Solution a homogeneous mixture = A solvent + solute(s) Aqueous solution water is the solvent

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1 Solution a homogeneous mixture = A solvent + solute(s) Aqueous solution water is the solvent Water a polar solvent: dissolves most ionic compounds as well as many molecular compounds Aqueous solution: Strong electrolyte contains lots of freely moving ions Weak electrolyte contains a little amount of freely moving ions Nonelectrolyte does not contain ions Solution concentrations: Percent (by mass) = Mass of Solute Mass of Solution x 100% For example, if 1.00 kg of seawater contains 35 g of sodium chloride, the percent of NaCl in seawater is 35 g x 100% = 3.5% 1000 g If a solution contains 25 g NaCl dissolved in 100. g of water, the mass percent of NaCl in the solution is 25 g x 100% = 20.% ( ) g (A solution that contains 20.% (by mass) of NaCl means that for every 100 g of the solution, there will be 20 g of NaCl. Therefore, if seawater contains 3.5% NaCl, for every 100 g of seawater, there are 3.5 g of NaCl.) Percent (by volume) = Volume of Solute Volume of Solution x 100% For example, if 750 ml of white wine contains 80. ml of ethanol, the percent of ethanol by volume is 80. ml x 100% = 11% 750 ml (A solution that contains 11% ethanol (by volume) means that for every 100 ml of the solution, there will be 11 ml of ethanol in it. However, unlike mass, volume addition is not always additive meaning that if you add 11 ml of ethanol and 89 ml of water, the total is not 100 ml. In this case, the total volume is slightly larger than 100 ml. Therefore, in many mixtures, percent by volume is only an approximation.) 1

2 Molar concentration (Molarity) = Mole of Solute Liter of Solution For example, if a solution contains 0.25 mole of NaCl in 440 ml of the solution, the molar concentration of sodium chloride in this solution is 0.25 mole L of solution = 0.57 M (mol/l) If you dissolve 36.0 g of NaCl in 250. ml of solution, the molar concentration of NaCl will be 1 mole NaCl (36.0 g NaCl x ) L = 2.46 mol/l = 2.46 M g NaCl Exercises #1: 1. What types of particles are presents in an aqueous solution of: (a) strong electrolytes - (b) weak electrolytes - (c) nonelectrolyte 2. Which of these solutions will strongly conduct electric current? (a) H 2 SO 4 (aq) (b) BaCl 2 (aq) (c) CH 3 OH(aq) (d) NaOH(aq) (e) HC 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) 3. Which of these solutions will not conduct electric current? (a) C 2 H 6 O 2 (aq) (b) NaC 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) (c) HC 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) (d) C 12 H 22 O 11 (aq) 4. Which of the following is/are weak electrolytes and will conduct electricity to some extent? (a) C 2 H 5 OH(aq) (b) HNO 2 (aq) (c) NH 3 (aq) (d) KOH(aq) (e) HC 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) 5. Write the formula of the particles (ions and/or molecules) found in aqueous solution of each of the following compounds and indicate whether the solution is a strong electrolyte, weak electrolyte, or nonelectrolyte. (a) NH 4 Cl: (d) HNO 3 : (b) C 2 H 5 OH (ethanol): (c) C 6 H 12 O 6 (glucose): (f) HC 2 H 3 O 2 : (e) NaOH: 2

3 6. Write an equation for the dissociation of calcium nitrate, Ca(NO 3 ) 2 (a strong electrolyte), is aqueous solution. 7. Write an equation for the dissociation of acetic acid (HC 2 H 3 O 2, a weak electrolyte), in aqueous solution. 8. Which of the following compounds will NOT form ions in aqueous solutions? (a) HNO 2 (b) C 2 H 6 O 2 (c) C 6 H 12 O 6 (d) Al(NO 3 ) 3 (e) C 3 H 7 OH 9. A solution of sodium chloride is prepared by dissolving 25.0 g of NaCl in 135 g of distilled water. Calculate the mass percent of NaCl in the solution. (Answer: 15.6%) 10. (a) If grams of potassium dichromate, K 2 Cr 2 O 7, are dissolved in 750. ml of aqueous solution, how many moles of K 2 Cr 2 O 7 is dissolved? (b) What is the molar concentration of potassium dichromate in the solution? (c) Potassium dichromate is an ionic compound that completely dissolves in water. Write an equation for the dissociation of K 2 Cr 2 O 7 in aqueous solution. (d) What is the molar concentration of the total ions in the solution? (e) How many moles of K 2 Cr 2 O 7 are present in 25.0 ml of this solution? (Answer: (a) mol; (b) M; (d) M; (e) 6.25 x 10 3 mol) 3

4 Exercises #2: Write balanced molecular equation (m.e.) total ionic equation (t.i.e.), and net ionic equation (n.i.e.) for each reaction described below. 1. When lead(ii) nitrate solution is reacted with potassium chromate solution, it yields a bright yellow precipitate of lead(ii) chromate and aqueous potassium nitrate solution. 2. A pale yellow precipitate of silver phosphate is formed when aqueous solutions of silver nitrate and sodium phosphate are mixed. 3. Aqueous calcium hydroxide solution reacts with nitric acid solution to form water and calcium nitrate solution. 4. When solid calcium carbonate is reacted with hydrochloric acid, it produces aqueous calcium chloride, water, and carbon dioxide gas. 5. When sulfuric acid is neutralized with barium hydroxide solution, the products are water and barium sulfate precipitate. 4

