Solution a homogeneous mixture = A solvent + solute(s) Aqueous solution water is the solvent

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Solution a homogeneous mixture = A solvent + solute(s) Aqueous solution water is the solvent"

Transcription

1 Solution a homogeneous mixture = A solvent + solute(s) Aqueous solution water is the solvent Water a polar solvent: dissolves most ionic compounds as well as many molecular compounds Aqueous solution: Strong electrolyte contains lots of freely moving ions Weak electrolyte contains a little amount of freely moving ions Nonelectrolyte does not contain ions Solution concentrations: Percent (by mass) = Mass of Solute Mass of Solution x 100% For example, if 1.00 kg of seawater contains 35 g of sodium chloride, the percent of NaCl in seawater is 35 g x 100% = 3.5% 1000 g If a solution contains 25 g NaCl dissolved in 100. g of water, the mass percent of NaCl in the solution is 25 g x 100% = 20.% ( ) g (A solution that contains 20.% (by mass) of NaCl means that for every 100 g of the solution, there will be 20 g of NaCl. Therefore, if seawater contains 3.5% NaCl, for every 100 g of seawater, there are 3.5 g of NaCl.) Percent (by volume) = Volume of Solute Volume of Solution x 100% For example, if 750 ml of white wine contains 80. ml of ethanol, the percent of ethanol by volume is 80. ml x 100% = 11% 750 ml (A solution that contains 11% ethanol (by volume) means that for every 100 ml of the solution, there will be 11 ml of ethanol in it. However, unlike mass, volume addition is not always additive meaning that if you add 11 ml of ethanol and 89 ml of water, the total is not 100 ml. In this case, the total volume is slightly larger than 100 ml. Therefore, in many mixtures, percent by volume is only an approximation.) 1

2 Molar concentration (Molarity) = Mole of Solute Liter of Solution For example, if a solution contains 0.25 mole of NaCl in 440 ml of the solution, the molar concentration of sodium chloride in this solution is 0.25 mole L of solution = 0.57 M (mol/l) If you dissolve 36.0 g of NaCl in 250. ml of solution, the molar concentration of NaCl will be 1 mole NaCl (36.0 g NaCl x ) L = 2.46 mol/l = 2.46 M g NaCl Exercises #1: 1. What types of particles are presents in an aqueous solution of: (a) strong electrolytes - (b) weak electrolytes - (c) nonelectrolyte 2. Which of these solutions will strongly conduct electric current? (a) H 2 SO 4 (aq) (b) BaCl 2 (aq) (c) CH 3 OH(aq) (d) NaOH(aq) (e) HC 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) 3. Which of these solutions will not conduct electric current? (a) C 2 H 6 O 2 (aq) (b) NaC 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) (c) HC 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) (d) C 12 H 22 O 11 (aq) 4. Which of the following is/are weak electrolytes and will conduct electricity to some extent? (a) C 2 H 5 OH(aq) (b) HNO 2 (aq) (c) NH 3 (aq) (d) KOH(aq) (e) HC 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) 5. Write the formula of the particles (ions and/or molecules) found in aqueous solution of each of the following compounds and indicate whether the solution is a strong electrolyte, weak electrolyte, or nonelectrolyte. (a) NH 4 Cl: (d) HNO 3 : (b) C 2 H 5 OH (ethanol): (c) C 6 H 12 O 6 (glucose): (f) HC 2 H 3 O 2 : (e) NaOH: 2

3 6. Write an equation for the dissociation of calcium nitrate, Ca(NO 3 ) 2 (a strong electrolyte), is aqueous solution. 7. Write an equation for the dissociation of acetic acid (HC 2 H 3 O 2, a weak electrolyte), in aqueous solution. 8. Which of the following compounds will NOT form ions in aqueous solutions? (a) HNO 2 (b) C 2 H 6 O 2 (c) C 6 H 12 O 6 (d) Al(NO 3 ) 3 (e) C 3 H 7 OH 9. A solution of sodium chloride is prepared by dissolving 25.0 g of NaCl in 135 g of distilled water. Calculate the mass percent of NaCl in the solution. (Answer: 15.6%) 10. (a) If grams of potassium dichromate, K 2 Cr 2 O 7, are dissolved in 750. ml of aqueous solution, how many moles of K 2 Cr 2 O 7 is dissolved? (b) What is the molar concentration of potassium dichromate in the solution? (c) Potassium dichromate is an ionic compound that completely dissolves in water. Write an equation for the dissociation of K 2 Cr 2 O 7 in aqueous solution. (d) What is the molar concentration of the total ions in the solution? (e) How many moles of K 2 Cr 2 O 7 are present in 25.0 ml of this solution? (Answer: (a) mol; (b) M; (d) M; (e) 6.25 x 10 3 mol) 3

