Experiment 5. Chemical Reactions A + X AX AX A + X A + BX AX + B AZ + BX AX + BZ

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Experiment 5. Chemical Reactions A + X AX AX A + X A + BX AX + B AZ + BX AX + BZ"

Transcription

1 Experiment 5 Chemical Reactions OBJECTIVES 1. To observe the various criteria that are used to indicate that a chemical reaction has occurred. 2. To convert word equations into balanced inorganic chemical reactions. 3. To study four of the major types of inorganic chemical reactions. INTRODUCTION Although there are a large number or inorganic chemical reactions, most of these can be classified as one of four types. The first of these is the formation of a single compound from two or more pure substances (elements or compounds). This is classified as a combination reaction and can be represented as the following chemical equation. A + X AX The second type of reaction can be viewed as the reverse of the first type and is classified as a decomposition reaction. In this reaction, represented below, a single compound decomposes into two or more pure substances. This usually requires the application of heat. AX A + X The third type of reaction is termed a single replacement reaction. In this reaction, represented below, an element replaces one of the elements in a compound. This reaction will occur if the element that is replaced is lower in the activity series. A + BX AX + B The fourth type of reaction is termed a double replacement reaction. In this reaction, represented below, two compounds in solution switch partners. The cation of one compound exchanges with the cation of the other compound. Often when this type of reaction occurs a precipitate forms because one of two products is insoluble in water. AZ + BX AX + BZ In this experiment you will observe examples of each of these four types of chemical reactions. In each reaction there will be evidence that a reaction has occurred. You are to observed and record the evidence. The evidence may include any of the following: (1) a gas is produced; (2) a precipitate is formed; (3) a color change is observed; (4) a temperature change is noted. In chemical equations, the substances written to the left of the arrow are called the reactants and the substances written to the right of the arrow are called the products. Several symbols are used in chemical equations to describe the reaction conditions. Some of these are listed in Table 5-1.

2 Table 5-1 Symbols in Chemical Equations Symbol Meaning produces, yields (separates reactants from products) + added to, reacts with (separates two or more reactants or products) heat applied to the reaction (written above the ) NR no reaction (written after the ) (s) solid or precipitate (l) liquid (g) gas (aq) aqueous solution In order to write a chemical equation it is necessary to predict the products that are formed. Initially, this can be a difficult task. To assist you in writing chemical equations, the equations in word form will be given for each reaction. You will then convert the word equations into balanced chemical equations. Balancing the equation means putting appropriate coefficients in front of the reactants and products to ensure that the same number of atoms of each element are in the reactants and the products. Examples for each of the four types of reaction are shown below. Example 5-1 Combination Reaction calcium (s) + oxygen (g) calcium oxide (s) Ca (s) + O 2(g) CaO (s) (unbalanced) 2 Ca (s) + O 2(g) 2 CaO (s) (balanced) Example 5-2 Decomposition Reaction calcium chloride dihydrate (s) calcium chloride (s) + water (g) CaCl 2. 2H 2 O (s) CaCl 2(s) + H 2 O (unbalanced) CaCl 2. 2H 2 O (s) CaCl 2(s) + 2 H 2 O (balanced) Example 5-3 Single Replacement Reaction zinc (s) + silver nitrate (aq) zinc nitrate (aq) + silver (s) Zn (s) + AgNO 3(aq) Zn(NO 3 ) 2(aq) + Ag (s) (unbalanced) Zn (s) + 2AgNO 3(aq) Zn(NO 3 ) 2(aq) + 2Ag (s) (balanced) Example 5-4 Double Replacement iron(iii) nitrate (aq) + sodium hydroxide (aq) Fe(NO 3 ) 3(aq) + NaOH (aq) Fe(NO 3 ) 3(aq) + 3NaOH (aq) iron(iii) hydroxide (s) + sodium nitrate (aq) Fe(OH) 3(s) +NaNO3(aq) (unbalanced) Fe(OH) 3(s) +3NaNO3(aq) (balanced)

3 PROCEDURE For each of the following procedures, record your observations in the Data Table. On the page following the observations, word equations are written for each reaction. Write the corresponding balanced chemical equation. A. Combination Reactions (For safety reason these two reactions will be performed by the laboratory instructor.) 1. Hold a 2 cm strip of magnesium ribbon with crucible tongs and ignite the metal in a hot burner flame. 2. Mix together 2 g of powdered zinc and 1 g of powdered sulfur in a crucible. Place the crucible on a wire gauze in a fume hood. Use the flame from a Bunsen burner to ignite the mixture. B. Decomposition Reactions 1. Add a few crystals of copper(ii) sulfate pentahydrate to a dry test tube. Holding the test tube with a test tube holder, heat the part of the test tube containing the solid strongly. Note the change in color and texture and observe the inside wall of the upper region of the test tube. 2. Take two dry 250-mL Erlenmeyer flasks. To one of the flasks, add sodium hydrogen carbonate (baking soda) so as to sparsely cover the bottom of the flask. (a) Take a lighted wooden splint and plunge it into the Erlenmeyer flask that doesn t contain the baking soda. Observe the time required for the flame to go out. (b) Place the flask containing the baking soda on a wire gauze on a ring stand. Use a Bunsen burner to heat the flask strongly and note the inside wall in the upper region of the flask. When you see evidence of moisture, plunge a lighted wooden splint into the flask and observe how long it burns. Compare this time with the value obtained for the empty flask in part (a). C. Single Replacement Reactions 1. Put about 2 ml (30 drops) of silver nitrate into a test tube and add a small piece of copper wire. Place the tube in a rack and leave it for at least 10 minutes. Record your observations. 2. Place a small piece of magnesium ribbon into a test tube containing about 2 ml (30 drops) of dilute hydrochloric acid. 3. Place a small piece of calcium metal into a test tube containing about 2 ml (30 drops) of water. D. Double Replacement Reactions 1. Put 2 ml (30 drops) of silver nitrate, lead(ii) nitrate, and aluminum nitrate into separate test tubes. Add about 2 ml of potassium iodide to each test tube and check for evidence of reaction. 2. Put 2 ml (30 drops) of silver nitrate, lead(ii) nitrate, and aluminum nitrate into separate test tubes. Add about 2 ml of sodium phosphate to each test tube and check for evidence of reaction.

