Chemistry Ch 15 (Solutions) Study Guide Introduction

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Chemistry Ch 15 (Solutions) Study Guide Introduction"

Transcription

1 Chemistry Ch 15 (Solutions) Study Guide Introduction Name: Note: a word marked (?) is a vocabulary word you should know the meaning of. A homogeneous (?) mixture, or, is a mixture in which the individual components are uniformly distributed. In other words, if you were to sample a solution at various locations, the compositions would be the same. A solution can be a solid, liquid or. Making a solution: The solute (?) is the component that changes percentage., or is present in the The solvent (?) is the component into which the solutes dissolve. In the above diagram, identify the solute (?) solvent (?) If a small amount of carbon monoxide gas were released into the air, would the CO be the solvent or a solute? Special solutions (?) Solutions in which water is the solvent are called solutions. are solutions that have alcohol as the solvent dental fillings. are solutions in which mercury is the solvent. These were formerly used in (?) Solid solutions of one metal dissolved into another are. Brass is a special alloy of and, while bronze is copper and zinc with. Another alloy you may know is pewter, made of tin and. 1

2 Solubility (?) the mass (grams) of solute that will dissolve in each 100 grams of water, at a specified temperature. When an ionic substance dissolves in water it breaks up into its component. Example: Sodium chloride (NaCl) dissolving in water Additionally, when salts (ionic solids) dissolve in water, the resulting solutions will conduct an electric current. When covalent substances dissolve in water, the molecules do not separate. Solutions of covalent substances do not conduct electric currents well. Acids are exceptions to this rule. Acids are covalent compounds, but behave like ionic compounds, losing their H s (one at a time, if they have more than one H.) Practice problems: Identify the ions that are produced when each of the following dissolve in water: cation anion NaNO 3 : CaCO 3 : NH 4 Cl: K 3 PO 4 : HCl: H 2 SO 4 : *** It would be to your benefit to review the solubility rules (ch. 7) *** 2

3 What factors determine how much solute will dissolve in a solvent? 1) Explain the phrase like dissolves like : 2) Temperature. Usually, more of a solid solute (like sugar) will dissolve when the solvent s temperature is. This relationship is different for, however. The graph at right indicates that as the temperature of water increases, what happens to the solubilities of common gases? Why would fish prefer cold water over warm water? 3) Pressure. As the pressure of the gas over a liquid increases, what happens to the solubility of the gas in the liquid? If you pop the tab on a soda and release the pressure what happens to the carbonation? What will quickly happen to a soda when the pressure is released and the temperature is warm? What gas is dissolved in pop? In other words, what is carbonation? The solubility of a substance at various temperatures is shown on a graph called a solubility curve. See the next page. 3

4 Name 1) Which salt (a synonym for ionic compound ) on the chart is most affected by changes in temperature? Solubility Curves 2) Which salt is least affected by changes in temperature? 3) Which salt on the chart is most soluble at 10 o C? 4) At what temperature is the solubility of KNO 3 the same as the solubility of KCl? 5) What is the solubility of potassium nitrate at 50 o C? (Another way of saying this is how many grams of KNO 3 will dissolve in 100 g of water at 50 o C? ) 6) How many grams of KNO 3 could be dissolved in 500 grams of water at 5 o C? Set up a proportion; show your work. 7) How many grams of NaNO 3 can be dissolved in 100 grams of water at 30 o C? 8) How much NH 4 Cl could be dissolved in 200 grams of water at 20 o C? Show your work. 9) At what temperature is the solubility of HCl 60 grams/100 grams of water? 10) Based on their decreasing solubility as temperature increases, NH 3, HCl, and SO 2 must all be. 11) How many grams of KClO 3 can be dissolved in 50 grams of water at 25 o C? Show your work. 12) How many grams of sodium nitrate can be dissolved in 180 grams of water at 15 o C? Show your work. 4

5 13) How many grams of KCl are in 250 g of water that is saturated with KCl at 25 o C? Show your work. 14) How many grams of sodium nitrate are needed to saturate 40 grams of water at 65 o C? Show your work. 15) A solution of 20 grams of KNO 3 in 100 grams of water at 20 o C is ( unsaturated / saturated )? 16) A solution of 47 grams of NaNO 3 in 50 grams of water would be saturated at what temperature? 17) If 285 grams of water at 15 o C that is saturated with NaNO 3 were allowed to evaporate, how many grams of NaNO 3 would be left behind in the beaker? Show your work. 5

6 Solution Concentration For every substance there is a limit to how much solute can dissolve into a given amount of solvent. For example as you add table salt to water it disappears relatively quickly. However, as you continue to add salt to the water, the salt dissolves more slowly, ultimately reaching a point where it stops dissolving and begins to accumulate at the bottom of the container. If more solute will dissolve into the solution, the solution is said to be. If no more solute will dissolve into the solution, at that temperature, the solution is said to be. Solutions of certain compounds (e.g. sodium acetate) can also be supersaturated, having more solute dissolved than should be possible at a particular temperature. As long as a supersaturated solution is left untouched, it will just sit there. But if disturbed in any way, the excess solute precipitates rapidly. For a good look at a supersaturated solution visit this website: also search hot ice, supersaturated solutions, and sodium acetate If we look at the terms saturated, unsaturated and super saturated in reference to a solubility curve, saturated solutions would be at temperature-mass combinations on the curve, unsaturated solutions would be at temperature-mass combinations the curve and super saturated solutions would be at temperature-mass combinations the curve. Solutions can also be discussed in the even more generic terms concentrated and dilute. Concentrated solutions have a relatively amount of solute whereas dilute solutions have a amount of solute dissolved in the solution. While these generic terms are of use in an everyday setting you should be able to recognize that they are not specific enough to be useful in a scientific setting, especially chemistry. We need terms that give actual quantitative (number-based) descriptions of solution concentration: mass percent and molarity. ( At this point, just be aware that there are other measures of concentration also that we will not discuss in class: (1) molality, (2) normality, (3) volume %, and (4) mole fraction.) 6