4 Exercises #2: Write balanced molecular equation (m.e.) total ionic equation (t.i.e.), and net ionic equation (n.i.e.) for each reaction described below. 1. When lead(ii) nitrate solution is reacted with potassium chromate solution, it yields a bright yellow precipitate of lead(ii) chromate and aqueous potassium nitrate solution. 2. A pale yellow precipitate of silver phosphate is formed when aqueous solutions of silver nitrate and sodium phosphate are mixed. 3. Aqueous calcium hydroxide solution reacts with nitric acid solution to form water and calcium nitrate solution. 4. When solid calcium carbonate is reacted with hydrochloric acid, it produces aqueous calcium chloride, water, and carbon dioxide gas. 5. When sulfuric acid is neutralized with barium hydroxide solution, the products are water and barium sulfate precipitate. 4

5 Exercises #3: 1. The molarity of ethanol (CH 3 CH 2 OH) in some gasoline is 0.22 M. (a) Determine how many moles of ethanol are present in 1.00 gallon of gasoline. (1 gallon = L) (b) How many grams of ethanol are present in 1.00 gallon of gasoline? (c) How many gallons of gasoline contain 1.00 kg of ethanol? (Answer: (a) 0.83 mol; (b) 38 g; (c) 26 gallons) 2. How many moles of Al 3+ and SO 4 2- ions, respectively, are present in a 500- ml sample of M Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 solution? (Answer: mol Al 3+ and mol SO 4 2 ) 3. A 125-mL solution contains Ba 2+ ions of unknown concentration. If it requires 65.0 ml of M H 2 SO 4 to precipitate all of Ba 2+ as BaSO 4, determine the concentration of Ba 2+ ion in the solution. The net ionic equation for the precipitation reaction is (Answer: [Ba 2+ ] = M) Ba 2+ (aq) + SO 4 2- (aq) BaSO 4 (s) 4. A vinegar sample was titrated with M NaOH solution to the end-point using phenolphthalein as indicator. It requires ml of the NaOH solution to completely neutralize the acetic acid in a ml vinegar sample. Determine the molar concentration of acetic acid in the vinegar. The reaction between acetic acid and sodium hydroxide is represented by the following equation. HC 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) + NaOH(aq) NaC 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) + H 2 O(l) (Answer: [HC 2 H 3 O 2 ] = M) 5. How many grams of calcium oxalate, CaC 2 O 4, are produced when 125 ml of M CaCl 2 solution is added to 75.0 ml of M Na 2 C 2 O 4 solution and the following reaction occurs? Na 2 C 2 O 4 (aq) + CaCl 2 (aq) CaC 2 O 4 (s) + 2NaCl(aq) (Answer: 2.40 g of CaC 2 O 4 ) 5

6 6. A g mineral sample is treated with concentrated nitric acid to dissolve the silver in the mineral sample. The dissolved silver is then precipitated as silver thiocyanate (AgSCN) by adding an excess amount of potassium thiocyanate solution. (a) Write the net ionic equation for the precipitation reaction. (b) If 3.42 g of AgSCN were precipitated, calculate the mass percent of silver in the mineral sample. (c) If the molar concentration of KSCN solution were M, what volume (in ml) is just enough to completely react with Ag + is the sample? (Answer: (b) 29.4% Ag; (c) 82.4 ml) 7. (a) Balance the following equation using the smallest integer coefficient. Fe(NO 3 ) 3 (aq) + KOH(aq) Fe(OH) 3 (s) + KNO 3 (aq) (b) How many grams of Fe(OH) 3 are produced when 25.0 ml of M Fe(NO 3 ) 3 and 50.0 ml of M KOH solutions are mixed and the following reaction occurs. (c) How many moles of the excess reactant remain in solution? (Answer: (b) g of Fe(OH) 3 ; (c) KOH in excess by mol) 8. Balance the following equation using the smallest integer coefficients. H 2 SO 4 (aq) + NaOH(aq) H 2 O(l) + Na 2 SO 4 (aq) (b) A 5.00 ml sample of an old battery acid containing H 2 SO 4 is diluted with de-ionized water in a 100- ml volumetric flask. A mL sample of the diluted is titrated with M NaOH solution, which requires ml of the base to reach the end-point. Calculate the molar concentrations of H 2 SO 4 (i) in dilute battery solution, and (ii) in undiluted battery acid solution. (Answer: (b) (i) M; (ii) 3.62 M) 6