4 EXPERIMENT 5 DATE NAME SECTION Procedure Evidence of Reaction A. Combination Reactions 1. Mg (s) + O 2(g) 2. Zn (s) + S (s) B. Decomposition Reactions 1. CuSO 4. 5H 2 O (s) 2. NaHCO 3(s) C. Single Replacement Reactions 1. Cu (s) + AgNO 3(aq) 2. Mg (s) + HCl (aq) 3. Ca (s) + H 2 O (aq) D. Double Replacement Reactions 1. AgNO 3(aq) + KI (aq) 2. Pb(NO 3 ) 2(aq) + KI (aq) 3. Al(NO 3 ) 3(aq) + KI (aq) 4. AgNO 3(aq) + Na 3 PO 4(aq) 5. Pb(NO 3 ) 2(aq) + Na 3 PO 4(aq) 6. Al(NO 3 ) 3(aq) + Na 3 PO 4(aq)

5 Convert Each Word Equation into a Balanced Chemical Equation A. Combination Reactions 1. magnesium metal (s) + oxygen (g) magesium oxide (s) 2. zinc metal (s) + sulfur (s) zinc sulfide (s) B. Decomposition Reactions 1. copper(ii) sulfate pentahydrate (s) copper(ii) sulfate (s) + water (l) 2. sodium hydrogen carbonate (s) sodium carbonate (s) + water (l) + carbon dioxide (g) C. Single Replacement Reactions 1. copper metal(s) +silver nitrate(aq) copper(ii) nitrate(aq) +silver metal(s) 2. magnesium metal(s) +hydrochloric acid(aq) magnesium chloride(aq) +hydrogen(g) 3. calcium metal (s) +water (l) calcium hydroxide (s) + hydrogen (g)

6 D. Double Replacement Reactions 1. silver nitrate (aq) +potassium iodide (aq) silver iodide (s) +potassium nitrate (aq) 2. lead(ii) nitrate (aq) +potassium iodide (aq) lead(ii) iodide (s) +potassium nitrate (aq) 3. aluminum nitrate (aq) +potassium iodide (aq) no reaction 4. silver nitrate (aq) +sodium phosphate (aq) silver phosphate (s) +sodium nitrate (aq) 5. lead(ii) nitrate (aq) +sodium phosphate (aq) lead(ii) phosphate (s) +sodium nitrate (aq) 6. aluminum nitrate (aq) +sodium phosphate (aq) aluminum phosphate (s) +sodium nitrate (aq)

7 POSTLABORATORY ASSIGNMENT NAME 1. Give the chemical formula for each of the following substances. Each is one of the products formed in the reaction indicated. Refer to your observations recorded in the Data Table along with the corresponding chemical equations. (a) white smoke (Procedure A.1) (b) colorless liquid (Procedure B.1) (c) flame-extinguishing gas (Procedure B.2) (d) gray solid (Procedure C.1) (e) colorless gas (Procedure C.2) (f) yellow precipitate (Procedure D.2) (g) yellow precipitate (Procedure D.3) (h) white precipitate (Procedure D.6) 2. Convert each of the following word equations into a balanced chemical equation (a) copper metal (s) + oxygen (g) copper(i) oxide (s) (b) mercury(ii) nitrate (aq) + potassium iodide (aq) mercury(ii) iodide (s) + potassium nitrate (aq) (c) aluminum metal (s) + hydrochloric acid (aq) aluminum chloride (aq) + hydrogen (g) (d) sulfuric acid (aq) + sodium hydroxide (aq) sodium sulfate (aq) + water (l) (e) iron(iii) carbonate (s) iron(iii) oxide (s) + carbon dioxide (g)

8 3. As you observed in the reactions in Part D, the combination of aqueous solutions of ionic compounds can often result in the formation of a precipitate. This is due to the fact that compound formed by the cation of one compound with the anion of the other compound is insoluble in water. Whether or not a precipitate will form can frequently be predicted using the following set of general solubility rules. General Solubility Rules 1. Nearly all nitrates and acetates are soluble. 2. All chlorides are soluble except AgCl, Hg2Cl2, and PbCl2. 3. All sulfates are soluble except BaSO4, SrSO4, and PbSO4. 4. Most of the alkali metal (Li, Na, K, etc.) and ammonium salts are soluble. 5. All oxides and hydroxides are insoluble except those of the alkali metals and certain alkaline earth metals (Ca, Sr, Ba). 6. All sulfides are insoluble except those of the alkali metals and ammonium sulfide. 7. All phosphates and carbonates are insoluble except those of the alkali metals and ammonium salts. Use these rules to determine which of the following compounds will be insoluble in water. Circle the ones that are insoluble. (a) AgBr (b) Zn(OH) 2 (c) PbCO 3 (d) MgSO 4 (e) Cd(NO 3 ) 2 (f) Fe3(PO 4 ) 2 (g) NiS (h) KOH (i) Cr 2 O 3 (j) (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 4. Whether or not a single replacement reaction is possible under standard conditions can be predicted using what is termed the activity or electromotive series. In this series (shown below) an element can replace the ion of any element below it. For example as you observed in Procedure C.1, the element copper replaced the silver ion in silver nitrate to form silver metal and the copper(ii) ion. Use this Series to determine which of the following single replacement reactions will occur. For a reaction that occurs, complete and balance the equation. If the reaction will not occur, write N.R. for no reaction. Activity (Electromotive) Series (a) Mg (s) + NiCl 2(aq) Li K Ba Ca (b) Pb (s) + CaSO 4(aq) Na Mg Al Zn Fe (c) Zn (s) + HCl (aq) Ni Pb (H) Cu Ag Au