7 Mass Percent Mass Percent = grams of solute x 100 total grams of solution Example: 3.00g of KCl are dissolved in 17.00g of water [3.00g / (3.00g g)] x 100 = 15% The KCl is the solute (3.00g) and the combination of KCl (3.00g) and water (17.00g) is the solution. Example: How much water must be added to 25 grams of NaCl to have a 30.0% solution? 30% = 0.30 = [25 g NaCl / (25 g NaCl + X g H 2 O) Solve for X. 0.30(25 + X) = X = X = 17.5 X = 58.3 grams Sample problem: Calculate the mass percent of a solution containing 1.60 g of barium chloride dissolved in g of water. Molarity As we have seen throughout the year, chemical reactions work in terms of Therefore, being able to calculate the molarity (M) of a solution is useful. instead of grams. M = moles of solute liters of solution units: mol/l M (molar) Definition: A 1.00 M (1.00 Molar) solution contains 1 mole of solute dissolved in enough water to make exactly 1 L of solution. Example: What is the molarity of 6.50g of NaOH dissolved into 2.00L of solution? 6.50g / 40g/mol = mol NaOH (turn grams into moles by dividing by the molar mass) mol NaOH / 2.00L = M NaOH solution Sample problem Calculate the molarity of a Barium hydroxide solution made by dissolving 2.60g of barium hydroxide in water to a total volume of mls 7

8 Converting Between Mass % and Molarity Mass % can be converted to Molarity because grams can be converted to moles. The molar mass of the solute and the density of the solution must both be known. Example: Formalin is a 37.0% solution of formaldehyde (CH 2 O) in water. The density of formalin is 1080 g/l. What is the molarity of formaldehyde in a formalin solution? (The molar mass of CH 2 O is 30 g/mol.) Let s assume that we have 1.00 L of solution L x 1080 g/l = 1080 grams of solution. 37.0% of 1080 g = grams (don t worry about sig. figs. yet) grams / 30 g/mol = moles moles dissolved in 1.00 L = 13.3 M Dilutions In the laboratory it is often necessary to make solutions that are less concentrated than the concentrated or stock solutions sold by chemical companies. In order to make a weaker (more dilute) solution, more solvent is added in a process known as. By adding more water, the moles of solute remains the same but the volume of the solution increases, making the molarity of the new solution than the molarity of the original solution. Because molarity and volume are inversely proportional, the equation for calculating the new molarity takes the same form as the (hopefully) now familiar Boyle s Law. Example: Dilution Equation: M 1 V 1 = M 2 V 2 If 0.100L of 6.00 M HCl is diluted by adding enough water make the volume 2.50 L, what is the new molarity? M 1 V 1 =M 2 V 2 (6.00 M)(0.100 L) = M 2 (2.50 L) M 2 = 0.24 M Sample problem 350ml of 8.0M HNO 3 is diluted to a new volume of 500ml. What is the new molarity? 8

9 Dissociation As you saw yesterday, when an ionic compound or an acid is dissolved in water, the solute dissociates (or ionizes) into its component ions. For example: NaCl (s) Na + + Cl -. One mole of NaCl dissolved in water will produce 1 mole of Na + ions and 1 mole of Cl - ions. However, 1 mole of K 3 PO 4 dissolved in water will produce 3 moles of K + ions and 1 mole of PO -3 4 ions. Therefore, the molarity of K +, sometimes written as [K + ], will be 3 times the molarity of K 3 PO 4. Example: What is the molarity of nitrate ion, if g of Mg(NO 3 ) 2 is dissolved in 1.00 L of solution? g of Mg(NO 3 ) 2 / g/mol = moles of Mg(NO 3 ) moles / 1.00 L = M Mg(NO 3 ) 2 However, since there are 2 NO 3 - ions in each mag. nitrate molecule, the M of nitrate ion is 2 x = M. Sample problem Calculate the molarity of ammonium ion in M ammonium phosphate. 9

10 Molality (The following material is not in the book!) Just like molarity, molality (m) is based on the number of of solute; this time in relation to the mass (in kilograms) of solvent. Molality is most often used when the solvent isn t water (and so doesn t have a density of 1.00 g/ml), or for calculating certain chemical properties called colligative properties. m = moles of solute mass (in kg) of solvent units: mol/kg m (molal) Example What is the molality of a solution made by dissolving 0.50mol of NaCl into 1000ml of water? 1000ml of water = 1000g of water 1.000kg of water m = 0.50mol / 1.00kg = 0.50m NaCl solution Sample problem 4.3g of FeCl 3 is dissolved in 2,000g of water. What is the molality of the resulting solution? Normality The final unit of concentration we will discuss is normality (N). Normality is used primarily when discussing acids and bases, which we will examine in chapter 17. Normality is defined as the number of per liter of solution. Hopefully, you are now wondering what is an equivalent? if not, the next explanation will come as a complete surprise. An equivalent is the mass (in grams) of the solute divided by the gram equivalent weight (gew) of the solute. At this point you should be wondering what the heck is the gram equivalent weight? If not, I must admit to being a bit surprised, and frankly a bit concerned! As you should recall, from 6 sentences ago, you learned that Normality is primarily used with acids and bases. So the gram equivalent weight is going to be defined in terms of H + (acid) and OH - (base) ions. The gram equivalent weight is the molar mass of the solute divided by the number of hydrogens (from H + or OH - ) in the solute. HCl hydrochloric acid 1 H + H 2 SO 4 sulfuric acid 2H + N = number of equivalents liters of solution units: equiv./l N (normal) equivalents = mass of solute gew gew = molar mass of solute number of Hydrogens 10

11 Example What is the normality of a 4.5L solution made by dissolving 1.00g of H 2 SO 4 in water? 1.) Determine the gram equivalent weight (gew) [(1.0g/mol)2]+32g/mol+[(16g/mol)4] = 98g/mol 98g/mol / 2 mol H = 49g/equiv 2.) Determine the number of equivalents 1.00g / 49g/equiv = equiv. 3.) Calculate the normality Sample problem N = equiv / 4.5L = N H 2 SO 4 Determine the normality of a solution made by dissolving 3.50g of HNO 3 in enough water to reach a total volume of 1500ml. Converting Between Molarity and Normality: M x n H = N (Molarity x moles of Hydrogen = Normality) Complete the following problems as indicated, show all work be sure to report your answers using the correct number of significant figures and the proper units. 11

12 What is the mass percent of camphor in a solution that contains 10.00g of camphor dissolved in g of toluene? (Hint: how many total grams are present?) An alloy is made by dissolving 5.31g Cu and 4.03g Zn in 145g of Fe. Calculate the mass percent of all 3 components of this alloy. What is the molarity of a solution that contains 0.250g of sodium chromate in 100.0ml of solution? How many grams of MgCl 2 are needed to prepare 300.0ml of a 0.400M solution? What is the molarity of a solution that contains 25.0ml of ethanol ( = 0.89g/ml) in 50.0ml of solution? What is the molality of the solution in problem #5 if the solvent was water? What is the molality of a solution containing 60.0mg of Ni(NO 3 ) 2 dissolved into 45.00ml of water? 12

