# Acid-Base Equilibria and Solubility Equilibria

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1 Acid-Base Equilibria and Solubility Equilibria Chapter 16 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 1 The common ion effect is the shift in equilibrium caused by the addition of a compound having an ion in common with the dissolved substance. The presence of a common ion suppresses the ionization of a weak acid or a weak base. Consider mixture of CH COONa (strong electrolyte) and CH COOH (weak acid). CH COONa (s) CH COOH (aq) Na + (aq) + CH COO - (aq) H + (aq) + CH COO - (aq) common ion 2 Consider mixture of salt NaA and weak acid HA. NaA (s) HA (aq) Na + (aq) + A - (aq) H + (aq) + A - (aq) K a = [H+ ][A - ] [HA] [H + ] = K a [HA] [A - ] -log [H + ] = -log K a - log [HA] [A - ] -log [H + ] = -log K a + log [A- ] [HA] ph = pk a + log [A- ] [HA] Henderson-Hasselbalch equation ph = pk a + log where pk a = -log K a [conjugate base] [acid] 1

2 16.1 (a) Calculate the ph of a 0.20 M CH COOH solution. (b) What is the ph of a solution containing both 0.20 M CH COOH and 0.0 M CH COONa? The K a of CH COOH is 1.8 x Strategy (a) We calculate [H + ] and hence the ph of the solution by following the procedure in (b) CH COOH is a weak acid (CH COOH CH COO - + H + ), and CH COONa is a soluble salt that is completely dissociated in solution (CH COONa Na + + CH COO - ). The common ion here is the acetate ion, CH COO -. At equilibrium, the major species in solution are CH COOH, CH COO -, Na +, H +, and H 2 O. The Na + ion has no acid or base properties and we ignore the ionization of water. Because K a is an equilibrium constant, its value is the same whether we have just the acid or a mixture of the acid and its salt in solution. Therefore, we can calculate [H + ] at equilibrium and hence ph if we know both [CH COOH] and [CH COO - ] at equilibrium Solution (a) In this case, the changes are CH COOH(aq) H + (aq) + CH COO - (aq) Initial (M): Change (M): -x +x +x Equilibrium (M): 0.20-x x x + - [H ][CH COO ] Ka = [CH COOH] -5 x = x 2 6 2

3 16.1 Assuming x 0.20, we obtain x x = x 0.20 or Thus, x = [H + ] = 1.9 x 10 - M ph= -log (1.9 x 10 - ) = Sodium acetate is a strong electrolyte, so it dissociates completely in solution: CH COONa(aq) Na + (aq) + CH COO - (aq) 0.0 M 0.0 M The initial concentrations, changes, and final concentrations of the species involved in the equilibrium are CH COOH(aq) H + (aq) + CH COO - (aq) Initial (M): Change (M): -x +x +x Equilibrium (M): 0.20-x x 0.0+x From Equation (16.1), + - [H ][CH COO ] Ka = [CH COOH] -5 ( x)(0.0+ x) = 0.20-x Assuming that x 0.0 and x 0.20, we obtain or Thus, -5 ( x)(0.0+ x) ( x)(0.0) = 0.20-x 0.20 x = [H + ] = 1.2 x 10-5 M ph = -log [H + ] = -log (1.2 x 10-5 ) =

4 16.1 Check Comparing the results in (a) and (b), we see that when the common ion (CH COO - ) is present, according to Le Châtelier s principle, the equilibrium shifts from right to left. This action decreases the extent of ionization of the weak acid. Consequently, fewer H + ions are produced in (b) and the ph of the solution is higher than that in (a). As always, you should check the validity of the assumptions. 10 A buffer solution is a solution of: 1. A weak acid or a weak base and 2. The salt of the weak acid or weak base Both must be present! A buffer solution has the ability to resist changes in ph upon the addition of small amounts of either acid or base. Consider an equal molar mixture of CH COOH and CH COONa Add strong acid H + (aq) + CH COO - (aq) Add strong base OH - (aq) + CH COOH (aq) CH COOH (aq) CH COO - (aq) + H 2 O (l) Which of the following solutions can be classified as buffer systems? (a) KH 2 PO 4 /H PO 4 (b) NaClO 4 /HClO 4 (c) C 5 H 5 N/C 5 H 5 NHCl (C 5 H 5 N is pyridine; its K b is given in Table 15.4) Explain your answers. 12 4

