What is Energy? 1 45 minutes Energy and You: Energy Picnic Science, Physical Education Engage

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1 Unit Grades K-3 Awareness Teacher Overview What is energy? Energy makes change; it does things for us. It moves cars along the road and boats over the water. It bakes a cake in the oven and keeps ice frozen in the freezer. It plays our favorite songs on the radio and lights our homes. Energy makes our bodies grow and allows our minds to think. Scientists define energy as the ability to do work. People have learned how to change energy from one form to another so that we can do work more easily and live more comfortably. When we move something by pushing or pulling, we are doing work. Energy is necessary for anything to move or change. Energy is measured in joules. The work done during a certain time is called power. Power is measure in watts. A watt is the use of one joule of energy for one second. Energy cannot be made or destroyed, but it can change from one from to another. Energy is either potential energy, (stored energy) or kinetic energy (movement energy). This unit introduces students to the idea of energy. Students will participate in a number of activities that demonstrate how energy works. For example, they will learn that objects at rest have potential energy and objects that fall or roll down an incline have potential energy that changes into kinetic energy energy of motion. Through learning centers, students should be given plenty of time and opportunity to explore a variety of investigations so that they begin to see the patterns of energy. Every student should have some type of science notebook to record their observations and findings. Objective Students will learn about potential energy, kinetic energy and conservation of energy and begin to recognize things that use energy in their everyday lives. Suggested Timeframe The first-and last-day activities are whole group activities to introduce the concept of energy and then segue to Unit #2. Activities for Days 2-4 are designed to be placed in centers around the classroom so that students can move from one activity to another over the course of a week. It is not expected that every student will experience every activity every day, but will experience every activity over the course of the week. Days Time Activity Title Content Knowledge 45 minutes Energy and You: Energy Picnic Science, Physical Education Engage Learning Cycle Components 2 5 minutes per activity 3 4 Stored and Moving Energy The More Work, the More Energy Conservation of Energy Ball Conservation of Energy Yo-Yo Energy Makes Light Energy Makes Heat Science, Language Arts, Mathematics Explore, Explain, and Elaborate 5 45 minutes Finding Energy in Our World Science, Language Arts Evaluate Unit of Study No. RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES FOR TEXAS 25

2 Materials for the Week Scissors, paper cup, ruler with center groove, pencil, different-sized blocks, marbles (large and small) or small toy cars, rubber bands, string, various objects from one ounce to two pounds, balls of different sizes, yo-yos, transparent materials (clear plastic or glass), translucent materials (waxed paper, colored transparencies), opaque materials (wood, aluminum foil), various objects that can be rubbed together to make heat (brick, carpet square, fabric remnants, a shoe, a cup) and magazines. DAILY ACTIVITIES Day : Energy Picnic Energy flows in and out of your body all the time. It s what keeps you warm when it s cold and cool when it s hot. Your body is like a machine, and the fuel for your machine is food. Food gives you the energy to move, breathe, and think. When you exercise you can feel the heat. Have a picnic with children in the sun. Serve fruits and vegetables that get energy directly from the sun. Explain that the fruits and vegetables you are eating get energy directly from the sun. Ask, how do we know they are getting energy? What can we see that tells us? When we eat the plants, where does the energy go? Then, get students to do some exercises like jumping jacks, hops, running in place, etc. Ask, is anybody feeling hot? Where does the energy from the plants go now? Ask, where else do you get energy? Talk about sleeping, other kinds of foods, water, etc. Ask students to draw a diagram that illustrates where their energy comes from and where it goes. Day 2-4: Centers Six centers have been developed to allow students to experiment with energy in a variety of ways. Students should rotate through the centers in small groups with each group experiencing two centers per day. Explain all the activities to students at the beginning of each day and assign groups to the centers. Center #: Stored Energy and Moving Energy Instructions Cut a /2 inch square section from the top of the paper cup. Place a cup over the ruler. The end of the ruler should touch the back and end of the cup. Raise the opposite end of the ruler and rest it on a block. Demonstrate to the whole group how they are to proceed before breaking them into smaller groups. Ask them to try different blocks with different heights, different size marbles, or toy cars. How far can they push the cup? Place the marble in the center groove of the ruler at the ruler s highest end. Release the marble and observe the cup. Raise the end of the ruler and rest it on the edge of a higher block. Again, position the marble in the groove at the ruler s highest end. Release the marble and observe the cup. Continue to raise and lower the height of the ruler to see which combination can move the cup the farthest. Compare a large marble and small marble at the same height. Which one pushes the cup the farthest? The cup moves as the marble strikes it. The cup moves further when the ruler rested on the higher block. When objects roll down an incline, their potential energy changes into kinetic energy. Increasing the height gives the marble more energy causing it to strike the cup with more force. Therefore, the cup moves farther. Ask young students to draw pictures of what they see and tell why they think the cup moved and what patterns they saw as they changed the height of the ruler. Older students should record the height of the ruler, the size or mass of the marble and the distance the cup travels in a table. Students should analyze their data for patterns and draw conclusions. 26 RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES FOR TEXAS Unit of Study No.