5 Exercises #3: 1. The molarity of ethanol (CH 3 CH 2 OH) in some gasoline is 0.22 M. (a) Determine how many moles of ethanol are present in 1.00 gallon of gasoline. (1 gallon = L) (b) How many grams of ethanol are present in 1.00 gallon of gasoline? (c) How many gallons of gasoline contain 1.00 kg of ethanol? (Answer: (a) 0.83 mol; (b) 38 g; (c) 26 gallons) 2. How many moles of Al 3+ and SO 4 2- ions, respectively, are present in a 500- ml sample of M Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 solution? (Answer: mol Al 3+ and mol SO 4 2 ) 3. A 125-mL solution contains Ba 2+ ions of unknown concentration. If it requires 65.0 ml of M H 2 SO 4 to precipitate all of Ba 2+ as BaSO 4, determine the concentration of Ba 2+ ion in the solution. The net ionic equation for the precipitation reaction is (Answer: [Ba 2+ ] = M) Ba 2+ (aq) + SO 4 2- (aq) BaSO 4 (s) 4. A vinegar sample was titrated with M NaOH solution to the end-point using phenolphthalein as indicator. It requires ml of the NaOH solution to completely neutralize the acetic acid in a ml vinegar sample. Determine the molar concentration of acetic acid in the vinegar. The reaction between acetic acid and sodium hydroxide is represented by the following equation. HC 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) + NaOH(aq) NaC 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) + H 2 O(l) (Answer: [HC 2 H 3 O 2 ] = M) 5. How many grams of calcium oxalate, CaC 2 O 4, are produced when 125 ml of M CaCl 2 solution is added to 75.0 ml of M Na 2 C 2 O 4 solution and the following reaction occurs? Na 2 C 2 O 4 (aq) + CaCl 2 (aq) CaC 2 O 4 (s) + 2NaCl(aq) (Answer: 2.40 g of CaC 2 O 4 ) 5

6 6. A g mineral sample is treated with concentrated nitric acid to dissolve the silver in the mineral sample. The dissolved silver is then precipitated as silver thiocyanate (AgSCN) by adding an excess amount of potassium thiocyanate solution. (a) Write the net ionic equation for the precipitation reaction. (b) If 3.42 g of AgSCN were precipitated, calculate the mass percent of silver in the mineral sample. (c) If the molar concentration of KSCN solution were M, what volume (in ml) is just enough to completely react with Ag + is the sample? (Answer: (b) 29.4% Ag; (c) 82.4 ml) 7. (a) Balance the following equation using the smallest integer coefficient. Fe(NO 3 ) 3 (aq) + KOH(aq) Fe(OH) 3 (s) + KNO 3 (aq) (b) How many grams of Fe(OH) 3 are produced when 25.0 ml of M Fe(NO 3 ) 3 and 50.0 ml of M KOH solutions are mixed and the following reaction occurs. (c) How many moles of the excess reactant remain in solution? (Answer: (b) g of Fe(OH) 3 ; (c) KOH in excess by mol) 8. Balance the following equation using the smallest integer coefficients. H 2 SO 4 (aq) + NaOH(aq) H 2 O(l) + Na 2 SO 4 (aq) (b) A 5.00 ml sample of an old battery acid containing H 2 SO 4 is diluted with de-ionized water in a 100- ml volumetric flask. A mL sample of the diluted is titrated with M NaOH solution, which requires ml of the base to reach the end-point. Calculate the molar concentrations of H 2 SO 4 (i) in dilute battery solution, and (ii) in undiluted battery acid solution. (Answer: (b) (i) M; (ii) 3.62 M) 6

7 Exercises #4: Redox Reactions 1. Determine the oxidation number (o.n.) of each atom in the following formula (compounds or polyatomic ions): (a) CaCO 3 : (d) KClO 3 : (b) Cr 2 O 7 2- : (d) MnO 4 - : (c) HNO 3 : 2. Determine whether each of the following reactions is a redox or non-redox? Explain. (a) CaCO 3 (s) CaO(s) + CO 2 (g) (b) 2 KClO 3 (s) 2 KCl(s) + 3 O 2 (g) (c) (NH 4 ) 2 Cr 2 O 7 (s) Cr 2 O 3 (s) + N 2 (g) + 4H 2 O(g) (d) 2KMnO 4 (aq) + 10FeSO 4 (aq) + 8H 2 SO 4 (aq) 2MnSO 4 (aq) + K 2 SO 4 (aq) + 5Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 (aq) + 8H 2 O(l) (e) CaO(s) + SO 2 (g) CaSO 3 (s) 3. Balance the following redox reactions under acidic condition using half-reaction method. In each case, identify the oxidizing agent, the reducing agent, the element being oxidized, and the element being reduced. (a) KMnO 4 (aq) + NaHSO 3 (aq) MnSO 4 (aq) + NaHSO 4 (aq) (b) Cr 2 O 7 2 (aq) + H 2 O 2 (aq) Cr 3+ (aq) + H 2 O(l) + O 2 (g) 4. Balanced the following redox reactions under basic condition. In each case, identify the oxidizing agent, the reducing agent, the element being oxidized, and the element being reduced. (a) Cr(OH) 4 (aq) + H2 O 2 (aq) CrO 4 2 (aq) + H 2 O(l) (b) Br 2 (aq) + OH (aq) BrO 3 (aq) + Br (aq) + H2 O(l) 7

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