7 Exercises #4: Redox Reactions 1. Determine the oxidation number (o.n.) of each atom in the following formula (compounds or polyatomic ions): (a) CaCO 3 : (d) KClO 3 : (b) Cr 2 O 7 2- : (d) MnO 4 - : (c) HNO 3 : 2. Determine whether each of the following reactions is a redox or non-redox? Explain. (a) CaCO 3 (s) CaO(s) + CO 2 (g) (b) 2 KClO 3 (s) 2 KCl(s) + 3 O 2 (g) (c) (NH 4 ) 2 Cr 2 O 7 (s) Cr 2 O 3 (s) + N 2 (g) + 4H 2 O(g) (d) 2KMnO 4 (aq) + 10FeSO 4 (aq) + 8H 2 SO 4 (aq) 2MnSO 4 (aq) + K 2 SO 4 (aq) + 5Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 (aq) + 8H 2 O(l) (e) CaO(s) + SO 2 (g) CaSO 3 (s) 3. Balance the following redox reactions under acidic condition using half-reaction method. In each case, identify the oxidizing agent, the reducing agent, the element being oxidized, and the element being reduced. (a) KMnO 4 (aq) + NaHSO 3 (aq) MnSO 4 (aq) + NaHSO 4 (aq) (b) Cr 2 O 7 2 (aq) + H 2 O 2 (aq) Cr 3+ (aq) + H 2 O(l) + O 2 (g) 4. Balanced the following redox reactions under basic condition. In each case, identify the oxidizing agent, the reducing agent, the element being oxidized, and the element being reduced. (a) Cr(OH) 4 (aq) + H2 O 2 (aq) CrO 4 2 (aq) + H 2 O(l) (b) Br 2 (aq) + OH (aq) BrO 3 (aq) + Br (aq) + H2 O(l) 7

Aqueous Reactions & Sol n Stoichiometry. Chapter 5

Aqueous Reactions & Sol n Stoichiometry. Chapter 5 Aqueous Reactions & Sol n Stoichiometry Chapter 5 Properties of Aqueous Solutions Electrolytic Properties ionic - conduct electricity (electrolytes) non-ionic - do not conduct electricity (non-electrolytes)

More information

Solve The diagram shows twice as many cations as anions, consistent with the formulation K 2 SO 4.

Solve The diagram shows twice as many cations as anions, consistent with the formulation K 2 SO 4. Sample Exercise 4.1 Relating Relative Numbers of Anions and Cations to Chemical Formulas The accompanying diagram represents an aqueous solution of either MgCl 2, KCl, or K 2 SO 4. Which solution does

More information

Sample Exercise 4.1 Relating Relative Numbers of Anions and Cations to Chemical Formulas

Sample Exercise 4.1 Relating Relative Numbers of Anions and Cations to Chemical Formulas Sample Exercise 4.1 Relating Relative Numbers of Anions and Cations to Chemical Formulas The diagram on the right represents an aqueous solution of one of the following compounds: MgCl 2, KCl, or K 2 SO

More information

1. The solution gives no apparent reaction with dilute hydrochloric acid

1. The solution gives no apparent reaction with dilute hydrochloric acid Which of the following would have to be absent for the following statement to be true: (A) CO 3 (B) Cr 2 O 7 (C) NH 4 (D) Ba 2 (E) Al 3 1. The solution gives no apparent reaction with dilute hydrochloric

More information

Aqueous Solutions. Water is the dissolving medium, or solvent. Some Properties of Water. A Solute. Types of Chemical Reactions.

Aqueous Solutions. Water is the dissolving medium, or solvent. Some Properties of Water. A Solute. Types of Chemical Reactions. Aqueous Solutions and Solution Stoichiometry Water is the dissolving medium, or solvent. Some Properties of Water Water is bent or V-shaped. The O-H bonds are covalent. Water is a polar molecule. Hydration

More information

Unit 4. Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry

Unit 4. Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry Unit 4. Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry Upon successful completion of this unit, the students should be able to: 4.1 Define the terms solute, solvent, and solution. 1. Define solute.

More information

Chemistry. Zumdahl, 7th edition

Chemistry. Zumdahl, 7th edition Chemistry Zumdahl, 7th edition CH4 Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry Yellow lead(ii) iodide is produced when lead(ii) nitrate is mixed with potassium iodide. P.126 Contents 4.1 Water,

More information

Tutorial 4 SOLUTION STOICHIOMETRY. Solution stoichiometry calculations involve chemical reactions taking place in solution.

Tutorial 4 SOLUTION STOICHIOMETRY. Solution stoichiometry calculations involve chemical reactions taking place in solution. T-27 Tutorial 4 SOLUTION STOICHIOMETRY Solution stoichiometry calculations involve chemical reactions taking place in solution. Of the various methods of expressing solution concentration the most convenient

More information

Chapter 4 Notes - Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Chemistry

Chapter 4 Notes - Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Chemistry AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 4 Notes - Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Chemistry 4.1 Water, the Common Solvent A. Structure of water 1. Oxygen's electronegativity is high (3.5) and hydrogen's

More information

Aqueous Reactions & Sol n Stoichiometry

Aqueous Reactions & Sol n Stoichiometry Aqueous Reactions & Sol n Stoichiometry Chapter 5 Properties of Aqueous Solutions Electrolytic Properties ionic - conduct electricity (electrolytes) non-ionic - do not conduct electricity (non-electrolytes)

More information

Chapter 4 - Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry AP Chemistry

Chapter 4 - Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry AP Chemistry Chapter 4 - Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry AP Chemistry Water, the Common Solvent Water behaves as a great solvent for many substances due to its unique molecular structure. Solvent