General Chemistry Lab Experiment 6 Types of Chemical Reaction

General Chemistry Lab Experiment 6 Types of Chemical Reaction General Chemistry Lab Experiment 6 Types of Chemical Reaction Introduction Most ordinary chemical reactions can be classified as one of five basic types. The first type of reaction occurs when two or more

More information

Balancing Chemical Equations Worksheet

Balancing Chemical Equations Worksheet Balancing Chemical Equations Worksheet Student Instructions 1. Identify the reactants and products and write a word equation. 2. Write the correct chemical formula for each of the reactants and the products.

More information

Santa Monica College Chemistry 11

Santa Monica College Chemistry 11 Types of Reactions Objectives The objectives of this laboratory are as follows: To perform and observe the results of a variety of chemical reactions. To become familiar with the observable signs of chemical

More information

Chapter 8: Chemical Equations and Reactions

Chapter 8: Chemical Equations and Reactions Chapter 8: Chemical Equations and Reactions I. Describing Chemical Reactions A. A chemical reaction is the process by which one or more substances are changed into one or more different substances. A chemical

More information

Chapter 16: Tests for ions and gases

Chapter 16: Tests for ions and gases The position of hydrogen in the reactivity series Hydrogen, although not a metal, is included in the reactivity series because it, like metals, can be displaced from aqueous solution, only this time the

More information

Solution. Practice Exercise. Concept Exercise

Solution. Practice Exercise. Concept Exercise Example Exercise 8.1 Evidence for a Reaction Which of the following is experimental evidence for a chemical reaction? (a) Pouring vinegar on baking soda gives foamy bubbles. (b) Mixing two solutions produces

More information

EXPERIMENT 8: Activity Series (Single Displacement Reactions)

EXPERIMENT 8: Activity Series (Single Displacement Reactions) EPERIMENT 8: Activity Series (Single Displacement Reactions) PURPOSE a) Reactions of metals with acids and salt solutions b) Determine the activity of metals c) Write a balanced molecular equation, complete

More information

Experiment 8 - Double Displacement Reactions

Experiment 8 - Double Displacement Reactions Experiment 8 - Double Displacement Reactions A double displacement reaction involves two ionic compounds that are dissolved in water. In a double displacement reaction, it appears as though the ions are

More information

Chapter 7: Chemical Reactions

Chapter 7: Chemical Reactions Chapter 7 Page 1 Chapter 7: Chemical Reactions A chemical reaction: a process in which at least one new substance is formed as the result of a chemical change. A + B C + D Reactants Products Evidence that

More information

Stoichiometry Review

Stoichiometry Review Stoichiometry Review There are 20 problems in this review set. Answers, including problem set-up, can be found in the second half of this document. 1. N 2 (g) + 3H 2 (g) --------> 2NH 3 (g) a. nitrogen

More information

Physical Changes and Chemical Reactions

Physical Changes and Chemical Reactions Physical Changes and Chemical Reactions Gezahegn Chaka, Ph.D., and Sudha Madhugiri, Ph.D., Collin College Department of Chemistry Objectives Introduction To observe physical and chemical changes. To identify

More information

6 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions

6 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions 6 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Water is by far the most common medium in which chemical reactions occur naturally. It is not hard to see this: 70% of our body mass is water and about 70% of the surface

More information

David A. Katz Chemist, Educator, Science Communicator, and Consultant Department of Chemistry, Pima Community College

David A. Katz Chemist, Educator, Science Communicator, and Consultant Department of Chemistry, Pima Community College WRITING CHEMICAL EQUATIONS 2004, 2002, 1989 by David A. Katz. All rights reserved. Permission for classroom used provided original copyright is included. David A. Katz Chemist, Educator, Science Communicator,

More information

Chemistry Themed. Types of Reactions

Chemistry Themed. Types of Reactions Chemistry Themed Types of Reactions 1 2 Chemistry in the Community-2015-2016 Types of Reactions Date In-Class Assignment Homework T 10/20 TEST on Reactivity of Metals and Redox None W 10/21 Late Start

More information

2. DECOMPOSITION REACTION ( A couple have a heated argument and break up )

2. DECOMPOSITION REACTION ( A couple have a heated argument and break up ) TYPES OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS Most reactions can be classified into one of five categories by examining the types of reactants and products involved in the reaction. Knowing the types of reactions can help

More information

Types of Reactions. CHM 130LL: Chemical Reactions. Introduction. General Information

Types of Reactions. CHM 130LL: Chemical Reactions. Introduction. General Information Introduction CHM 130LL: Chemical Reactions We often study chemistry to understand how and why chemicals (reactants) can be transformed into different chemicals (products) via a chemical reaction: Reactants

More information

Experiment 1 Chemical Reactions and Net Ionic Equations

Experiment 1 Chemical Reactions and Net Ionic Equations Experiment 1 Chemical Reactions and Net Ionic Equations I. Objective: To predict the products of some displacement reactions and write net ionic equations. II. Chemical Principles: A. Reaction Types. Chemical

More information

Chemical Equations and Chemical Reactions. Chapter 8.1

Chemical Equations and Chemical Reactions. Chapter 8.1 Chemical Equations and Chemical Reactions Chapter 8.1 Objectives List observations that suggest that a chemical reaction has taken place List the requirements for a correctly written chemical equation.