13 1. Indicate if the following are Unsaturated, Saturated or Supersaturated: a.) A cup of tea into which you could dissolve more sugar b.) A saltwater solution that is beginning to form salt crystals at the bottom of the glass as you stir the solution c.) 100.ml of water at 40 o C that contains 20.g of dissolved KClO 3 (Hint: consult the solubility curve) Chapter 15 problem set pp #1, 9 15, 19, 25, 29, 32, 33, 43, 53 55, 57, 65, 67, 79 & 80 Colligative Properties: (Supplemental to book) A colligative property is a physical property that depends on concentration, but not the type of solute particle. Example: Vapor Pressure Raoult s Law: P = X solvent * P o P vapor pressure of the solvent in a solution P o vapor pressure of the pure solvent X solvent mole fraction of the solvent [x = n solvent / n total ] 13

14 Boiling Point Elevation and Freezing Point Depression: When you add a solute to a solvent, the vapor pressure of the solution ends up being lower than that of the pure solvent. As a result the boiling point of the solution increases and the melting point decreases. Everyday example antifreeze (ethylene glycol, C 2 H 6 O 2 ) Explain why the boiling point elevation and freezing point depression caused by adding antifreeze to your car radiator is beneficial. Formulas: T BP = k b m m molality T FP = -k f m k b molal boiling point elevation constant k f molal freezing point depression constant 14

15 Solution Stoichiometry Once again, the concept of stoichiometry has made its way into the study of chemistry (and it will at least one more time this year). The steps are basically the same as they were in chapters 10 and 13: 1. the chemical equation 2. Convert information about the given substances (molarity, volume) into. 3. Moles given x mole ratio =. 4. Convert the moles target back into the units required by the problem (grams, M, liters) 5. Overall: info given moles given x mole ratio moles target unit required Most reactions are done in solution, not with dry crystals. We need a different first step to find out how many moles of starting material there are: Example: How many grams of NaCl would be needed to precipitate out all the Ag + in mls of 0.100M AgNO 3? Chemical equation: NaCl (aq) + AgNO 3 (aq) AgCl (ppt) + NaNO 3 (aq) M x V = moles, so M x L = moles of AgNO 3 (= moles of Ag + ). Use mole ratio: 1 NaCl used : 1 AgNO 3 used. Therefore moles of NaCl are used also moles NaCl x 58.5 g/mol = 2.92 g of NaCl. Equation: (M given x V given ) x mole ratio x molar mass target = grams target. Practice problem: Vinegar is a 0.85M solution of acetic acid in water. How many grams of baking soda, sodium bicarbonate, would be needed to neutralize 50.0 mls of vinegar? 3.57 g HC 2 H 3 O 2 + NaHCO 3 CO 2 + H 2 O + NaC 2 H 3 O 2 How about a reaction where both the material given & the material sought are solutions? Now, we would also need to change the 3 rd step in our stoichiometry equation. Example: How many mls of M Ba(NO 3 ) 2 solution are needed to exactly react with 35.0 mls of M K 2 CrO 4 solution? K 2 CrO 4 is the given, and Ba(NO 3 ) 2 the target. Chemical equation: Ba(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + K 2 CrO 4 (aq) BaCrO 4 (ppt) + 2KNO 3 (aq) (0.360 M x L) x (1/1) x (1 / M) = L (or 50.4 mls of Ba(NO 3 ) 2 solution) for 1:1 mole ratio reactions, M 1 V 1 = M 2 V 2 for non 1:1 mole ratio reactions, M 1 V 1 (mole ratio) = M 2 V 2 Equation: (M given x V given ) x mole ratio x (1/M target ) = V target Practice problem: How many mls of M NaOH solution will exactly react with mls of M HCl solution? mls. 15

16 A limiting reactant problem: Example: 50 mls of 0.250M Na 2 SO 4 solution is mixed with 35 mls of M SrCl 2 solution. What is the maximum mass of SrSO 4 precipitate that you can make? Chemical equation: Na 2 SO 4 (aq) + SrCl 2 (aq) SrSO 4 (ppt) + 2NaCl (aq) As always for a limiting reactant problem, we do stoichiometry twice, starting with both reactants and ending with the precipitate, and keep the smaller amount of product: (0.250 M x 0.050L) x 1/1 x (184 g/mol) = 2.30 g of SrSO 4 (0.450 M x 0.035L) x 1/1 x (184 g/mol) = 2.90 g of SrSO 4 Practice problem: How much lead(ii) sulfate is precipitated when 125 mls of M lead(ii) nitrate reacts with 200. mls of M sodium sulfate? 1.52 grams of PbSO 4 Pb(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + Na 2 SO 4 (aq) 2 NaNO 3 (aq) + PbSO 4 (ppt) 331 g/mol 142 g/mol 85 g/mol 303 g/mol 16

Chapter 14 Solutions

Chapter 14 Solutions Chapter 14 Solutions 1 14.1 General properties of solutions solution a system in which one or more substances are homogeneously mixed or dissolved in another substance two components in a solution: solute

More information

SOLUBILITY CURVES WORKSHEET

SOLUBILITY CURVES WORKSHEET SOLUBILITY CURVES WORKSHEET 1.) Which compound is least soluble at 20 o C? At 80 o C? 2.) Which substance is the most soluble at 10 o C? At 50 o C? At 90 o C? 3.) The solubility of which substance is most

More information

Chapter 4: Solution Stoichiometry Cont. Aqueous Solutions

Chapter 4: Solution Stoichiometry Cont. Aqueous Solutions Chapter 4: Solution Stoichiometry Cont. 1 Aqueous Solutions Molarity (dilution calculations, solution stoichiometry); Solubility and Solubility Rules Molecular, Ionic and Net Ionic Equations Precipitation

More information

0.279 M Change g to mol: g/mol = mol Molarity = mol L = mol 0.325L = M

0.279 M Change g to mol: g/mol = mol Molarity = mol L = mol 0.325L = M 118 ChemQuest 39 Name: Date: Hour: Information: Molarity Concentration is a term that describes the amount of solute that is dissolved in a solution. Concentrated solutions contain a lot of dissolved solute,

More information

Honors Unit 10 Notes Solutions

Honors Unit 10 Notes Solutions Name: Honors Unit 10 Notes Solutions [Chapter 10] Objectives: 1. Students will be able to calculate solution concentration using molarity, molality, and mass percent. 2. Students will be able to interpret

More information

Chemistry 51 Chapter 8 TYPES OF SOLUTIONS. A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two substances: a solute and a solvent.

Chemistry 51 Chapter 8 TYPES OF SOLUTIONS. A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two substances: a solute and a solvent. TYPES OF SOLUTIONS A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two substances: a solute and a solvent. Solute: substance being dissolved; present in lesser amount. Solvent: substance doing the dissolving; present

More information

Solutions CHAPTER Specific answers depend on student choices.