More information

Chemistry 1A - Chapter 5 Exercise Key

Chemistry 1A - Chapter 5 Exercise Key Chemistry 1A - Chapter 5 Exercise Key Exercise 5.1 Ionic Solubility: Predict whether each of the following is soluble or insoluble in water. a. Hg(NO ) 2 soluble b. FeCO insoluble c. SnS insoluble d. K

More information

CHEM Fall 2004

CHEM Fall 2004 CHEM 141-04 Fall 2004 Exam # 2 Name Date 1. (2 points) How many atoms or molecules is a mole. Avogadro s number of specific kind of atom or molecule. 2. (3 points) Circle all the ion pairs which can form

More information

light bulb bright no light bright no light bright no light no light

light bulb bright no light bright no light bright no light no light sodium chloride (aq) sucrose solution hydrochloric acid acetic acid (glacial) acetic acid (dilute) gatorade light bulb bright no light bright no light dim dim conclusion strong electrolyte nonelectrolyte

More information

Chemistry 101 Chapter 4 STOICHIOMETRY

Chemistry 101 Chapter 4 STOICHIOMETRY STOICHIOMETRY Stoichiometry is the quantitative relationship between the reactants and products in a balanced chemical equation. Stoichiometry allows chemists to predict how much of a reactant is necessary

More information

Acidsare molecular substances that dissociate when dissolved to release H + ions. Strong electrolytes dissociate completely into ions: NaCl(s) HCl(g)

Acidsare molecular substances that dissociate when dissolved to release H + ions. Strong electrolytes dissociate completely into ions: NaCl(s) HCl(g) Announcements Wednesday, October 07, 2009 MasteringChemistry due dates (all at 11:59pm): Ch 4: Wed, Oct 14 Ch 5: Fri, Oct 23 Ch 6: Fri, Oct 30 Dissolving of electrolytes Electrolytes dissociate into ions

More information

Reactions in Aqueous Solutions

Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Chapter 4 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. A solution is a homogenous mixture of 2 or more substances. The solute

More information

Chapter 5 REACTIONS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION

Chapter 5 REACTIONS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION Review Questions Chapter 5 Reactions in Solution Page 1 Chapter 5 REACTIONS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION 5-1. Which one of the following is a nonelectrolyte when dissolved in water (a) sodium chloride sugar copper

More information

Chapter 4: Three Major Types of Chemical Reactions

Chapter 4: Three Major Types of Chemical Reactions 4-1 CHEM 1A: GENERAL CHEMISTRY Chapter 4: Three Major Types of Chemical Reactions Instructor: Dr. Orlando E. Raola Santa Rosa Junior College 4-2 Chapter 4 Three Major Classes of Chemical Reactions 4-3

More information

Types of Mixtures Notes *What is the Tyndall Effect? Suspension. Colloid. Solution. COMPONENTS OF A SOLUTION ~ Solute: ~ Solvent:

Types of Mixtures Notes *What is the Tyndall Effect? Suspension. Colloid. Solution. COMPONENTS OF A SOLUTION ~ Solute: ~ Solvent: Types of Mixtures Notes *What is the Tyndall Effect? Homogeneous or # of visible Heterogeneous phases Settling? Filterable? Tyndall Effect? * Particle Size Examples Suspension Colloid Solution COMPONENTS

More information

CHEM 100 Sample Test Chapter 4

CHEM 100 Sample Test Chapter 4 CHEM 100 Sample Test Chapter 4 SAMPLE TEST -CHPATER 4 Freshman Chemistry, La Tech-CHEM 100 sample, Test 3-Chapter 4. 1. When a homogeneous liquid mixture is formed from solid KNO 3 and water, the KNO 3

More information

CHAPTER 5. Aqueous Solutions: An Introduction. Chemical Reactions in Aqueous Solution

CHAPTER 5. Aqueous Solutions: An Introduction. Chemical Reactions in Aqueous Solution CHAPTER 5 Chemical Reactions in Aqueous Solution 1 Aqueous Solutions: An Introduction 1. Electrolytes and Extent of Ionization Aqueous solutions consist of a solute dissolved in water. Classification of

More information

CHM152LL Solution Chemistry Worksheet

CHM152LL Solution Chemistry Worksheet Name: Section: CHM152LL Solution Chemistry Worksheet Many chemical reactions occur in solution. Solids are often dissolved in a solvent and mixed to produce a chemical reaction that would not occur if

More information

1. Hydrobromic acid reacts with aqueous lithium sulfide Molecular Equation

1. Hydrobromic acid reacts with aqueous lithium sulfide Molecular Equation NAME Hr Chapter 4 Aqueous Reactions and Solution Chemistry Practice B (Part 1 = Obj. 1-3) (Part 2 = Obj. 4-6) Objective 1: Electrolytes, Acids, and Bases a. Indicate whether each of the following is strong,