More information

Steps for balancing a chemical equation

Steps for balancing a chemical equation The Chemical Equation: A Chemical Recipe Dr. Gergens - SD Mesa College A. Learn the meaning of these arrows. B. The chemical equation is the shorthand notation for a chemical reaction. A chemical equation

More information

Number of moles of solute = Concentration (mol. L ) x Volume of solution (litres) or n = C x V

Number of moles of solute = Concentration (mol. L ) x Volume of solution (litres) or n = C x V 44 CALCULATIONS INVOLVING SOLUTIONS INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Many chemical reactions take place in aqueous (water) solution. Quantities of such solutions are measured as volumes, while the amounts

More information

Experiment 16-Acids, Bases and ph

Experiment 16-Acids, Bases and ph Definitions acid-an ionic compound that releases or reacts with water to form hydrogen ion (H + ) in aqueous solution. They taste sour and turn litmus red. Acids react with certain metals such as zinc,

More information

Chapter 5. Chemical Reactions and Equations. Introduction. Chapter 5 Topics. 5.1 What is a Chemical Reaction

Chapter 5. Chemical Reactions and Equations. Introduction. Chapter 5 Topics. 5.1 What is a Chemical Reaction Introduction Chapter 5 Chemical Reactions and Equations Chemical reactions occur all around us. How do we make sense of these changes? What patterns can we find? 1 2 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies,

More information

80. Testing salts for anions and cations

80. Testing salts for anions and cations Classic chemistry experiments 203 80. Testing salts for anions and cations Topic Qualitative analysis. Timing Description 12 hours. Students attempt to identify the anions and cations present in a salt

More information

Chemistry: Chemical Equations

Chemistry: Chemical Equations Chemistry: Chemical Equations Write a balanced chemical equation for each word equation. Include the phase of each substance in the equation. Classify the reaction as synthesis, decomposition, single replacement,

More information

H 2 + O 2 H 2 O. - Note there is not enough hydrogen to react with oxygen - It is necessary to balance equation.

H 2 + O 2 H 2 O. - Note there is not enough hydrogen to react with oxygen - It is necessary to balance equation. CEMICAL REACTIONS 1 ydrogen + Oxygen Water 2 + O 2 2 O reactants product(s) reactant substance before chemical change product substance after chemical change Conservation of Mass During a chemical reaction,

More information

Unit 10A Stoichiometry Notes

Unit 10A Stoichiometry Notes Unit 10A Stoichiometry Notes Stoichiometry is a big word for a process that chemist s use to calculate amounts in reactions. It makes use of the coefficient ratio set up by balanced reaction equations

More information

NET IONIC EQUATIONS. A balanced chemical equation can describe all chemical reactions, an example of such an equation is:

NET IONIC EQUATIONS. A balanced chemical equation can describe all chemical reactions, an example of such an equation is: NET IONIC EQUATIONS A balanced chemical equation can describe all chemical reactions, an example of such an equation is: NaCl + AgNO 3 AgCl + NaNO 3 In this case, the simple formulas of the various reactants

More information

Chemical Equations. Chemical Equations. Chemical reactions describe processes involving chemical change

Chemical Equations. Chemical Equations. Chemical reactions describe processes involving chemical change Chemical Reactions Chemical Equations Chemical reactions describe processes involving chemical change The chemical change involves rearranging matter Converting one or more pure substances into new pure

More information

Decomposition. Composition

Decomposition. Composition Decomposition 1. Solid ammonium carbonate is heated. 2. Solid calcium carbonate is heated. 3. Solid calcium sulfite is heated in a vacuum. Composition 1. Barium oxide is added to distilled water. 2. Phosphorus

More information

Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations

Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations Name Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations Period When a substance undergoes a chemical reaction, chemical bonds are broken and new bonds are formed. This results in one or more new substances, often

More information

SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, "Chemistry 11", McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001

SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, Chemistry 11, McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001 SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, "Chemistry 11", McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001 1. A small pin contains 0.0178 mol of iron. How many atoms of iron are in the pin? 2. A sample

More information

Moles. Moles. Moles. Moles. Balancing Eqns. Balancing. Balancing Eqns. Symbols Yields or Produces. Like a recipe:

Moles. Moles. Moles. Moles. Balancing Eqns. Balancing. Balancing Eqns. Symbols Yields or Produces. Like a recipe: Like a recipe: Balancing Eqns Reactants Products 2H 2 (g) + O 2 (g) 2H 2 O(l) coefficients subscripts Balancing Eqns Balancing Symbols (s) (l) (aq) (g) or Yields or Produces solid liquid (pure liquid)

More information

UNIT (4) CALCULATIONS AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS

UNIT (4) CALCULATIONS AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS UNIT (4) CALCULATIONS AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS 4.1 Formula Masses Recall that the decimal number written under the symbol of the element in the periodic table is the atomic mass of the element. 1 7 8 12

More information

Molarity of Ions in Solution

Molarity of Ions in Solution APPENDIX A Molarity of Ions in Solution ften it is necessary to calculate not only the concentration (in molarity) of a compound in aqueous solution but also the concentration of each ion in aqueous solution.

More information

Chapter 8 - Chemical Equations and Reactions

Chapter 8 - Chemical Equations and Reactions Chapter 8 - Chemical Equations and Reactions 8-1 Describing Chemical Reactions I. Introduction A. Reactants 1. Original substances entering into a chemical rxn B. Products 1. The resulting substances from

More information

Tutorial 4 SOLUTION STOICHIOMETRY. Solution stoichiometry calculations involve chemical reactions taking place in solution.