5 16.2 Strategy What constitutes a buffer system? Which of the preceding solutions contains a weak acid and its salt (containing the weak conjugate base)? Which of the preceding solutions contains a weak base and its salt (containing the weak conjugate acid)? Why is the conjugate base of a strong acid not able to neutralize an added acid? Solution The criteria for a buffer system is that we must have a weak acid and its salt (containing the weak conjugate base) or a weak base and its salt (containing the weak conjugate acid). (a) H PO 4 is a weak acid, and its conjugate base, H2PO4,is a weak base (see Table 15.5). Therefore, this is a buffer system. - (b) Because HClO 4 is a strong acid, its conjugate base, ClO 4, is - an extremely weak base. This means that the ClO 4 ion will not combine with a H + ion in solution to form HClO 4. Thus, the system cannot act as a buffer system. (c) As Table 15.4 shows, C 5 H 5 N is a weak base and its conjugate acid, C 5 H 5 N + H (the cation of the salt C 5 H 5 NHCl), is a weak acid. Therefore, this is a buffer system (a) Calculate the ph of a buffer system containing 1.0 M CH COOH and 1.0 M CH COONa. (b) What is the ph of the buffer system after the addition of 0.10 mole of gaseous HCl to 1.0 L of the solution? Assume that the volume of the solution does not change when the HCl is added. 15 5

6 16. Strategy (a) The ph of the buffer system before the addition of HCl can be calculated with the procedure described in 16.1, because it is similar to the common ion problem. The K a of CH COOH is 1.8 x 10-5 (see Table 15.). (b) It is sometimes helpful to make a sketch of the changes that occur in this case Solution (a) We summarize the concentrations of the species at equilibrium as follows: CH COOH(aq) H + (aq) + CH COO - (aq) Initial (M): Change (M): -x +x +x Equilibrium (M): 1.0-x x 1.0+x + - [H ][CH COO ] Ka = [CH COOH] -5 ( x)(1.0+ x) = (1.0- x) Assuming x 1.0 and x 1.0, we obtain -5 ( x)(1.0+ x) x(1.0) = (1.0- x) 1.0 or Thus, x = [H + ] = 1.8 x 10-5 M ph = -log (1.8 x 10-5 ) =

7 16. (b) When HClis added to the solution, the initial changes are HCl(aq) H + (aq) + Cl - (aq) Initial (mol): Change (mol): Final (mol): The Cl - ion is a spectator ion in solution because it is the conjugate base of a strong acid. The H + ions provided by the strong acid HCl react completely with the conjugate base of the buffer, which is CH COO -. At this point it is more convenient to work with moles rather than molarity. The reason is that in some cases the volume of the solution may change when a substance is added. A change in volume will change the molarity, but not the number of moles The neutralization reaction is summarized next: CH COO - (aq) + H + (aq) CH COOH(aq) Initial (mol): Change (mol): Final (mol): Finally, to calculate the ph of the buffer after neutralization of the acid, we convert back to molarity by dividing moles by 1.0 L of solution CH COOH(aq) H + (aq) + CH COO - (aq) Initial (M): Change (M): -x +x +x Equilibrium (M): 1.1-x x 0.90+x + - [H ][CH COO ] Ka = [CH COOH] -5 ( x)(0.90+ x) = (1.1- x) 21 7

8 16. Assuming x 0.90 and x 1.1, we obtain or -5 ( x)(0.90+ x) x(0.90) = (1.1- x) 1.1 Thus, Check x = [H + ] = 2.2 x 10-5 M ph = -log (2.2 x 10-5 ) = 4.66 The ph decreases by only a small amount upon the addition of HCl. This is consistent with the action of a buffer solution. 22 HCl H + + Cl - HCl + CH COO - CH COOH + Cl Describe how you would prepare a phosphate buffer with a ph of about Strategy For a buffer to function effectively, the concentrations of the acid component must be roughly equal to the conjugate base component. According to Equation (16.4), when the desired ph is close to the pk a of the acid, that is, when ph pk a, or, [conjugate base] log 0 [acid] [conjugate base] 1 acid 24 8

9 16.4 Solution Because phosphoric acid is a triprotic acid, we write the three stages of ionization as follows. The K a values are obtained from Table 15.5 and the pk a values are found by applying Equation (16.). H PO 4 aq H + aq + H 2 PO 4 aq K a1 = 7.5 x 10 ; pk a1 = 2.12 H 2 PO 4 aq H + aq + HPO 4 2 aq K a2 = 6.2 x 10 8 ; pk a2 = 7.21 HPO 4 2 aq H + aq + PO 4 aq K a = 4.8 x 10 1 ; pk a = The most suitable of the three buffer systems is HPO 4 /H2PO4, - because the pk a of the acid H2PO4 is closest to the desired ph. From the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation we write [conjugate base] ph = p Ka + log [acid] [HPO ] 7.40 = log [H PO ] [HPO ] log = 0.19 [H PO ] Taking the antilog, we obtain 2- [HPO 4 ] = 10 = [H PO ] Thus, one way to prepare a phosphate buffer with a ph of 7.40 is to dissolve disodium hydrogen phosphate (Na 2 HPO 4 ) and sodium dihydrogen phosphate (NaH 2 PO 4 ) in a mole ratio of 1.5:1.0 in water. For example, we could dissolve 1.5 moles of Na 2 HPO 4 and 1.0 mole of NaH 2 PO 4 in enough water to make up a 1-L solution. 27 9