Solutions CHAPTER Specific answers depend on student choices. CHAPTER 15 1. Specific answers depend on student choices.. A heterogeneous mixture does not have a uniform composition: the composition varies in different places within the mixture. Examples of non homogeneous

More information

Tutorial 4 SOLUTION STOICHIOMETRY. Solution stoichiometry calculations involve chemical reactions taking place in solution.

Tutorial 4 SOLUTION STOICHIOMETRY. Solution stoichiometry calculations involve chemical reactions taking place in solution. T-27 Tutorial 4 SOLUTION STOICHIOMETRY Solution stoichiometry calculations involve chemical reactions taking place in solution. Of the various methods of expressing solution concentration the most convenient

More information

The component present in larger proportion is known as solvent.

The component present in larger proportion is known as solvent. 40 Engineering Chemistry and Environmental Studies 2 SOLUTIONS 2. DEFINITION OF SOLUTION, SOLVENT AND SOLUTE When a small amount of sugar (solute) is mixed with water, sugar uniformally dissolves in water

More information

Name Date Class. SECTION 16.1 PROPERTIES OF SOLUTIONS (pages 471 477)

Name Date Class. SECTION 16.1 PROPERTIES OF SOLUTIONS (pages 471 477) 16 SOLUTIONS SECTION 16.1 PROPERTIES OF SOLUTIONS (pages 471 477) This section identifies the factors that affect the solubility of a substance and determine the rate at which a solute dissolves. Solution

More information

Chapter 14 Solutes and Solvents

Chapter 14 Solutes and Solvents Chapter 14 Solutes and Solvents A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances. The relative abundance of the substances in a solution determines which is the solute and which is the solvent.

More information

CHM1 Review for Exam 9

CHM1 Review for Exam 9 Topics 1. Reaction Types a. Combustion b. Synthesis c. Decomposition d. Single replacement i. Metal activity series ii. Nonmetal activity series e. Double replacement i. Precipitates and solubility rules

More information

Chapter 14. Mixtures

Chapter 14. Mixtures Chapter 14 Mixtures Warm Up What is the difference between a heterogeneous and homogeneous mixture? Give 1 example of a heterogeneous mixture and 1 example of a homogeneous mixture. Today s Agenda QOTD:

More information

TOPIC 10. CHEMICAL CALCULATIONS IV - solution stoichiometry.

TOPIC 10. CHEMICAL CALCULATIONS IV - solution stoichiometry. TOPIC 10. CHEMICAL CALCULATIONS IV - solution stoichiometry. Calculations involving solutions. Frequently reactions occur between species which are present in solution. One type of chemical analysis called

More information

Chapter 7, Reactions and Solutions

Chapter 7, Reactions and Solutions 1. Classify the following reaction as precipitation, acid-base or oxidation-reduction: Ce4+(aq) + Fe2+(aq) Ce3+(aq) + Fe3+(aq) Ans. oxidation-reduction 2. Classify the following reaction as precipitation,

More information

Lecture 6: Lec4a Chemical Reactions in solutions

Lecture 6: Lec4a Chemical Reactions in solutions Lecture 6: Lec4a Chemical Reactions in solutions Zumdahl 6 th Ed, Chapter 4 Sections 1-6. 4.1 Water, the Common Solvent 4.2 The Nature of Aqueous Solutions: Strong and Weak Electrolytes 4.3 The Composition

More information

1. Balance the following equation. What is the sum of the coefficients of the reactants and products?

1. Balance the following equation. What is the sum of the coefficients of the reactants and products? 1. Balance the following equation. What is the sum of the coefficients of the reactants and products? 1 Fe 2 O 3 (s) + _3 C(s) 2 Fe(s) + _3 CO(g) a) 5 b) 6 c) 7 d) 8 e) 9 2. Which of the following equations

More information

SCH 3UI Unit 9 Outline: Solutions, Acids and Bases

SCH 3UI Unit 9 Outline: Solutions, Acids and Bases SCH 3UI Unit 9 Outline: Solutions, Acids and Bases Lesson Topics Covered Homework Questions and Assignments 1 Note: Introduction to Solutions review of the organization of matter define: solution, solute,

More information

QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS

QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS Objectives: 1. To perform spot test precipitation reactions. 2. To write and balance precipitation reaction equations. 3. To learn how to balance equations. 4. To learn the solubility

More information

Chapter 4 Notes - Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Chemistry

Chapter 4 Notes - Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Chemistry AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 4 Notes - Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Chemistry 4.1 Water, the Common Solvent A. Structure of water 1. Oxygen's electronegativity is high (3.5) and hydrogen's

More information

Colligative Properties: Freezing Point Depression and Molecular Weight

Colligative Properties: Freezing Point Depression and Molecular Weight Purpose: Colligative Properties: Freezing Point Depression and Molecular Weight The first purpose of this lab is to experimentally determine the van't Hoff (i) factor for two different substances, sucrose

More information

A) HCl C) 52 g KCl in 100 g water at 80ºC A) temperature of the solution increases B) supersaturated D) low temperature and high pressure D) KClO3

A) HCl C) 52 g KCl in 100 g water at 80ºC A) temperature of the solution increases B) supersaturated D) low temperature and high pressure D) KClO3 1. Which compound becomes less soluble in water as the temperature of the solution is increased? A) HCl B) 2. The solubility of O3(s) in water increases as the A) temperature of the solution increases

More information

1. Read P. 368-375, P. 382-387 & P. 429-436; P. 375 # 1-11 & P. 389 # 1,7,9,12,15; P. 436 #1, 7, 8, 11

1. Read P. 368-375, P. 382-387 & P. 429-436; P. 375 # 1-11 & P. 389 # 1,7,9,12,15; P. 436 #1, 7, 8, 11 SCH3U- R.H.KING ACADEMY SOLUTION & ACID/BASE WORKSHEET Name: The importance of water - MAKING CONNECTION READING 1. Read P. 368-375, P. 382-387 & P. 429-436; P. 375 # 1-11 & P. 389 # 1,7,9,12,15; P. 436

More information

Chapter 12: Solutions

Chapter 12: Solutions Chapter 12: Solutions Problems: 3, 5, 8, 12, 14, 16, 22, 29, 32, 41-58, 61-68, 71-74 solution: homogeneous mixture of a solute dissolved in a solvent solute: solvent: component present in smaller amount

More information

Laboratory 6: Double Displacement Reactions

Laboratory 6: Double Displacement Reactions Introduction Double displacement reactions are among the most common of the simple chemical reactions to study and understand. We will explore the driving forces behind the chemical reactions, and use