Tutorial 4 SOLUTION STOICHIOMETRY. Solution stoichiometry calculations involve chemical reactions taking place in solution. T-27 Tutorial 4 SOLUTION STOICHIOMETRY Solution stoichiometry calculations involve chemical reactions taking place in solution. Of the various methods of expressing solution concentration the most convenient

More information

Unit 9 Stoichiometry Notes (The Mole Continues)

Unit 9 Stoichiometry Notes (The Mole Continues) Unit 9 Stoichiometry Notes (The Mole Continues) is a big word for a process that chemist s use to calculate amounts in reactions. It makes use of the coefficient ratio set up by balanced reaction equations

More information

Name: Class: Date: 2 4 (aq)

Name: Class: Date: 2 4 (aq) Name: Class: Date: Unit 4 Practice Test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The balanced molecular equation for complete neutralization of

More information

NAMING QUIZ 3 - Part A Name: 1. Zinc (II) Nitrate. 5. Silver (I) carbonate. 6. Aluminum acetate. 8. Iron (III) hydroxide

NAMING QUIZ 3 - Part A Name: 1. Zinc (II) Nitrate. 5. Silver (I) carbonate. 6. Aluminum acetate. 8. Iron (III) hydroxide NAMING QUIZ 3 - Part A Name: Write the formulas for the following compounds: 1. Zinc (II) Nitrate 2. Manganese (IV) sulfide 3. Barium permanganate 4. Sulfuric acid 5. Silver (I) carbonate 6. Aluminum acetate

More information

Solution a homogeneous mixture = A solvent + solute(s) Aqueous solution water is the solvent

Solution a homogeneous mixture = A solvent + solute(s) Aqueous solution water is the solvent Solution a homogeneous mixture = A solvent + solute(s) Aqueous solution water is the solvent Water a polar solvent: dissolves most ionic compounds as well as many molecular compounds Aqueous solution:

More information

Aqueous Solutions. Water is the dissolving medium, or solvent. Some Properties of Water. A Solute. Types of Chemical Reactions.

Aqueous Solutions. Water is the dissolving medium, or solvent. Some Properties of Water. A Solute. Types of Chemical Reactions. Aqueous Solutions and Solution Stoichiometry Water is the dissolving medium, or solvent. Some Properties of Water Water is bent or V-shaped. The O-H bonds are covalent. Water is a polar molecule. Hydration

More information

Chapter 6: Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations. AB A + B. CaCO3 CaO + CO2 A + B C. AB + C AC + B (or AB + C CB + A)

Chapter 6: Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations. AB A + B. CaCO3 CaO + CO2 A + B C. AB + C AC + B (or AB + C CB + A) 78 Chapter 6: Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations. It is convenient to classify chemical reactions into one of several general types. Some of the more common, important, reactions are shown below.

More information

MOLES AND MOLE CALCULATIONS

MOLES AND MOLE CALCULATIONS 35 MOLES ND MOLE CLCULTIONS INTRODUCTION The purpose of this section is to present some methods for calculating both how much of each reactant is used in a chemical reaction, and how much of each product

More information

Formulae, stoichiometry and the mole concept

Formulae, stoichiometry and the mole concept 3 Formulae, stoichiometry and the mole concept Content 3.1 Symbols, Formulae and Chemical equations 3.2 Concept of Relative Mass 3.3 Mole Concept and Stoichiometry Learning Outcomes Candidates should be

More information

W1 WORKSHOP ON STOICHIOMETRY

W1 WORKSHOP ON STOICHIOMETRY INTRODUCTION W1 WORKSHOP ON STOICHIOMETRY These notes and exercises are designed to introduce you to the basic concepts required to understand a chemical formula or equation. Relative atomic masses of

More information

Chapter 6 Notes Science 10 Name:

Chapter 6 Notes Science 10 Name: 6.1 Types of Chemical Reactions a) Synthesis (A + B AB) Synthesis reactions are also known as reactions. When this occurs two or more reactants (usually elements) join to form a. A + B AB, where A and

More information

Writing, Balancing and Predicting Products of Chemical Reactions.

Writing, Balancing and Predicting Products of Chemical Reactions. Writing, Balancing and Predicting Products of Chemical Reactions. A chemical equation is a concise shorthand expression which represents the relative amount of reactants and products involved in a chemical

More information

Nomenclature of Ionic Compounds

Nomenclature of Ionic Compounds Nomenclature of Ionic Compounds Ionic compounds are composed of ions. An ion is an atom or molecule with an electrical charge. Monatomic ions are formed from single atoms that have gained or lost electrons.

More information

Chem 1100 Chapter Three Study Guide Answers Outline I. Molar Mass and Moles A. Calculations of Molar Masses

Chem 1100 Chapter Three Study Guide Answers Outline I. Molar Mass and Moles A. Calculations of Molar Masses Chem 1100 Chapter Three Study Guide Answers Outline I. Molar Mass and Moles A. Calculations of Molar Masses B. Calculations of moles C. Calculations of number of atoms from moles/molar masses 1. Avagadro

More information

1. When the following equation is balanced, the coefficient of Al is. Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) 3 (s) + H 2 (g)

1. When the following equation is balanced, the coefficient of Al is. Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) 3 (s) + H 2 (g) 1. When the following equation is balanced, the coefficient of Al is. Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) (s) + H 2 (g) A) 1 B) 2 C) 4 D) 5 E) Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) (s) + H 2 (g) Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH)

More information

CHEMICAL DETERMINATION OF EVERYDAY HOUSEHOLD CHEMICALS

CHEMICAL DETERMINATION OF EVERYDAY HOUSEHOLD CHEMICALS CHEMICAL DETERMINATION OF EVERYDAY HOUSEHOLD CHEMICALS Purpose: It is important for chemists to be able to determine the composition of unknown chemicals. This can often be done by way of chemical tests.