More information

Chapter 4. Aqueous Solutions

Chapter 4. Aqueous Solutions Chapter 4 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Aqueous Solutions Solvent: the dissolving medium Solute: the substance dissolved Solution: the homogeneous mixture of the two Saltwater: Solvent = water Solute

More information

Chapter 4 Solution Chemistry

Chapter 4 Solution Chemistry Chapter 4 Solution Chemistry Solution Stoichiometry Many reactions (biochemical, marine, etc.) take place in solution. We need to be able to express the number of moles of particles in a certain volume

More information

Composition of Solutions

Composition of Solutions Chapter 11 Solutions The Composition of Solutions The Solution Process Factors that Affect Solubility Measuring Concentrations of Solutions Quantities for Reactions That Occur in Aqueous Solution Colligative

More information

Calculate the molar mass of the following Magnesium nitrate

Calculate the molar mass of the following Magnesium nitrate 1.1 Molar Mass 1.2 Molar Mass Molar mass = Molar mass of molecules can be determined from the chemical formula and molar masses of elements Each H 2 O molecule Each mole of H 2 O molecules contains Calculate

More information

Chapter 4: Phenomena. Electrolytes. Electrolytes. Molarity & Dilutions. Electrolytes. Chapter 4 Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry

Chapter 4: Phenomena. Electrolytes. Electrolytes. Molarity & Dilutions. Electrolytes. Chapter 4 Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry Chapter 4: Phenomena Phenomena: Many different reactions are known to occur. Scientists wondered if these reaction could be separated into groups based on their properties. Look at the reactions below

More information

Stoichiometry. Stoichiometry Which of the following forms a compound having the formula KXO 4? (A) F (B) S (C) Mg (D) Ar (E) Mn

Stoichiometry. Stoichiometry Which of the following forms a compound having the formula KXO 4? (A) F (B) S (C) Mg (D) Ar (E) Mn The Advanced Placement Examination in Chemistry Part I Multiple Choice Questions Part II - Free Response Questions Selected Questions from 1970 to 2010 Stoichiometry Part I 1984 2. Which of the following

More information

Review of Basic Concepts, Molarity, Solutions, Dilutions and Beer s Law

Review of Basic Concepts, Molarity, Solutions, Dilutions and Beer s Law Review of Basic Concepts, Molarity, Solutions, Dilutions and Beer s Law Aqueous Solutions In Chemistry, many reactions take place in water. This is also true for Biological processes. Reactions that take

More information

Molarity of Ions in Solution

Molarity of Ions in Solution APPENDIX A Molarity of Ions in Solution ften it is necessary to calculate not only the concentration (in molarity) of a compound in aqueous solution but also the concentration of each ion in aqueous solution.

More information

Continuation of Chapter 4 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

Continuation of Chapter 4 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Continuation of Chapter 4 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Oxidation-reduction reactions involve the transfer of electrons from one species to another. Oxidation is defined as the loss of electrons. Reduction

More information

Chapter 6 Chemical reactions Classification And Mass Relationships. Chapter 6 1

Chapter 6 Chemical reactions Classification And Mass Relationships. Chapter 6 1 Chapter 6 Chemical reactions Classification And Mass Relationships Chapter 6 1 Chemical reactions and Chemical Equations Balancing Chemical Equations Mole, Avogadro s Number Stoichiometric Problems Percent

More information

1) Convert the following

1) Convert the following 1) Convert the following 1) 125 g to Kg 6) 26.9 dm 3 to cm 3 11) 1.8µL to cm 3 16) 4.8 lb to Kg 21) 23C to K 1.25 x 10-1 Kg 2) 21.3 Km to cm 2.13 x 10 6 cm 2.69 x 10 3 cm 3 7) 18.2 ml to cm 3 1.82 x 10

More information

Soluble salts in solution!

Soluble salts in solution! 5 Chemical Reactions 5.1 Exchange Reactions: Precipitation and Net Ionic Equations (p. 165) An is a compound whose aqueous solution conducts electricity. electrolytes are solutes that exist in solution

More information

TOPIC 10. CHEMICAL CALCULATIONS IV - solution stoichiometry.

TOPIC 10. CHEMICAL CALCULATIONS IV - solution stoichiometry. TOPIC 10. CHEMICAL CALCULATIONS IV - solution stoichiometry. Calculations involving solutions. Frequently reactions occur between species which are present in solution. One type of chemical analysis called

More information

Chemical Reactions. Chemical equation

Chemical Reactions. Chemical equation Handout Kimia Dasar I 2013/2014 Chemical Reactions Chemical equation All chemical reactions take place according to a set of general principles that relate the amounts of materials consumed in a reaction

More information

Chem 121a, Quiz 2 Fall Semester, 1998 SSN:

Chem 121a, Quiz 2 Fall Semester, 1998 SSN: Chem 121a, Quiz 2 Name: Fall Semester, 1998 SSN: DIRECTIONS: Carefully mark the appropriate answer to each question on the Scantron sheet and show your work in the space provided. Each question is worth