10 Titrations (Review) In a titration, a solution of accurately known concentration is gradually added to another solution of unknown concentration until the chemical reaction between the two solutions is complete. Equivalence point the point at which the reaction is complete Indicator substance that changes color at (or near) the equivalence point Slowly add base to unknown acid UNTIL the indicator changes color (pink) 28 Alternative Method of Equivalence Point Detection monitor ph 29 Strong Acid-Strong Base Titrations NaOH (aq) + HCl (aq) OH - (aq) + H + (aq) H 2 O (l) H 2 O (l) + NaCl (aq) 0 10

11 Chemistry In Action: Maintaining the ph of Blood Red blood cells in a capillary 1 Weak Acid-Strong Base Titrations CH COOH (aq) + NaOH (aq) CH COONa (aq) + H 2 O (l) CH COOH (aq) + OH - (aq) CH COO - (aq) + H 2 O (l) At equivalence point (ph > 7): CH COO - (aq) + H 2 O (l) OH - (aq) + CH COOH (aq) Calculate the ph in the titration of 25.0 ml of M acetic acid by sodium hydroxide after the addition to the acid solution of (a) 10.0 ml of M NaOH (b) 25.0 ml of M NaOH (c) 5.0 ml of M NaOH 11

12 16.5 Strategy The reaction between CH COOH and NaOH is CH COOH(aq) + NaOH(aq) CH COONa(aq) + H 2 O(l) We see that 1 mol CH COOH requires 1 mol NaOH. Therefore, at every stage of the titration we can calculate the number of moles of base reacting with the acid, and the ph of the solution is determined by the excess acid or base left over. At the equivalence point, however, the neutralization is complete and the ph of the solution will depend on the extent of the hydrolysis of the salt formed, which is CH COONa Solution (a) The number of moles of NaOH in 10.0 ml is mol NaOH 1 L ml = mol 1 L NaOH soln 1000 ml The number of moles of CH COOH originally present in 25.0 ml of solution is mol CH COOH 1 L 1 L CH COOH soln 1000 ml ml = mol We work with moles at this point because when two solutions are mixed, the solution volume increases. As the volume increases, molarity will change but the number of moles will remain the same The changes in number of moles are summarized next: CH COOH (aq) + NaOH (aq) CH COONa(aq) + H 2 O(l) Initial (mol): 2.50 x x 10-0 Change (mol): x x x 10 - Final (mol): 1.50 x x 10 - At this stage we have a buffer system made up of CH COOH and CH COO - (from the salt, CH COONa). 6 12

13 16.5 To calculate the ph of the solution, we write + - [H ][CH COO ] Ka = [CH COOH] [CH COOH] K [H ] = + a - [CHCOO ] - -5 ( )( ) -5 = = M Therefore, ph = -log (2.7 x 10-5 ) = (b) These quantities (that is, 25.0 ml of M NaOH reacting with 25.0 ml of M CH COOH) correspond to the equivalence point. The number of moles of NaOH in 25.0 ml of the solution is mol NaOH 1 L ml = mol 1 L NaOH soln 1000 ml The changes in number of moles are summarized next: CH COOH (aq) + NaOH (aq) CH COONa(aq) + H 2 O(l) Initial (mol): 2.50 x x 10-0 Change (mol): x x x 10 - Final (mol): x At the equivalence point, the concentrations of both the acid and the base are zero. The total volume is ( ) ml or 50.0 ml, so the concentration of the salt is mol 1000 ml [CHCOONa] = 50.0 ml 1 L = mol/l = M The next step is to calculate the ph of the solution that results from the hydrolysis of the CH COO - ions