More information

Physical and Chemical Properties and Changes

Physical and Chemical Properties and Changes Physical and Chemical Properties and Changes An understanding of material things requires an understanding of the physical and chemical characteristics of matter. A few planned experiments can help you

More information

EXPERIMENT 7 Reaction Stoichiometry and Percent Yield

EXPERIMENT 7 Reaction Stoichiometry and Percent Yield EXPERIMENT 7 Reaction Stoichiometry and Percent Yield INTRODUCTION Stoichiometry calculations are about calculating the amounts of substances that react and form in a chemical reaction. The word stoichiometry

More information

Lab #13: Qualitative Analysis of Cations and Anions

Lab #13: Qualitative Analysis of Cations and Anions Lab #13: Qualitative Analysis of Cations and Anions Objectives: 1. To understand the rationale and the procedure behind the separation for various cations and anions. 2. To perform qualitative analysis

More information

CHEMICAL REACTIONS. Chemistry 51 Chapter 6

CHEMICAL REACTIONS. Chemistry 51 Chapter 6 CHEMICAL REACTIONS A chemical reaction is a rearrangement of atoms in which some of the original bonds are broken and new bonds are formed to give different chemical structures. In a chemical reaction,

More information

Unit 6 The Mole Concept

Unit 6 The Mole Concept Chemistry Form 3 Page 62 Ms. R. Buttigieg Unit 6 The Mole Concept See Chemistry for You Chapter 28 pg. 352-363 See GCSE Chemistry Chapter 5 pg. 70-79 6.1 Relative atomic mass. The relative atomic mass

More information

Aqueous Ions and Reactions

Aqueous Ions and Reactions Aqueous Ions and Reactions (ions, acids, and bases) Demo NaCl(aq) + AgNO 3 (aq) AgCl (s) Two clear and colorless solutions turn to a cloudy white when mixed Demo Special Light bulb in water can test for

More information

General Chemistry II Chapter 20

General Chemistry II Chapter 20 1 General Chemistry II Chapter 0 Ionic Equilibria: Principle There are many compounds that appear to be insoluble in aqueous solution (nonelectrolytes). That is, when we add a certain compound to water

More information

Balancing Chemical Equations Practice

Balancing Chemical Equations Practice Science Objectives Students will describe what reactants and products in a chemical equation mean. Students will explain the difference between coefficients and subscripts in chemical equations. Students

More information

Chapter 3 Stoichiometry

Chapter 3 Stoichiometry Chapter 3 Stoichiometry 3-1 Chapter 3 Stoichiometry In This Chapter As you have learned in previous chapters, much of chemistry involves using macroscopic measurements to deduce what happens between atoms

More information

Moles. Balanced chemical equations Molar ratios Mass Composition Empirical and Molecular Mass Predicting Quantities Equations

Moles. Balanced chemical equations Molar ratios Mass Composition Empirical and Molecular Mass Predicting Quantities Equations Moles Balanced chemical equations Molar ratios Mass Composition Empirical and Molecular Mass Predicting Quantities Equations Micro World atoms & molecules Macro World grams Atomic mass is the mass of an

More information

HOMEWORK 4A. Definitions. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions. Questions

HOMEWORK 4A. Definitions. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions. Questions HOMEWORK 4A Oxidation-Reduction Reactions 1. Indicate whether a reaction will occur or not in each of following. Wtiring a balcnced equation is not necessary. (a) Magnesium metal is added to hydrochloric

More information

PART I: MULTIPLE CHOICE (30 multiple choice questions. Each multiple choice question is worth 2 points)

PART I: MULTIPLE CHOICE (30 multiple choice questions. Each multiple choice question is worth 2 points) CHEMISTRY 123-07 Midterm #1 Answer key October 14, 2010 Statistics: Average: 74 p (74%); Highest: 97 p (95%); Lowest: 33 p (33%) Number of students performing at or above average: 67 (57%) Number of students

More information

Reactions in Aqueous Solution

Reactions in Aqueous Solution CHAPTER 7 1. Water is the most universal of all liquids. Water has a relatively large heat capacity and a relatively large liquid range, which means it can absorb the heat liberated by many reactions while

More information

Stoichiometry. Unit Outline

Stoichiometry. Unit Outline 3 Stoichiometry Unit Outline 3.1 The Mole and Molar Mass 3.2 Stoichiometry and Compound Formulas 3.3 Stoichiometry and Chemical Reactions 3.4 Stoichiometry and Limiting Reactants 3.5 Chemical Analysis

More information

IB Chemistry. DP Chemistry Review

IB Chemistry. DP Chemistry Review DP Chemistry Review Topic 1: Quantitative chemistry 1.1 The mole concept and Avogadro s constant Assessment statement Apply the mole concept to substances. Determine the number of particles and the amount

More information

ATOMS. Multiple Choice Questions

ATOMS. Multiple Choice Questions Chapter 3 ATOMS AND MOLECULES Multiple Choice Questions 1. Which of the following correctly represents 360 g of water? (i) 2 moles of H 2 0 (ii) 20 moles of water (iii) 6.022 10 23 molecules of water (iv)

More information

General Chemistry I (FC, 09-10) Lab #3: The Empirical Formula of a Compound. Introduction

General Chemistry I (FC, 09-10) Lab #3: The Empirical Formula of a Compound. Introduction General Chemistry I (FC, 09-10) Introduction A look at the mass relationships in chemistry reveals little order or sense. The ratio of the masses of the elements in a compound, while constant, does not

More information

MOLARITY = (moles solute) / (vol.solution in liter units)

MOLARITY = (moles solute) / (vol.solution in liter units) CHEM 101/105 Stoichiometry, as applied to Aqueous Solutions containing Ionic Solutes Lect-05 MOLES - a quantity of substance. Quantities of substances can be expressed as masses, as numbers, or as moles.