More information

Solutions Review Questions

Solutions Review Questions Name: Thursday, March 06, 2008 Solutions Review Questions 1. Compared to pure water, an aqueous solution of calcium chloride has a 1. higher boiling point and higher freezing point 3. lower boiling point

More information

Experiment 9 - Double Displacement Reactions

Experiment 9 - Double Displacement Reactions Experiment 9 - Double Displacement Reactions A double displacement reaction involves two ionic compounds that are dissolved in water. In a double displacement reaction, it appears as though the ions are

More information

Solution a homogeneous mixture = A solvent + solute(s) Aqueous solution water is the solvent

Solution a homogeneous mixture = A solvent + solute(s) Aqueous solution water is the solvent Solution a homogeneous mixture = A solvent + solute(s) Aqueous solution water is the solvent Water a polar solvent: dissolves most ionic compounds as well as many molecular compounds Aqueous solution:

More information

Experiment 8 - Double Displacement Reactions

Experiment 8 - Double Displacement Reactions Experiment 8 - Double Displacement Reactions A double displacement reaction involves two ionic compounds that are dissolved in water. In a double displacement reaction, it appears as though the ions are

More information

Sample Exercise 13.1 Predicting Solubility Patterns

Sample Exercise 13.1 Predicting Solubility Patterns Sample Exercise 13.1 Predicting Solubility Patterns Predict whether each of the following substances is more likely to dissolve in the nonpolar solvent carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) or in water: C 7 H

More information

ATOMS. Multiple Choice Questions

ATOMS. Multiple Choice Questions Chapter 3 ATOMS AND MOLECULES Multiple Choice Questions 1. Which of the following correctly represents 360 g of water? (i) 2 moles of H 2 0 (ii) 20 moles of water (iii) 6.022 10 23 molecules of water (iv)

More information

STOICHIOMETRY STOICHIOMETRY. Measurements in Chemical Reactions. Mole-Mole Relationships. Mass-Mass Problem. Mole-Mole Relationships

STOICHIOMETRY STOICHIOMETRY. Measurements in Chemical Reactions. Mole-Mole Relationships. Mass-Mass Problem. Mole-Mole Relationships STOICHIOMETRY STOICHIOMETRY The analysis of the quantities of substances in a chemical reaction. Stoichiometric calculations depend on the MOLE- MOLE relationships of substances. Measurements in Chemical

More information

From the book (10, 12, 16, 18, 22, 24 52, 54, 56, 58, 62, 64, 66, 68, 74, 76, 78, 80, 82, 86, 88, 90, 92, 106 and 116)

From the book (10, 12, 16, 18, 22, 24 52, 54, 56, 58, 62, 64, 66, 68, 74, 76, 78, 80, 82, 86, 88, 90, 92, 106 and 116) Chem 112 Solutions From the book (10, 12, 16, 18, 22, 24 52, 54, 56, 58, 62, 64, 66, 68, 74, 76, 78, 80, 82, 86, 88, 90, 92, 106 and 116) 1. Which of the following compounds are nonelectrolytes? A. NaF

More information

Chapter 14 The Chemistry of Solutes and Solutions. Solute-Solvent Interactions. Solute-Solvent Interactions. Solute-Solvent Interactions

Chapter 14 The Chemistry of Solutes and Solutions. Solute-Solvent Interactions. Solute-Solvent Interactions. Solute-Solvent Interactions John W. Moore Conrad L. Stanitski Peter C. Jurs Solubility & Intermolecular Forces Solution = homogeneous mixture of substances. It consists of: http://academic.cengage.com/chemistry/moore solvent - component

More information

6/27/2014. Periodic Table of the ELEMENTS. Chemical REACTIONS you should know. Brief Review for 1311 Honors Exam 2

6/27/2014. Periodic Table of the ELEMENTS. Chemical REACTIONS you should know. Brief Review for 1311 Honors Exam 2 Brief Review for 3 Honors Exam 2 Chapter 2: Periodic Table I. Metals. Representative Metals Alkali Metals Group Alkaline Earth Metals. Group 2 2. Transition Metals II. Metalloids Chapter 3: All Chapter

More information

Net Ionic Equations Making Sense of Chemical Reactions

Net Ionic Equations Making Sense of Chemical Reactions 14 Making Sense of Chemical Reactions OBJECTIVE Students will be able to write net ionic equations from balanced molecular equations. LEVEL Chemistry NATIONAL STANDARDS UCP.1, UCP.2, B.3 T E A C H E R

More information

Freezing Point Depression: Why Don t Oceans Freeze? Teacher Advanced Version

Freezing Point Depression: Why Don t Oceans Freeze? Teacher Advanced Version Freezing Point Depression: Why Don t Oceans Freeze? Teacher Advanced Version Freezing point depression describes the process where the temperature at which a liquid freezes is lowered by adding another

More information

Aqueous Solutions. Water is the dissolving medium, or solvent. Some Properties of Water. A Solute. Types of Chemical Reactions.

Aqueous Solutions. Water is the dissolving medium, or solvent. Some Properties of Water. A Solute. Types of Chemical Reactions. Aqueous Solutions and Solution Stoichiometry Water is the dissolving medium, or solvent. Some Properties of Water Water is bent or V-shaped. The O-H bonds are covalent. Water is a polar molecule. Hydration

More information

Solutions. How Solutions Form

Solutions. How Solutions Form Solutions How Solutions Form Solvent substance doing the dissolving, present in greater amount Definitions Solution - homogeneous mixture Solute substance being dissolved Definitions Solute - KMnO 4 Solvent

More information

Reactions in Aqueous Solutions

Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Chem 101 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Lectures 15 and 16 Predicting Whether a Reaction Will Occur Forces that drive a reaction Formation of a solid Formation of water Transfer of electrons Formation

More information

1. When the following equation is balanced, the coefficient of Al is. Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) 3 (s) + H 2 (g)

1. When the following equation is balanced, the coefficient of Al is. Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) 3 (s) + H 2 (g) 1. When the following equation is balanced, the coefficient of Al is. Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) (s) + H 2 (g) A) 1 B) 2 C) 4 D) 5 E) Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) (s) + H 2 (g) Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH)

More information

Chemistry. Zumdahl, 7th edition

Chemistry. Zumdahl, 7th edition Chemistry Zumdahl, 7th edition CH4 Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry Yellow lead(ii) iodide is produced when lead(ii) nitrate is mixed with potassium iodide. P.126 Contents 4.1 Water,

More information

Solubility Rules and Net Ionic Equations

Solubility Rules and Net Ionic Equations Solubility Rules and Net Ionic Equations Why? Solubility of a salt depends upon the type of ions in the salt. Some salts are soluble in water and others are not. When two soluble salts are mixed together