14 16.5 Following the procedure described in 15.1 and looking up the base ionization constant (K b ) for CH COO - in Table 15., we write 10 b x = [OH ] = M, ph = [CH COOH][OH ] x K = = = [CH COO ] x (c) After the addition of 5.0 ml of NaOH, the solution is well past the equivalence point. The number of moles of NaOH originally present is mol NaOH 1 L ml = mol 1 L NaOH soln 1000 ml The changes in number of moles are summarized next: CH COOH (aq) + NaOH (aq) CH COONa(aq) + H 2 O(l) Initial (mol): 2.50 x x 10-0 Change (mol): x x x 10 - Final (mol): x x At this stage we have two species in solution that are responsible for making the solution basic: OH - and CH COO - (from CH COONa). However, because OH - is a much stronger base than CH COO -, we can safely neglect the hydrolysis of the CH COO - ions and calculate the ph of the solution using only the concentration of the OH - ions. The total volume of the combined solutions is ( ) ml or 60.0 ml, so we calculate OH - concentration as follows: mol 1000 ml [OH ] = 60.0 ml 1 L = mol/l = M - - poh = -log[oh ] = -log = 1.78 ph = =

15 Strong Acid-Weak Base Titrations HCl (aq) + NH (aq) NH 4 Cl (aq) H + (aq) + NH (aq) NH + 4 (aq) At equivalence point (ph < 7): NH + 4 (aq) + H 2 O (l) NH (aq) + H + (aq) Calculate the ph at the equivalence point when 25.0 ml of M NH is titrated by a M HCl solution. Strategy The reaction between NH and HCl is NH (aq) + HCl(aq) NH 4 Cl(aq) We see that 1 mol NH requires 1 mol HCl. At the equivalence point, the major species in solution are the salt NH 4 Cl + (dissociated into NH and Cl - 4 ions) and H 2 O. First, we determine the concentration of NH 4 Cl formed. Then we calculate the ph + as a result of the NH ion hydrolysis. The Cl - 4 ion, being the conjugate base of a strong acid HCl, does not react with water. As usual, we ignore the ionization of water Solution The number of moles of NH in 25.0 ml of M solution is mol NH 1 L ml = mol 1 L NH 1000 ml At the equivalence point the number of moles of HCl added equals the number of moles of NH. The changes in number of moles are summarized below: NH (aq) + HCl(aq) NH 4 Cl(aq) Initial (mol): 2.50 x x 10-0 Change (mol): x x x 10 - Final (mol): x

16 16.6 At the equivalence point, the concentrations of both the acid and the base are zero. The total volume is ( ) ml, or 50.0 ml, so the concentration of the salt is mol 1000 ml [NH4Cl] = 50.0 ml 1 L = mol/l = M The ph of the solution at the equivalence point is determined + by the hydrolysis of NH 4 ions. Step 1: We represent the hydrolysis of the cation NH 4, and let x be the equilibrium concentration of NH and H + ions in mol/l: NH 4 (aq) NH (aq) + H + (aq) Initial (M): Change (M): -x +x +x Equilibrium (M): ( x) x x + Step 2: From Table 15.4 we obtain the K a for NH 4 : K a = + [NH ][H ] + [NH 4] 2-10 x = x Applying the approximation x , we get x x = x x = M Thus, the ph is given by ph = -log (5. x 10-6 ) = 5.28 Check Note that the ph of the solution is acidic. This is what we would expect from the hydrolysis of the ammonium ion

17 Acid-Base Indicators HIn (aq) [HIn] [In - ] [HIn] [In - ] H + (aq) + In - (aq) Color of acid (HIn) predominates Color of conjugate base (In - ) predominates 49 Solutions of Red Cabbage Extract ph 50 The titration curve of a strong acid with a strong base

18 16.7 Which indicator or indicators listed in Table 16.1 would you use for the acid-base titrations shown in (a) Figure 16.4? (b) Figure 16.5? (c) Figure 16.6? 54 18

19 16.7 Strategy The choice of an indicator for a particular titration is based on the fact that its ph range for color change must overlap the steep portion of the titration curve Solution (a) Near the equivalence point, the ph of the solution changes abruptly from 4 to 10. Therefore, all the indicators except thymol blue, bromophenol blue, and methyl orange are suitable. (b) Here the steep portion covers the ph range between 7 and 10, cresol red and phenolphthalein are suitable. (c) Here the steep portion of the ph curve covers the ph range between and 7; therefore, the suitable indicators are bromophenol blue, methyl orange, methyl red, and chlorophenol blue. 55 Solubility Equilibria AgCl (s) Ag + (aq) + Cl - (aq) K sp = [Ag + ][Cl - ] K sp is the solubility product constant MgF 2 (s) Mg 2+ (aq) + 2F - (aq) K sp = [Mg 2+ ][F - ] 2 Ag 2 CO (s) 2Ag + (aq) + CO 2- (aq) Ksp = [Ag + ] 2 [CO 2- ] Ca (PO 4 ) 2 (s) Ca 2+ (aq) + 2PO - 4 (aq) Ksp = [Ca 2+ ] [PO - 4 ] 2 Dissolution of an ionic solid in aqueous solution: Q < K sp Unsaturated solution No precipitate Q = K sp Saturated solution Q > K sp Supersaturated solution Precipitate will form