3 Center #2: Rubber Band Lift (Letters to Parents) The More Work, the More Energy Obtain several objects of different weights such as a book, a stapler, a rock and/or a ceramic cup. Either label each item with its weight or ask children to weigh each item on a scale first and put that information in a table in their science notebook. Fasten a rubber band to a piece of string and tie the string around one object. Repeat this procedure for each of the other objects. Have each child lift one object by the rubber band. When the band is stretched to its fullest, measure its length with a ruler. Use the same (or an identical) rubber band for each of the other objects. Explain that the longer the rubber band becomes, the greater the amount of energy needed to lift an object. Heavier objects need more lifting. Ask students to create a table in their science notebook for recording each item and its rubber band measurement. Then, have them explain what happened or what they observed; the patterns they see in their data; and why they think it happened or conclusions. Item Example: Bottle of Water Weight Measurement of the Rubber Band pound 2 ounces 3.2 inches Older students could graph the results using a horizontal bar graph. Center #3: Bouncing Balls To demonstrate gravitational potential energy, tape two yardsticks on the wall a few feet apart so two small groups can work at one time. Ask students to hold a ball at the top of the yardstick and release it on to the floor. Gravity pulls the ball towards the Earth creating kinetic energy as it drops until it hits the pavement converting it back to potential energy. This conversion from potential to kinetic is repeated as the ball bounces up and down the pavement. When you drop the ball, have the students note how high it bounces back. Why doesn t it bounce back to the same height at which you let it go? If you let the ball keep bouncing, notice that with it bounces back a little lower each time. Try this with different sizes and types of balls. Ask students to create a table in their science notebook for recording the height of the ball when they started and the height of the ball on the second and third bounce. Then, have them explain what happened or what they observed; the patterns they see in their data; and why they think it happened or conclusions. Bouncing Balls (Master) Type of Ball Example: Basketball Starting Height After First After Second 36 inches 20 inches 2 inches 5 inches 4 inches 3 inches 2 inches inch 0 inches Book Stapler Rock Unit of Study No. RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES FOR TEXAS 27

4 Older students could graph the results using a line graph. 60 inches 50 inches 40 inches 30 inches 20 inches 0 inches First Second Center #4: The Energy of Yo-Yos Third Fourth Yo-Yos have an interesting history and have been enjoyed by kids and adults alike. In this center, present students with yo-yos and let them experiment with them to see how they work. In your hand, the yo-yo has a certain amount of potential energy (energy of position). This potential energy takes two different forms: The yo-yo is held up in the air, giving it the potential to fall to the ground. The yo-yo has string wound around it, giving it the potential to spin as it unwinds. When the yo-yo is released, both forms of potential energy change to kinetic energy. The yo-yo spool falls straight to the ground, which builds a certain amount of linear momentum (momentum in a straight line). At the same time, the string unwinds and the spool spins, which builds angular momentum (momentum of rotation). When the yo-yo reaches the end of the string, it can t fall any farther. But, because it has a good deal of angular momentum, it will keep spinning. Young children don t need to know or understand all of this, but the experience will be fun and making connections between everyday toys and their physical properties is important. Ask students to write about their yo-yo experiments. What did they try? What worked? Why did it work or not work? Where did the energy go? Center #5: Energy Makes Heat Obtain several different objects that can be rubbed on different materials. Have children run a wood block across a brick several items or rub a coffee cup across a piece of carpet, or a shoe across concrete. Can they feel the heat? Where does the heat come from? When you rub two things together, the energy creates heat or kinetic friction. Ask students to record the type of materials, how many times they rubbed it and how much heat energy they think is generated (a lot, a little, none). Have students look for patterns and draw conclusions about where the energy came from and what happens after you stop rubbing. Center #6: Marble Energy Energy can be transferred from one object to another. If an object is moving and hits another object, its energy is transferred, or handed over to the other object. Set up two books on top of each other. Open a third book to the middle and place it on top of the other two to make a ramp. A ruler with a groove should be placed at the bottom of the ramp with the groove adjacent to the middle of the book. Place three to five marbles on the ruler touching each other. Roll another marble down the center of the book so that it hits the first marble in line. What happens to the other marbles? How far does the last marble go? Leave space between the marbles. How far does the last marble go? Science Notebook Ask students to draw a picture each time they reset the marbles and record their observations and measurements in their science notebook. Day 5: Finding Energy in Our World Explain that, through the week, students have seen how energy works. Now, we re going to see how energy is all around us and helps us do work. Ask students if they can provide examples of things in the classroom that use energy (i.e. lights, electric pencil sharpener, heat, air conditioning, etc.) Provide students with magazines that they can cut apart. Ask students to cut out pictures of things that use energy. On a bulletin board, chart paper or butcher paper (somewhere where you can leave it for the rest of the units), create a class table that illustrates how energy helps us. 28 RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES FOR TEXAS Unit of Study No.

5 The table should have a column for a picture, the type of energy it uses and how it helps us. Ask each student to bring up one picture for the table, tell what the object is, what type of energy they think it uses and how it helps us. When completed, ask students what type of energy we use the most? Ask students to think about what objects they want (you like and want); help (makes your life easier); or need (necessary in your household). Are there any items that could be replaced by something different for the same purpose that would use only mechanical energy (i.e. can opener, pencil sharpener)? Object Type of Energy How it Helps Us Refrigerator Electricity Keeps our food cold; keeps food from getting spoiled Television Electricity Entertainment Computer Electricity Learning Car Fuel Travel Unit of Study No. RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES FOR TEXAS 29

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