the final working model?

15 Create an ibook using ibook author. Book specifications should include. Title What is potential and kinetic energy? Chapter 1 What is energy? Examples and Pictures Chapter 2 What is the Law of Conservation of Energy? Examples and Pictures Chapter 3 What is potential energy? Examples and Pictures Chapter 4 What is kinetic energy? Examples and Pictures Chapter 5 Science Around You (Real world examples) Chapter 6 Key words and Definitions

16 Create a short video (3-5 minutes) that teaches one of the following concepts. What is kinetic energy? What is potential energy? What is gravity? What is momentum? What is the conservation of energy?

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