20 Molar solubility (mol/l) is the number of moles of solute dissolved in 1 L of a saturated solution. Solubility (g/l) is the number of grams of solute dissolved in 1 L of a saturated solution The solubility of calcium sulfate (CaSO 4 ) is found to be 0.67 g/l. Calculate the value of K sp for calcium sulfate. Strategy We are given the solubility of CaSO 4 and asked to calculate its K sp. The sequence of conversion steps, according to Figure 16.9(a), is solubility of CaSO 4 (g/l) molar solubility of CaSO 4 ion concentrations [Ca 2+ ], [SO 4 2- ] K sp of CaSO Solution Consider the dissociation of CaSO 4 in water. Let s be the molar solubility (in mol/l) of CaSO 4. CaSO 4 (s) Ca 2+ (aq) + SO 2 4 (aq) Initial (M): 0 0 Change (M): -s +s +s Equilibrium (M): s s The solubility product for CaSO 4 is K sp = Ca 2+ SO 4 2 = s

21 16.8 First, we calculate the number of moles of CaSO 4 dissolved in 1 L of solution: 0.67 g CaSO4 1 mol CaSO4 - = mol/l = s 1 L soln 16.2 g CaSO From the solubility equilibrium we see that for every mole of CaSO 4 that dissolves, 1 mole of Ca 2+ and 1 mole of SO 2 4 are produced. Thus, at equilibrium, [Ca 2+ ] = 4.9 x 10 - M and [ SO 2 ] = 4.9 x 10 - M Now we can calculate K sp : K sp = [Ca 2+ ] ][ SO 2 ] = (4.9 x 10 - )(4.9 x 10 - ) = 2.4 x Using the data in Table 16.2, calculate the solubility of copper(ii) hydroxide, Cu(OH) 2, in g/l. Strategy We are given the K sp of Cu(OH) 2 and asked to calculate its solubility in g/l. The sequence of conversion steps, according to Figure 16.9(b), is K sp of Cu(OH) 2 ion concentrations [Cu 2+ ], [OH - ] molar solubility of Cu(OH) 2 Solubility of Cu(OH) 2 (g/l) 6 21

22 16.9 Consider the dissociation of Cu(OH) 2 in water: Cu(OH) 2 (s) Cu 2+ (aq) + 2OH - (aq) Initial (M): 0 0 Change (M): -s +s +2s Equilibrium (M): s 2s Note: the molar concentration of OH - is twice that of Cu 2+. The solubility product of Cu(OH) 2 is K sp = [Cu 2+ ][OH - ] 2 = (s)(2s) 2 = 4s From the K sp value in Table 16.2, we solve for the molar solubility of Cu(OH) 2 as follows: Hence = 4s s = = s = M Finally, from the molar mass of Cu(OH) 2 and its molar solubility, we calculate the solubility in g/l: mol Cu(OH) g Cu(OH) solubility of Cu(OH) 2 1 L soln 1 mol Cu(OH) = g / L

23 16.10 Exactly 200 ml of M BaCl 2 are mixed with exactly 600 ml of M K 2 SO 4. Will a precipitate form? Strategy Under what condition will an ionic compound precipitate from solution? The ions in solution are Ba 2+, Cl -, K +, and SO 2 4. According to the solubility rules listed in Table 4.2 (p. 125), the only precipitate that can form is BaSO 4. From the information given, we can calculate [Ba 2+ ] and [ SO 2 4 ] because we know the number of moles of the ions in the original solutions and the volume of the combined solution. Next, we calculate the ion product Q (Q = [Ba 2+ ] 0 [ SO 2 4 ] 0 ) and compare the value of Q with K sp of BaSO 4 to see if a precipitate will form, that is, if the solution is supersaturated It is sometimes helpful to make a sketch of the situation Solution The number of moles of Ba 2+ present in the original 200 ml of solution is mol Ba 1 L 200 ml = mol Ba 1 L soln 1000 ml The total volume after combining the two solutions is 800 ml. The concentration of Ba 2+ in the 800 ml volume is mol 1000 ml [Ba ] = 800 ml 1 L soln - = M 69 2