More information

Chemical Reactions Chapter 8 Assignment & Problem Set

Chemical Reactions Chapter 8 Assignment & Problem Set Chemical Reactions Name Warm-Ups (Show your work for credit) Date 1. Date 2. Date 3. Date 4. Date 5. Date 6. Date 7. Date 8. Chemical Reactions 2 Study Guide: Things You Must Know Vocabulary (know the

More information

EXPERIMENT #12 DOUBLE-REPLACEMENT REACTIONS

EXPERIMENT #12 DOUBLE-REPLACEMENT REACTIONS EXPERIMENT #12 DOUBLE-REPLACEMENT REACTIONS Purpose: 1. To study the most common type of double-replacement reactions. Principles: In double-replacement reactions, two compounds are involved in a reaction,

More information

Calculations involving concentrations, stoichiometry

Calculations involving concentrations, stoichiometry Calculations involving concentrations, stoichiometry MUDr. Jan Pláteník, PhD Mole Unit of amount of substance the amount of substance containing as many particles (atoms, ions, molecules, etc.) as present

More information

6 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions

6 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions 6 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Water is by far the most common medium in which chemical reactions occur naturally. It is not hard to see this: 70% of our body mass is water and about 70% of the surface

More information

Mole - Mass Relationships in Chemical Systems

Mole - Mass Relationships in Chemical Systems Chapter 3: Stoichiometry Mole - Mass Relationships in Chemical Systems 3.1 The Mole 3.2 Determining the Formula of an Unknown Compound 3.3 Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations 3.4 Calculating the Amounts

More information

Types of Solutions. Chapter 17 Properties of Solutions. Types of Solutions. Types of Solutions. Types of Solutions. Types of Solutions

Types of Solutions. Chapter 17 Properties of Solutions. Types of Solutions. Types of Solutions. Types of Solutions. Types of Solutions Big Idea: Liquids will mix together if both liquids are polar or both are nonpolar. The presence of a solute changes the physical properties of the system. For nonvolatile solutes the vapor pressure, boiling

More information

CHEMICAL DETERMINATION OF EVERYDAY HOUSEHOLD CHEMICALS

CHEMICAL DETERMINATION OF EVERYDAY HOUSEHOLD CHEMICALS CHEMICAL DETERMINATION OF EVERYDAY HOUSEHOLD CHEMICALS Cautions: You will be using dangerous, caustic (corrosive) chemicals in this lab, so it is important that you are very careful with them. Wear gloves

More information

Solutions and Their Concentrations

Solutions and Their Concentrations Chapter 8 Solutions and Their Concentrations Solutions for Practice Problems Section 8.3 Student Tetbook page 305 1. Problem What is the concentration in percent (m/v) of each solution? (a) 14.2 g of potassium

More information

CHEMICAL REACTIONS. When sodium bicarbonate, e.g. baking soda, is combined with an acid, a gas is produced

CHEMICAL REACTIONS. When sodium bicarbonate, e.g. baking soda, is combined with an acid, a gas is produced CHEMICAL REACTIONS OBJECTIVES 1. To study reactions between ions in aqueous solutions 2. To observe exothermic and endothermic reactions 3. To study oxidation-reduction reactions 4. To practice balancing

More information

Solutions & Colloids

Solutions & Colloids Chemistry 100 Bettelheim, Brown, Campbell & Farrell Ninth Edition Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry Chapter 6 Solutions & Colloids Solutions Components of a Solution Solvent: The substance

More information

Two Ways to Form Solutions. Role of Disorder in Solutions 2/27/2012. Types of Reactions

Two Ways to Form Solutions. Role of Disorder in Solutions 2/27/2012. Types of Reactions Role of Disorder in Solutions Disorder (Entropy) is a factor Solutions mix to form maximum disorder Two Ways to Form Solutions 1. Physical Dissolving (Solvation) NaCl(s) Na + (aq) + Cl - (aq) C 12 H 22

More information

Calculation of Molar Masses. Molar Mass. Solutions. Solutions

Calculation of Molar Masses. Molar Mass. Solutions. Solutions Molar Mass Molar mass = Mass in grams of one mole of any element, numerically equal to its atomic weight Molar mass of molecules can be determined from the chemical formula and molar masses of elements

More information

Factors that Affect the Rate of Dissolving and Solubility

Factors that Affect the Rate of Dissolving and Solubility Dissolving Factors that Affect the Rate of Dissolving and Solubility One very important property of a solution is the rate of, or how quickly a solute dissolves in a solvent. When dissolving occurs, there

More information

SINGLE AND DOUBLE REPLACEMENT REACTIONS EXPERIMENT 10

SINGLE AND DOUBLE REPLACEMENT REACTIONS EXPERIMENT 10 SINGLE AND DOUBLE REPLACEMENT REACTIONS EXPERIMENT 10 OBJECTIVE The objective of this experiment is to observe double and single replacement reactions and to predict the activity of metals using experimental

More information

Buffer Solutions. Buffer Solutions

Buffer Solutions. Buffer Solutions Chapter 18 Common Ion Effect Buffers and Titration Curves A/B Titrations Salts and Solubility Product The Common Ion Effect and If a solution is made in which the same ion is produced by two different

More information

Chapter 3. Stoichiometry of Formulas and Equations

Chapter 3. Stoichiometry of Formulas and Equations Chapter 3 Stoichiometry of Formulas and Equations Chapter 3 Outline: Mole - Mass Relationships in Chemical Systems 3.1 The Mole 3.2 Determining the Formula of an Unknown Compound 3.3 Writing and Balancing

More information

Aqueous Ions and Reactions

Aqueous Ions and Reactions Aqueous Ions and Reactions (ions, acids, and bases) Demo NaCl(aq) + AgNO 3 (aq) AgCl (s) Two clear and colorless solutions turn to a cloudy white when mixed Demo Special Light bulb in water can test for

More information

CHEMISTRY II FINAL EXAM REVIEW

CHEMISTRY II FINAL EXAM REVIEW Name Period CHEMISTRY II FINAL EXAM REVIEW Final Exam: approximately 75 multiple choice questions Ch 12: Stoichiometry Ch 5 & 6: Electron Configurations & Periodic Properties Ch 7 & 8: Bonding Ch 14: Gas

More information

IONIC REACTIONS in AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS: NET IONIC EQUATIONS AB + CD AD + CB

IONIC REACTIONS in AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS: NET IONIC EQUATIONS AB + CD AD + CB 35 IONIC REACTIONS in AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS: NET IONIC EQUATIONS Double replacements are among the most common of the simple chemical reactions. Consider the hypothetical reaction: AB + CD AD + CB where AB

More information

Intermolecular forces, acids, bases, electrolytes, net ionic equations, solubility, and molarity of Ions in solution:

Intermolecular forces, acids, bases, electrolytes, net ionic equations, solubility, and molarity of Ions in solution: Intermolecular forces, acids, bases, electrolytes, net ionic equations, solubility, and molarity of Ions in solution: 1. What are the different types of Intermolecular forces? Define the following terms:

More information

Problems you need to KNOW to be successful in the upcoming AP Chemistry exam.