More information

Balancing chemical equations

Balancing chemical equations Balancing chemical equations The law of conservation of mass In order to balance a chemical equation, it is important to understand the law of conservation of mass. Definition 1: The law of conservation

More information

Chemistry 51 Chapter 8 TYPES OF SOLUTIONS. A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two substances: a solute and a solvent.

Chemistry 51 Chapter 8 TYPES OF SOLUTIONS. A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two substances: a solute and a solvent. TYPES OF SOLUTIONS A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two substances: a solute and a solvent. Solute: substance being dissolved; present in lesser amount. Solvent: substance doing the dissolving; present

More information

CHEMICAL REACTIONS OF COPPER AND PERCENT YIELD KEY

CHEMICAL REACTIONS OF COPPER AND PERCENT YIELD KEY CHEMICAL REACTIONS OF COPPER AND PERCENT YIELD Objective To gain familiarity with basic laboratory procedures, some chemistry of a typical transition element, and the concept of percent yield. Apparatus

More information

Chemical Reactions 2 The Chemical Equation

Chemical Reactions 2 The Chemical Equation Chemical Reactions 2 The Chemical Equation INFORMATION Chemical equations are symbolic devices used to represent actual chemical reactions. The left side of the equation, called the reactants, is separated

More information

Chapter 4 Chemical Reactions

Chapter 4 Chemical Reactions Chapter 4 Chemical Reactions I) Ions in Aqueous Solution many reactions take place in water form ions in solution aq solution = solute + solvent solute: substance being dissolved and present in lesser

More information

stoichiometry = the numerical relationships between chemical amounts in a reaction.

stoichiometry = the numerical relationships between chemical amounts in a reaction. 1 REACTIONS AND YIELD ANSWERS stoichiometry = the numerical relationships between chemical amounts in a reaction. 2C 8 H 18 (l) + 25O 2 16CO 2 (g) + 18H 2 O(g) From the equation, 16 moles of CO 2 (a greenhouse

More information

Periodic Table, Valency and Formula

Periodic Table, Valency and Formula Periodic Table, Valency and Formula Origins of the Periodic Table Mendelѐѐv in 1869 proposed that a relationship existed between the chemical properties of elements and their atomic masses. He noticed

More information

Moles, Molecules, and Grams Worksheet Answer Key

Moles, Molecules, and Grams Worksheet Answer Key Moles, Molecules, and Grams Worksheet Answer Key 1) How many are there in 24 grams of FeF 3? 1.28 x 10 23 2) How many are there in 450 grams of Na 2 SO 4? 1.91 x 10 24 3) How many grams are there in 2.3

More information

1. Read P. 368-375, P. 382-387 & P. 429-436; P. 375 # 1-11 & P. 389 # 1,7,9,12,15; P. 436 #1, 7, 8, 11

1. Read P. 368-375, P. 382-387 & P. 429-436; P. 375 # 1-11 & P. 389 # 1,7,9,12,15; P. 436 #1, 7, 8, 11 SCH3U- R.H.KING ACADEMY SOLUTION & ACID/BASE WORKSHEET Name: The importance of water - MAKING CONNECTION READING 1. Read P. 368-375, P. 382-387 & P. 429-436; P. 375 # 1-11 & P. 389 # 1,7,9,12,15; P. 436

More information

Experiment 12- Classification of Matter Experiment

Experiment 12- Classification of Matter Experiment Experiment 12- Classification of Matter Experiment Matter can be classified into two groups: mixtures and pure substances. Mixtures are the most common form of matter and consist of mixtures of pure substances.

More information

Chemistry Ch 15 (Solutions) Study Guide Introduction

Chemistry Ch 15 (Solutions) Study Guide Introduction Chemistry Ch 15 (Solutions) Study Guide Introduction Name: Note: a word marked (?) is a vocabulary word you should know the meaning of. A homogeneous (?) mixture, or, is a mixture in which the individual

More information

neutrons are present?

neutrons are present? AP Chem Summer Assignment Worksheet #1 Atomic Structure 1. a) For the ion 39 K +, state how many electrons, how many protons, and how many 19 neutrons are present? b) Which of these particles has the smallest

More information

Aqueous Chemical Reactions

Aqueous Chemical Reactions Name: Date: Lab Partners: Lab section: Aqueous Chemical Reactions The purpose of this lab is to introduce you to three major categories of reactions that occur in aqueous solutions: precipitation reactions,

More information

Department of Chemical Engineering Review Sheet Chemical Reactions Prepared by Dr. Timothy D. Placek from various sources

Department of Chemical Engineering Review Sheet Chemical Reactions Prepared by Dr. Timothy D. Placek from various sources Department of Chemical Engineering Review Sheet Chemical Reactions Prepared by Dr. Timothy D. Placek from various sources Introduction This document is intended to help you review the basics of writing

More information

IB Chemistry 1 Mole. One atom of C-12 has a mass of 12 amu. One mole of C-12 has a mass of 12 g. Grams we can use more easily.