24 16.10 The number of moles of SO 2 in the original 600 ml solution is mol SO4 1 L ml = mol SO 1 L soln 1000 ml The concentration of SO 2 4 in the 800 ml of the combined solution is mol 1000 ml [SO 4 ] = 800 ml 1 L soln = M Now we must compare Q and K sp. From Table 16.2, BaSO 4 (s) Ba 2+ (aq) + SO 4 2- (aq) K sp = 1.1 x As for Q, Q = [Ba 2+ ] 0 [SO 4 2- ] 0 = (1.0 x 10 - )(6.0 x 10 - ) = 6.0 x 10-6 Therefore, Q > K sp The solution is supersaturated because the value of Q indicates that the concentrations of the ions are too large. Thus, some of the BaSO 4 will precipitate out of solution until [Ba 2+ ][ SO 4 2- ] = 1.1 x A solution contains M Cl - ions and M Br - ions. To separate the Cl - ions from the Br - ions, solid AgNO is slowly added to the solution without changing the volume. What concentration of Ag + ions (in mol/l) is needed to precipitate as much AgBr as possible without precipitating AgCl? Strategy In solution, AgNO dissociates into Ag + and NO - ions. The Ag + ions then combine with the Cl - and Br - ions to form AgCl and AgBr precipitates. Because AgBr is less soluble (it has a smaller K sp than that of AgCl), it will precipitate first. Therefore, this is a fractional precipitation problem. Knowing the concentrations of Cl - and Br - ions, we can calculate [Ag + ] from the K sp values. Keep in mind that K sp refers to a saturated solution. To initiate precipitation, [Ag + ] must exceed the concentration in the saturated solution in each case

25 16.11 Solution The solubility equilibrium for AgBr is AgBr(s) Ag + (aq) + Br - (aq) K sp = [Ag + ][Br - ] Because [Br - ] = M, the concentration of Ag + that must be exceeded to initiate the precipitation of AgBr is K + sp [Ag ] = = - [Br ] = M -1 Thus, [Ag + ] >.9 x M is required to start the precipitation of AgBr The solubility equilibrium for AgCl is AgCl(s) Ag + (aq) + Cl - (aq) K sp = [Ag + ][Cl - ] so that K + sp [Ag ] = = - [Cl ] = M -10 Therefore, [Ag + ] > 8.0 x 10-9 M is needed to initiate the precipitation of AgCl. To precipitate the Br - ions as AgBr without precipitating the Cl - ions as AgCl, then, [Ag + ] must be greater than.9 x M and lower than 8.0 x 10-9 M. 74 The Common Ion Effect and Solubility The presence of a common ion decreases the solubility of the salt

26 16.12 Calculate the solubility of silver chloride (in g/l) in a 6.5 x 10 - M silver nitrate solution. Strategy This is a common-ion problem. The common ion here is Ag +, which is supplied by both AgCl and AgNO. Remember that the presence of the common ion will affect only the solubility of AgCl (in g/l), but not the K sp value because it is an equilibrium constant Solution Step 1: The relevant species in solution are Ag + ions (from both AgCl and AgNO ) and Cl - ions. The NO ions are spectator ions. Step 2: Because AgNO is a soluble strong electrolyte, it dissociates completely: H 2 O AgNO (s) Ag + (aq) + NO (aq) 6.5 x 10 - M 6.5 x 10 - M Let s be the molar solubility of AgCl in AgNO solution. We summarize the changes in concentrations as follows: AgCl(s) Ag + (aq) + Cl - (aq) Initial (M): 6.5 x Change (M): -s +s +s Equilibrium (M): (6.5 x s) s Step : K sp = [Ag + ][Cl - ] 1.6 x = (6.5 x s)(s) 78 26

27 16.12 Because AgCl is quite insoluble and the presence of Ag + ions from AgNO further lowers the solubility of AgCl, s must be very small compared with 6.5 x Therefore, applying the approximation 6.5 x s 6.5 x 10 -, we obtain 1.6 x = (6.5 x 10 - )s s = 2.5 x 10-8 M Step 4: At equilibrium [Ag + ] = (6.5 x x 10-8 ) M 6.5 x 10 - M [Cl + ] = 2.5 x 10-8 M and so our approximation was justified in step. Because all the Cl - ions must come from AgCl, the amount of AgCl dissolved in AgNO solution also is 2.5 x 10-8 M. Then, knowing the molar mass of AgCl (14.4 g), we can calculate the solubility of AgCl as follows: mol AgCl 14.4 AgCl solubility of AgCl in AgNO solution = 1 L soln 1 mol AgCl -6-8 =.6 10 g / L 80 ph and Solubility The presence of a common ion decreases the solubility. Insoluble bases dissolve in acidic solutions Insoluble acids dissolve in basic solutions Mg(OH) 2 (s) remove add Mg 2+ (aq) + 2OH - (aq) K sp = [Mg 2+ ][OH - ] 2 = 1.2 x K sp = (s)(2s) 2 = 4s 4s = 1.2 x s = 1.4 x 10-4 M [OH - ] = 2s = 2.8 x 10-4 M poh =.55 ph = At ph less than Lower [OH - ] OH - (aq) + H + (aq) H 2 O (l) Increase solubility of Mg(OH) 2 At ph greater than Raise [OH - ] Decrease solubility of Mg(OH)