Problems you need to KNOW to be successful in the upcoming AP Chemistry exam. Problems you need to KNOW to be successful in the upcoming AP Chemistry exam. Problem 1 The formula and the molecular weight of an unknown hydrocarbon compound are to be determined by elemental analysis

More information

Solute and Solvent 7.1. Solutions. Examples of Solutions. Nature of Solutes in Solutions. Learning Check. Solution. Solutions

Solute and Solvent 7.1. Solutions. Examples of Solutions. Nature of Solutes in Solutions. Learning Check. Solution. Solutions Chapter 7 s 7.1 s Solute and Solvent s are homogeneous mixtures of two or more substances. consist of a solvent and one or more solutes. 1 2 Nature of Solutes in s Examples of s Solutes spread evenly throughout

More information

Stoichiometry Review

Stoichiometry Review Stoichiometry Review There are 20 problems in this review set. Answers, including problem set-up, can be found in the second half of this document. 1. N 2 (g) + 3H 2 (g) --------> 2NH 3 (g) a. nitrogen

More information

SOLUTIONS EXPERIMENT 13

SOLUTIONS EXPERIMENT 13 SOLUTIONS EXPERIMENT 13 OBJECTIVE The objective of this experiment is to demonstrate the concepts of concentrations of solutions and the properties of solution. Colloids will be demonstrated. EQUIPMENT

More information

Unit 10A Stoichiometry Notes

Unit 10A Stoichiometry Notes Unit 10A Stoichiometry Notes Stoichiometry is a big word for a process that chemist s use to calculate amounts in reactions. It makes use of the coefficient ratio set up by balanced reaction equations

More information

Chapter 13: Properties of Solutions

Chapter 13: Properties of Solutions Chapter 13: Properties of Solutions Problems: 9-10, 13-17, 21-42, 44, 49-60, 71-72, 73 (a,c), 77-79, 84(a-c), 91 solution: homogeneous mixture of a solute dissolved in a solvent solute: solvent: component(s)

More information

3. How many moles of KCl and O 2 are formed from the decomposition of 6 moles of KClO 3?

3. How many moles of KCl and O 2 are formed from the decomposition of 6 moles of KClO 3? What coefficients mean: 2 Na + Cl 2 2NaCl 2 Na 1 Cl 2 2NaCl 4 Na 2 Na + Cl 2 4Cl 2 6 moles Na 2NaCl 10 atoms Na ONLY WORKS FOR MOLES, MOLECULES, ATOMS 1. How many moles of H 2 and O 2 must react to form

More information

Chemistry 12 Review Sheet on Unit 3 Solubility of Ionic Substances

Chemistry 12 Review Sheet on Unit 3 Solubility of Ionic Substances Chemistry 12 Review Sheet on Unit 3 Solubility of Ionic Substances 1. Identify each of the following as ionic or molecular substances: a) NaCl (aq)... b) CH 3 COOH (aq)... c) CCl 4(l)... d) HNO 3(aq)...

More information

SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, "Chemistry 11", McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001

SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, Chemistry 11, McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001 SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, "Chemistry 11", McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001 1. A small pin contains 0.0178 mol of iron. How many atoms of iron are in the pin? 2. A sample

More information

Lab 9. Colligative Properties an Online Lab Activity

Lab 9. Colligative Properties an Online Lab Activity Prelab Assignment Before coming to lab: Lab 9. Colligative Properties an Online Lab Activity Chemistry 162 - K. Marr Revised Winter 2014 This lab exercise does not require a report in your lab notebook.

More information

Molarity of Ions in Solution

Molarity of Ions in Solution APPENDIX A Molarity of Ions in Solution ften it is necessary to calculate not only the concentration (in molarity) of a compound in aqueous solution but also the concentration of each ion in aqueous solution.

More information

CHAPTER 4. AQUEOUS REACTION CHEMISTRY

CHAPTER 4. AQUEOUS REACTION CHEMISTRY CAPTER. AQUEOUS REACTION CEMISTRY solution - homogeneous mixture of or more substances; uniform distribution of particles and same properties throughout. A solution is composed of a solute dissolved in

More information

CHEMICAL REACTIONS. Chemistry 51 Chapter 6

CHEMICAL REACTIONS. Chemistry 51 Chapter 6 CHEMICAL REACTIONS A chemical reaction is a rearrangement of atoms in which some of the original bonds are broken and new bonds are formed to give different chemical structures. In a chemical reaction,

More information

General Chemistry II Chapter 20

General Chemistry II Chapter 20 1 General Chemistry II Chapter 0 Ionic Equilibria: Principle There are many compounds that appear to be insoluble in aqueous solution (nonelectrolytes). That is, when we add a certain compound to water

More information

9. The molar mass of hydrazine is 32 g/mol and its empirical formula is NH 2. What is its molecular formula?

9. The molar mass of hydrazine is 32 g/mol and its empirical formula is NH 2. What is its molecular formula? Dr. Rogers Solutions Homework 1. Give the name for the following compounds and state whether they are ionic or not A. Ba(NO 3 ) 2 B. NaH C. PCl 5 D. CO E. NH 4 OH F. Ca(MnO 4 ) 2 G. N 2 O 4 H. NaHSO 4

More information

CHEM 101/105 Aqueous Solution Chemistry Lect-06

CHEM 101/105 Aqueous Solution Chemistry Lect-06 CHEM 101/105 Aqueous Solution Chemistry Lect-06 Ionic solutes are involved in three types of reactions in aqueous solutions: precipitation reactions - sparingly soluble ionic substances produced when two

More information

4. Aluminum chloride is 20.2% aluminum by mass. Calculate the mass of aluminum in a 35.0 gram sample of aluminum chloride.

4. Aluminum chloride is 20.2% aluminum by mass. Calculate the mass of aluminum in a 35.0 gram sample of aluminum chloride. 1. Calculate the molecular mass of table sugar sucrose (C 12 H 22 O 11 ). A. 342.30 amu C. 320.05 amu B. 160.03 amu D. 171.15 amu 2. How many oxygen atoms are in 34.5 g of NaNO 3? A. 2.34 10 23 atoms C.