IB Chemistry 1 Mole. One atom of C-12 has a mass of 12 amu. One mole of C-12 has a mass of 12 g. Grams we can use more easily. The Mole Atomic mass units and atoms are not convenient units to work with. The concept of the mole was invented. This was the number of atoms of carbon-12 that were needed to make 12 g of carbon. 1 mole

More information

2. Write the chemical formula(s) of the product(s) and balance the following spontaneous reactions.

2. Write the chemical formula(s) of the product(s) and balance the following spontaneous reactions. 1. Using the Activity Series on the Useful Information pages of the exam write the chemical formula(s) of the product(s) and balance the following reactions. Identify all products phases as either (g)as,

More information

CH110 Lab 3. Chemical Reactions (W14) 23

CH110 Lab 3. Chemical Reactions (W14) 23 LAB 3. CHEMICAL REACTIONS: CHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND EQUATIONS PURPOSE: To perform and recognize different types of chemical reactions. To complete and balance chemical equations. To test the Law of Conservation

More information

11-1 Stoichiometry. Represents

11-1 Stoichiometry. Represents 11-1 Stoichiometry What is stoichiometry? Calculations that relate the quantities of substances. It is the study of quantitative (measurable amounts) relationships in chemical reactions and equations.

More information

1332 CHAPTER 18 Sample Questions

1332 CHAPTER 18 Sample Questions 1332 CHAPTER 18 Sample Questions Couple E 0 Couple E 0 Br 2 (l) + 2e 2Br (aq) +1.06 V AuCl 4 + 3e Au + 4Cl +1.00 V Ag + + e Ag +0.80 V Hg 2+ 2 + 2e 2 Hg +0.79 V Fe 3+ (aq) + e Fe 2+ (aq) +0.77 V Cu 2+

More information

Appendix D. Reaction Stoichiometry D.1 INTRODUCTION

Appendix D. Reaction Stoichiometry D.1 INTRODUCTION Appendix D Reaction Stoichiometry D.1 INTRODUCTION In Appendix A, the stoichiometry of elements and compounds was presented. There, the relationships among grams, moles and number of atoms and molecules

More information

Question Bank Electrolysis

Question Bank Electrolysis Question Bank Electrolysis 1. (a) What do you understand by the terms (i) electrolytes (ii) non-electrolytes? (b) Arrange electrolytes and non-electrolytes from the following substances (i) sugar solution

More information

Chapter 5. Chapter 5. Naming Ionic Compounds. Objectives. Chapter 5. Chapter 5

Chapter 5. Chapter 5. Naming Ionic Compounds. Objectives. Chapter 5. Chapter 5 Objectives Name cations, anions, and ionic compounds. Write chemical formulas for ionic compounds such that an overall neutral charge is maintained. Explain how polyatomic ions and their salts are named

More information

Chemistry Final Study Guide

Chemistry Final Study Guide Name: Class: Date: Chemistry Final Study Guide Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The electrons involved in the formation of a covalent bond

More information

Electrochemistry - ANSWERS

Electrochemistry - ANSWERS Electrochemistry - ANSWERS 1. Using a table of standard electrode potentials, predict if the following reactions will occur spontaneously as written. a) Al 3+ + Ni Ni 2+ + Al Al 3+ + 3e - Al E = -1.68

More information

Rules for Naming and Writing Compounds

Rules for Naming and Writing Compounds Rules for Naming and Writing Compounds I. Ionic Bonds bonding between a metal and nonmetal or the bond between a positive ion and a negative ion forming a binary compound. end in the suffix "ide" Or bonding

More information

Chapter 3 Mass Relationships in Chemical Reactions

Chapter 3 Mass Relationships in Chemical Reactions Chapter 3 Mass Relationships in Chemical Reactions Student: 1. An atom of bromine has a mass about four times greater than that of an atom of neon. Which choice makes the correct comparison of the relative

More information

EXPERIMENT 12: Empirical Formula of a Compound

EXPERIMENT 12: Empirical Formula of a Compound EXPERIMENT 12: Empirical Formula of a Compound INTRODUCTION Chemical formulas indicate the composition of compounds. A formula that gives only the simplest ratio of the relative number of atoms in a compound

More information

CHAPTER 5: MOLECULES AND COMPOUNDS

CHAPTER 5: MOLECULES AND COMPOUNDS CHAPTER 5: MOLECULES AND COMPOUNDS Problems: 1-6, 9-13, 16, 20, 31-40, 43-64, 65 (a,b,c,e), 66(a-d,f), 69(a-d,f), 70(a-e), 71-78, 81-82, 87-96 A compound will display the same properties (e.g. melting

More information

Instructions Answer all questions in the spaces provided. Do all rough work in this book. Cross through any work you do not want to be marked.

Instructions Answer all questions in the spaces provided. Do all rough work in this book. Cross through any work you do not want to be marked. GCSE CHEMISTRY Higher Tier Chemistry 1H H Specimen 2018 Time allowed: 1 hour 45 minutes Materials For this paper you must have: a ruler a calculator the periodic table (enclosed). Instructions Answer all

More information

Problem Solving. Percentage Composition

Problem Solving. Percentage Composition Skills Worksheet Problem Solving Percentage Composition Suppose you are working in an industrial laboratory. Your supervisor gives you a bottle containing a white crystalline compound and asks you to determine

More information

CHEMICAL REACTIONS AND REACTING MASSES AND VOLUMES

CHEMICAL REACTIONS AND REACTING MASSES AND VOLUMES CHEMICAL REACTIONS AND REACTING MASSES AND VOLUMES The meaning of stoichiometric coefficients: 2 H 2 (g) + O 2 (g) 2 H 2 O(l) number of reacting particles 2 molecules of hydrogen react with 1 molecule

More information