28 16.1 Which of the following compounds will be more soluble in acidic solution than in water: (a)cus (b) AgCl (c) PbSO 4 Strategy In each case, write the dissociation reaction of the salt into its cation and anion. The cation will not interact with the H + ion because they both bear positive charges. The anion will act as a proton acceptor only if it is the conjugate base of a weak acid. How would the removal of the anion affect the solubility of the salt? Solution (a) The solubility equilibrium for CuS is CuS(s) Cu 2+ (aq) + S 2- (aq) The sulfide ion is the conjugate base of the weak acid HS -. Therefore, the S 2- ion reacts with the H + ion as follows: S 2- (aq) + H + (aq) HS - (aq) This reaction removes the S 2- ions from solution. According to Le Châtelier s principle, the equilibrium will shift to the right to replace some of the S 2- ions that were removed, thereby increasing the solubility of CuS (b) The solubility equilibrium is AgCl(s) Ag + (aq) + Cl - (aq) Because Cl - is the conjugate base of a strong acid (HCl), the solubility of AgCl is not affected by an acid solution

29 16.1 (c) The solubility equilibrium for PbSO 4 is PbSO 4 (s) Pb 2+ (aq) + SO 4 2- (aq) The sulfate ion is a weak base because it is the conjugate base of the weak acid HSO 4-. Therefore, the SO 4 2- ion reacts with the H + ion as follows: SO 4 2- (aq) + H + (aq) HSO 4- (aq) This reaction removes the SO 4 2- ions from solution. According to Le Châtelier s principle, the equilibrium will shift to the right to replace some of the SO 4 2- ions that were removed, thereby increasing the solubility of PbSO Calculate the concentration of aqueous ammonia necessary to initiate the precipitation of iron(ii) hydroxide from a M solution of FeCl 2. Strategy For iron(ii) hydroxide to precipitate from solution, the product [Fe 2+ ][OH - ] 2 must be greater than its K sp. First, we calculate [OH - ] from the known [Fe 2+ ] and the K sp value listed in Table This is the concentration of OH - in a saturated solution of Fe(OH) 2. Next, we calculate the concentration of NH that will supply this concentration of OH - ions. Finally, any NH concentration greater than the calculated value will initiate the precipitation of Fe(OH) 2 because the solution will become supersaturated Solution Ammonia reacts with water to produce OH - ions, which then react with Fe 2+ to form Fe(OH) 2. The equilibria of interest are First we find the OH - concentration above which Fe(OH) 2 begins to precipitate. We write K sp = [Fe 2+ ][OH - ] 2 = 1.6 x

30 16.14 Because FeCl 2 is a strong electrolyte, [Fe 2- ] = M and [OH ] = = [OH ] = M Next, we calculate the concentration of NH that will supply 2. x 10-6 M OH - ions. Let x be the initial concentration of NH in mol/l We summarize the changes in concentrations resulting from the ionization of NH as follows. NH (aq) + H 2 O (l) NH 4+ (aq) + OH - (aq) Initial (M): x Change (M): -2. x x x 10-6 Equilibrium (M): ( x -2. x 10-6 ) 2. x x 10-6 Substituting the equilibrium concentrations in the expression for the ionization constant (see Table 15.4), = Solving for x, we obtain [NH ][OH ] Kb = [NH ] ( x ) x = 2.6 x 10-6 M Therefore, the concentration of NH must be slightly greater than 2.6 x 10-6 M to initiate the precipitation of Fe(OH)

31 Complex Ion Equilibria and Solubility A complex ion is an ion containing a central metal cation bonded to one or more molecules or ions. Co 2+ (aq) + 4Cl - (aq) 2- CoCl 4 (aq) The formation constant or stability constant (K f ) is the equilibrium constant for the complex ion formation. Co(H 2 O) 6 2+ K f = 2- CoCl 4 2- [CoCl 4 ] [Co 2+ ][Cl - ] 4 HCl K f stability of complex A 0.20-mole quantity of CuSO 4 is added to a liter of 1.20 M NH solution. What is the concentration of Cu 2+ ions at equilibrium? 9 1