More information

Chapter 4. Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry

Chapter 4. Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry Common Student Misconceptions Molarity is moles of solute per liter of solution not per liter of solvent. Students sometimes used moles instead of molarity in MinitialVinitial = MfinalVfinal. Students

More information

6. What is the mass of a phosphorus sample which contains moles of phosphorus atoms? a g b g c g d g e. 34.

6. What is the mass of a phosphorus sample which contains moles of phosphorus atoms? a g b g c g d g e. 34. General Chemistry 1. Fall 2006. Exam 1. October 30, 2006. 64 points total. Choose the best answer for questions 1-20. You must show your work for all questions to receive credit. Be sure to include units

More information

TYPES OF CHEMICAL REACTION

TYPES OF CHEMICAL REACTION TYPES OF CHEMICAL REACTION I. METATHESIS REACTIONS (or DOUBLE DISPLACEMENT RXNS) In these reactions the ions of the reactants are exchanged: A + B (aq) + C + D (aq) AD (?) + CB (?) Double Displacement

More information

Chemistry 142 Multiple Choice. Fill in your name, section, and student number on Side 1 of the Answer Sheet.

Chemistry 142 Multiple Choice. Fill in your name, section, and student number on Side 1 of the Answer Sheet. Chemistry 142 Multiple Choice (a) Before starting, please check to see that your exam has 6 pages, which includes the periodic table. (b) (c) Fill in your name, section, and student number on Side 1 of

More information

3. How many moles of KCl and O 2 are formed from the decomposition of 6 moles of KClO 3?

3. How many moles of KCl and O 2 are formed from the decomposition of 6 moles of KClO 3? What coefficients mean: 2 Na + Cl 2 2NaCl 2 Na 1 Cl 2 2NaCl 4 Na 2 Na + Cl 2 4Cl 2 6 moles Na 2NaCl 10 atoms Na ONLY WORKS FOR MOLES, MOLECULES, ATOMS 1. How many moles of H 2 and O 2 must react to form

More information

Solutions CHAPTER Specific answers depend on student choices.

Solutions CHAPTER Specific answers depend on student choices. CHAPTER 15 1. Specific answers depend on student choices.. A heterogeneous mixture does not have a uniform composition: the composition varies in different places within the mixture. Examples of non homogeneous

More information

10/21/2013. Chemical REACTIONS you should know. Chemical Reactions. 1 st Write Reaction

10/21/2013. Chemical REACTIONS you should know. Chemical Reactions. 1 st Write Reaction Chapter 3: Chemical Stoichiometry Chemical Equations (Write, Balance, Interpret) Reactions You Should Know Formula Weights (Must know chemical formula Avogadro s number and the Mole Limiting Reactants

More information

1. Chemical reaction = process by which one or more substances are changed into one or more different substances (atoms are rearranged)

1. Chemical reaction = process by which one or more substances are changed into one or more different substances (atoms are rearranged) 1. Chemical reaction = process by which one or more substances are changed into one or more different substances (atoms are rearranged) a) reactants = original substances(written to the left of the arrow

More information

Net Ionic Equations Making Sense of Chemical Reactions

Net Ionic Equations Making Sense of Chemical Reactions 14 Making Sense of Chemical Reactions OBJECTIVE Students will be able to write net ionic equations from balanced molecular equations. LEVEL Chemistry NATIONAL STANDARDS UCP.1, UCP.2, B.3 T E A C H E R

More information

2. [7 points] What is the empirical formula of the ionic compound that forms between calcium and iodine?

2. [7 points] What is the empirical formula of the ionic compound that forms between calcium and iodine? Avogadro s Number, N A = 6.022 10 23 1. [7 points] Which of the following statements is true? (a) Air is an element (b) Air is a compound (c) Air is a heterogeneous mixture (d) Air is a homogeneous mixture

More information

Chapter 4 Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry. Aqueous Reactions

Chapter 4 Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry. Aqueous Reactions Chapter 4 and Solution Stoichiometry Solutions: Homogeneous mixtures of two or more pure substances. The solvent is usually present in greatest abundance. Or, the solvent is the liquid when a solid is

More information

CHAPTER 4: ANSWERS TO ASSIGNED PROBLEMS Hauser- General Chemistry I revised 10/14/08

CHAPTER 4: ANSWERS TO ASSIGNED PROBLEMS Hauser- General Chemistry I revised 10/14/08 CHAPTER 4: ANSWERS TO ASSIGNED PROBLEMS Hauser- General Chemistry I revised 10/14/08 4.5 You are presented with three white solids, A, B, and C, which are glucose (a sugar substance), NaOH, and AgBr. Solid

More information

Chemistry 12 Review Sheet on Unit 3 Solubility of Ionic Substances

Chemistry 12 Review Sheet on Unit 3 Solubility of Ionic Substances Chemistry 12 Review Sheet on Unit 3 Solubility of Ionic Substances 1. Identify each of the following as ionic or molecular substances: a) NaCl (aq)... b) CH 3 COOH (aq)... c) CCl 4(l)... d) HNO 3(aq)...