More information

CHEMICAL DETERMINATION OF EVERYDAY HOUSEHOLD CHEMICALS

CHEMICAL DETERMINATION OF EVERYDAY HOUSEHOLD CHEMICALS CHEMICAL DETERMINATION OF EVERYDAY HOUSEHOLD CHEMICALS Purpose: It is important for chemists to be able to determine the composition of unknown chemicals. This can often be done by way of chemical tests.

More information

Chapter 3 Molecules, Moles, and Chemical Equations. Chapter Objectives. Warning!! Chapter Objectives. Chapter Objectives

Chapter 3 Molecules, Moles, and Chemical Equations. Chapter Objectives. Warning!! Chapter Objectives. Chapter Objectives Larry Brown Tom Holme www.cengage.com/chemistry/brown Chapter 3 Molecules, Moles, and Chemical Equations Jacqueline Bennett SUNY Oneonta 2 Warning!! These slides contains visual aids for learning BUT they

More information

1. Define molarity of a solution. Be specific with solute, solvent or solution in the definition.

1. Define molarity of a solution. Be specific with solute, solvent or solution in the definition. Chem 115L Moles, Molarity, Dilution and Stoichiometry Name Two of the topics from Chem 110 that you must be able to use in Chem 115 are stoichiometry and solution concentrations/dilutions. The concentration

More information

Chapter 13: Solutions

Chapter 13: Solutions Ch 13 Page 1 Chapter 13: Solutions SOLUTION: A homogeneousmixture of two or more substances Composition can vary from one sample to another Appears to be one substance, though really contains multiple

More information

Molarity is used to convert between moles of substance and liters of solution.

Molarity is used to convert between moles of substance and liters of solution. Appendix C Molarity C.1 MOLARITY AND THE MOLE The molar mass is the mass of a mole of a pure substance while the molarity, M, is the number of moles of a pure substance contained in a liter of a solution.

More information

Liquid phase. Balance equation Moles A Stoic. coefficient. Aqueous phase

Liquid phase. Balance equation Moles A Stoic. coefficient. Aqueous phase STOICHIOMETRY Objective The purpose of this exercise is to give you some practice on some Stoichiometry calculations. Discussion The molecular mass of a compound is the sum of the atomic masses of all

More information

REVIEW QUESTIONS Chapter 8

REVIEW QUESTIONS Chapter 8 Chemistry 51 ANSWER KEY REVIEW QUESTIONS Chapter 8 1. Identify each of the diagrams below as strong electrolyte, weak electrolyte or non-electrolyte: (a) Non-electrolyte (no ions present) (b) Weak electrolyte

More information

ionic substances (separate) based on! Liquid Mixtures miscible two liquids that and form a immiscible two liquids that form a e.g.

ionic substances (separate) based on! Liquid Mixtures miscible two liquids that and form a immiscible two liquids that form a e.g. Unit 7 Solutions, Acids & Bases Solution mixture + solvent - substance present in the amount solute - in the solvent solvent molecules solute particles ionic substances (separate) based on! Liquid Mixtures

More information

Chapter 4: Phenomena. Electrolytes. Electrolytes. Molarity & Dilutions. Electrolytes. Chapter 4 Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry

Chapter 4: Phenomena. Electrolytes. Electrolytes. Molarity & Dilutions. Electrolytes. Chapter 4 Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry Chapter 4: Phenomena Phenomena: Many different reactions are known to occur. Scientists wondered if these reaction could be separated into groups based on their properties. Look at the reactions below

More information

Chapter 13. Properties of Solutions

Chapter 13. Properties of Solutions Sample Exercise 13.1 (p. 534) By the process illustrated below, water vapor reacts with excess solid sodium sulfate to form the hydrated form of the salt. The chemical reaction is Na 2 SO 4(s) + 10 H 2

More information

Section B: Some Essential Background Chemistry

Section B: Some Essential Background Chemistry Section B: Some Essential Background Chemistry Soluble and insoluble salts The importance of knowing whether a salt is soluble or insoluble in water You will remember that acids react with carbonates to

More information

Chemistry 101 Chapter 4 SOLUTIONS

Chemistry 101 Chapter 4 SOLUTIONS SOLUTIONS Solutions are homogeneous mixture of two or more substances: (solute/s) dispersed throughout another substance (solvent) SOLUTION = SOLUTE(S) + SOLVENT (homogeneous mixture) substance being substance

More information

Sample Test 1 SAMPLE TEST 1. CHAPTER 12

Sample Test 1 SAMPLE TEST 1. CHAPTER 12 13 Sample Test 1 SAMPLE TEST 1. CHAPTER 12 1. The molality of a solution is defined as a. moles of solute per liter of solution. b. grams of solute per liter of solution. c. moles of solute per kilogram

More information

Colligative Properties

Colligative Properties Colligative Properties Say Thanks to the Authors Click http://www.ck12.org/saythanks (No sign in required) To access a customizable version of this book, as well as other interactive content, visit www.ck12.org

More information

Unit 2: Quantities in Chemistry

Unit 2: Quantities in Chemistry Mass, Moles, & Molar Mass Relative quantities of isotopes in a natural occurring element (%) E.g. Carbon has 2 isotopes C-12 and C-13. Of Carbon s two isotopes, there is 98.9% C-12 and 11.1% C-13. Find

More information

Other Stoich Calculations A. mole mass (mass mole) calculations. GIVEN mol A x CE mol B. PT g A CE mol A MOLE MASS :

Other Stoich Calculations A. mole mass (mass mole) calculations. GIVEN mol A x CE mol B. PT g A CE mol A MOLE MASS : Chem. I Notes Ch. 12, part 2 Using Moles NOTE: Vocabulary terms are in boldface and underlined. Supporting details are in italics. 1 MOLE = 6.02 x 10 23 representative particles (representative particles

More information

Chemistry B11 Chapter 6 Solutions and Colloids

Chemistry B11 Chapter 6 Solutions and Colloids Chemistry B11 Chapter 6 Solutions and Colloids Solutions: solutions have some properties: 1. The distribution of particles in a solution is uniform. Every part of the solution has exactly the same composition

More information

AN INVESTIGATION OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS II PART I: RELATIVE REACTIVITIES PRE-LAB QUERIES

AN INVESTIGATION OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS II PART I: RELATIVE REACTIVITIES PRE-LAB QUERIES NAME PARTNER(S) SECTION DATE AN INVESTIGATION OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS II This activity explores the reactivity of a number of metals using single replacement reactions and investigates the role of solubility

More information

MOLARITY = (moles solute) / (vol.solution in liter units)

MOLARITY = (moles solute) / (vol.solution in liter units) CHEM 101/105 Stoichiometry, as applied to Aqueous Solutions containing Ionic Solutes Lect-05 MOLES - a quantity of substance. Quantities of substances can be expressed as masses, as numbers, or as moles.

More information