32 16.15 Strategy The addition of CuSO 4 to the NH solution results in complex ion formation Cu 2+ (aq) + 4NH (aq) Cu(NH ) 4 2+ (aq) From Table 16.4 we see that the formation constant (K f ) for this reaction is very large; therefore, the reaction lies mostly to the right. At equilibrium, the concentration of Cu 2+ will be very small. As a good approximation, we can assume that essentially all the dissolved Cu 2+ ions end up as Cu(NH ) 4 2+ ions. How many moles of NH will react with 0.20 mole of Cu 2+? How many moles of Cu(NH ) 4 2+ will be produced? A very small amount of Cu 2+ will be present at equilibrium. Set up the K f expression for the preceding equilibrium to solve for [Cu 2+ ] Solution The amount of NH consumed in forming the complex ion is 4 x 0.20 mol, or 0.80 mol. (Note that 0.20 mol Cu 2+ is initially present in solution and four NH molecules are needed to form a complex ion with one Cu 2+ ion.) The concentration of NH at equilibrium is therefore ( ) mol/l or 0.40 M, and that of Cu(NH ) 2+ 4 is 0.20 mol/l soln or 0.20 M, the same as the initial concentration of Cu 2+. Because Cu(NH ) 2+ 4 does dissociate to a slight extent, we call the concentration of Cu 2+ at equilibrium x and write 2 [Cu(NH ) 4] Kf = [Cu 2+ ][NH ] = x(0.40) Solving for x and keeping in mind that the volume of the solution is 1 L, we obtain x = [Cu 2+ ] = 1.6 x 10-1 M Check The small value of [Cu 2+ ] at equilibrium, compared with 0.20 M, certainly justifies our approximation. 96 2

33 16.16 Calculate the molar solubility of AgCl in a 1.0 M NH solution Strategy AgCl is only slightly soluble in water AgCl(s) Ag + (aq) + Cl - (aq) The Ag + ions form a complex ion with NH (see Table 16.4) Ag + (aq) + 2NH (aq) Ag(NH ) 2 + Combining these two equilibria will give the overall equilibrium for the process Solution Step 1: Initially, the species in solution are Ag + and Cl - ions and NH. The reaction between Ag + and NH produces the complex ion. Step 2: The equilibrium reactions are AgCl(s) Ag + (aq) + Cl - (aq) K sp = [Ag + ][Cl - ] = 1.6 x Ag + (aq) + 2NH (aq) Ag(NH ) 2+ (aq) [Ag(NH ) 2] 7 Kf = = [Ag ][NH ] Overall: AgCl(s) + 2NH (aq) Ag(NH ) 2+ (aq)+ Cl - (aq) 99

34 16.16 The equilibrium constant K for the overall reaction is the product of the equilibrium constants of the individual reactions (see Section 14.2): [Ag(NH ) 2][Cl ] K= KspKf = [NH ] = ( )( ) = Let s be the molar solubility of AgCl (mol/l). We summarize the changes in concentrations that result from formation of the complex ion as follows: AgCl(s) + 2NH (aq) Ag(NH ) 2+ (aq) + Cl-(aq) Initial (M): Change (M): -s -2s +s +s Equilibrium (M): (1.0 2s) s s The formation constant for Ag(NH ) 2+ is quite large, so most of the silver ions exist in the complexed form. In the absence of ammonia we have, at equilibrium, [Ag + ] = [Cl - ]. As a result of complex ion formation, however, we can write [Ag(NH ) 2+ ] = [Cl - ]. 101 Step : ( s)( s) K= (1.0-2 s ) s = (1.0-2 s ) Taking the square root of both sides, we obtain s = s s = Μ Step 4: At equilibrium, mole of AgCl dissolves in 1 L of 1.0 M NH solution

35 16.16 Check The molar solubility of AgCl in pure water is 1. x 10-5 M. Thus, the formation of the complex ion Ag(NH ) 2enhances the solubility of AgCl (Figure 16.12). 10 Chemistry In Action: How an Eggshell is Formed Ca 2+ (aq) + CO 2- (aq) CaCO (s) carbonic CO 2 (g) + H 2 O (l) H 2 CO (aq) anhydrase H 2 CO (aq) HCO - (aq) H + (aq) + HCO - (aq) H + (aq) + CO 2- (aq) electron micrograph 104 Effect of Complexation on Solubility AgNO Add + NH NaCl Ag(NH AgCl )

36 106 Qualitative Analysis of Cations 107 6

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