More information

4. Aluminum chloride is 20.2% aluminum by mass. Calculate the mass of aluminum in a 35.0 gram sample of aluminum chloride.

4. Aluminum chloride is 20.2% aluminum by mass. Calculate the mass of aluminum in a 35.0 gram sample of aluminum chloride. 1. Calculate the molecular mass of table sugar sucrose (C 12 H 22 O 11 ). A. 342.30 amu C. 320.05 amu B. 160.03 amu D. 171.15 amu 2. How many oxygen atoms are in 34.5 g of NaNO 3? A. 2.34 10 23 atoms C.

More information

stoichiometry = the numerical relationships between chemical amounts in a reaction.

stoichiometry = the numerical relationships between chemical amounts in a reaction. 1 REACTIONS AND YIELD ANSWERS stoichiometry = the numerical relationships between chemical amounts in a reaction. 2C 8 H 18 (l) + 25O 2 16CO 2 (g) + 18H 2 O(g) From the equation, 16 moles of CO 2 (a greenhouse

More information

2. An aqueous solution of potassium chloride is mixed with an aqueous solution of sodium nitrate.

2. An aqueous solution of potassium chloride is mixed with an aqueous solution of sodium nitrate. Name: Date: Practice Test #3 1. When a precipitation reaction occurs, the ions that do not form the precipitate A) evaporate B) are cations only C) form a second insoluble compound in the solution D) are

More information

Chemical Equations. Chemical Equations. Chemical reactions describe processes involving chemical change

Chemical Equations. Chemical Equations. Chemical reactions describe processes involving chemical change Chemical Reactions Chemical Equations Chemical reactions describe processes involving chemical change The chemical change involves rearranging matter Converting one or more pure substances into new pure

More information

(b) KMnO 4 : (d) N 2 O 5 : (f) Pb(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 : (j) Li 2 CO 3 : (d) Magnesium sulfate heptahydrate:

(b) KMnO 4 : (d) N 2 O 5 : (f) Pb(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 : (j) Li 2 CO 3 : (d) Magnesium sulfate heptahydrate: 1. Give the systematic name of each of the following compounds: (a) Ag 2 CrO 4 : (c) BaCl 2 2H 2 O: (e) NiSO 4 5H 2 O : (g) H 3 PO 4 : (k) Hg 2 (NO 3 ) 2 : (b) KMnO 4 : (d) N 2 O 5 : (f) Pb(C 2 H 3 O 2

More information

Classes of Chemical Reactions

Classes of Chemical Reactions Classes of Chemical Reactions Reactions in aqueous media Precipitation reactions Acid-Base reactions Oxidation-Reduction reactions Reversible reactions Classes of Chemical Reactions Water (H 2 O), a unique

More information

Chapter 15: Properties of Acids. Properties of Bases

Chapter 15: Properties of Acids. Properties of Bases : Properties of Acids An acid is any substance that releases hydrogen ions, H +, into water. Blue litmus paper turns red in the presence of hydrogen ions. Blue litmus is used to test for acids. Acids have

More information

Name: Class: Date: 2 4 (aq)

Name: Class: Date: 2 4 (aq) Name: Class: Date: Unit 4 Practice Test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The balanced molecular equation for complete neutralization of

More information

Chapter 3 Molecules, Moles, and Chemical Equations. Chapter Objectives. Warning!! Chapter Objectives. Chapter Objectives

Chapter 3 Molecules, Moles, and Chemical Equations. Chapter Objectives. Warning!! Chapter Objectives. Chapter Objectives Larry Brown Tom Holme www.cengage.com/chemistry/brown Chapter 3 Molecules, Moles, and Chemical Equations Jacqueline Bennett SUNY Oneonta 2 Warning!! These slides contains visual aids for learning BUT they

More information

Chapter 4 Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry

Chapter 4 Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry Chapter 4 Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry 4.1 General Properties of Aqueous Solutions Solutions are homogeneous mixtures. The solvent is present in greatest abundance. All other substances

More information

Chemical reactions. Classifications Reactions in solution Ionic equations

Chemical reactions. Classifications Reactions in solution Ionic equations Chemical reactions Classifications Reactions in solution Ionic equations Learning objectives Distinguish between chemical and physical change Write and balance chemical equations Describe concepts of oxidation

More information

Chapter 4 Part 1 Practice

Chapter 4 Part 1 Practice Chapter 4 Part 1 Practice Student: 1. Which of these compounds is a strong electrolyte? A. H 2 O B. O 2 C. H 2 SO 4 D. C 6 H 12 O 6 (glucose) E. CH 3 COOH (acetic acid) 2. Which of these compounds is a

More information

Chapter 3 Practice Worksheet: Formulas, Equations, and Moles: Part II

Chapter 3 Practice Worksheet: Formulas, Equations, and Moles: Part II Name: KEY Chapter 3 Practice Worksheet: Formulas, Equations, and Moles: Part II 1) Stoichiometry: Chemical Arithmetic For each equation and starting amount and substance shown, calculate the amount of

More information

Dr. Taylor Chapter 8 and 9 Homework Chem 111 Spring 2012

Dr. Taylor Chapter 8 and 9 Homework Chem 111 Spring 2012 Dr. Taylor Chapter 8 and 9 Homework Chem 111 Spring 2012 9.1 (12, 103 and 107) Electrolytes 9.2 (15, 21, 23, 25, 93 and 97) 9.3 (27, 31, 33, 35, 101, 105 and 111) 9.4 (45,47,49 and 51) 8.2 (17, 19, 21

More information

NET IONIC REACTIONS in AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS AB + CD AD + CB

NET IONIC REACTIONS in AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS AB + CD AD + CB NET IONIC REACTIONS in AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS Double replacements are among the most common of the simple chemical reactions. Consider the hypothetical reaction: AB + CD AD + CB where AB exists as A + and B

More information

10/7/2014. Chapter 4 Chemical Quantities and Aqueous Reactions. Global Warming. The Sources of Increased CO 2. Quantities in Chemical Reactions

10/7/2014. Chapter 4 Chemical Quantities and Aqueous Reactions. Global Warming. The Sources of Increased CO 2. Quantities in Chemical Reactions Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, 2nd Ed. Nivaldo Tro Chapter 4 Chemical Quantities and Aqueous Reactions Global Warming Scientists have measured an average 0.6 C rise in atmospheric temperature since 1860

More information

Chapter 4: Solution Stoichiometry Cont. Aqueous Solutions

Chapter 4: Solution Stoichiometry Cont. Aqueous Solutions Chapter 4: Solution Stoichiometry Cont. 1 Aqueous Solutions Molarity (dilution calculations, solution stoichiometry); Solubility and Solubility Rules Molecular, Ionic and Net Ionic Equations Precipitation

More information

Year 9 Extra Credit Assignment

Year 9 Extra Credit Assignment Complete the following problem by the Strategy: A. Balance the chemical equation for the reaction (see study guide. B. Use the given densities to convert from volume to mass. Then use each molar mass to

More information

Solution Chemistry. Chapter 4

Solution Chemistry. Chapter 4 Solution Chemistry Chapter 4 Dissolving and Dissociation When ionic compounds dissolve in water, the anions and cations are separated from each other. This is called dissociation. Na 2 S(aq) 2 Na + (aq)

More information

6/27/2014. Periodic Table of the ELEMENTS. Chemical REACTIONS you should know. Brief Review for 1311 Honors Exam 2

6/27/2014. Periodic Table of the ELEMENTS. Chemical REACTIONS you should know. Brief Review for 1311 Honors Exam 2 Brief Review for 3 Honors Exam 2 Chapter 2: Periodic Table I. Metals. Representative Metals Alkali Metals Group Alkaline Earth Metals. Group 2 2. Transition Metals II. Metalloids Chapter 3: All Chapter

More information

Formulas, Equations, and Moles

Formulas, Equations, and Moles Chapter 3 Formulas, Equations, and Moles Chemistry, 4 th Edition McMurry/Fay Dr. Paul Charlesworth Michigan Technological University Balancing Chemical Equations 01 A balanced chemical equation represents

More information

4.3: Stoichiometry and Stock Solutions

4.3: Stoichiometry and Stock Solutions 4.3: Stoichiometry and Stock Solutions Up until now we have used pure substances and added them to water in order to make solutions. The point of using solutions is that they are often easier to use in

More information

Chemical Reactions: An Introduction

Chemical Reactions: An Introduction Chapter 4 Chemical Reactions: An Introduction Concept Check 4.1 LiI(s) and CH 3 OH(l) are each introduced into a separate beaker containing water. Using the drawings shown here, label each beaker with

More information

Chapter 4 Intro 1 1. Stoichiometry. Stoichiometric ratio: The ratio of any two. Stoichiometry. Stoichiometry. Stoichiometry.

Chapter 4 Intro 1 1. Stoichiometry. Stoichiometric ratio: The ratio of any two. Stoichiometry. Stoichiometry. Stoichiometry. Chapter 4 : Quantitative Information about Chemical Reactions The study of mass relationships in chemical reactions is called. provides quantitative information about chemical reactions. Mass must be conserved

More information

Chemistry 1 Review. 1. Round the following to the correct number of significant figures:

Chemistry 1 Review. 1. Round the following to the correct number of significant figures: Chemistry 1 Review 1. Round the following to the correct number of significant figures: a) 0.00342892 (3 sig. fig.) b) 3423 (2 sig. fig.) c) 144.98 (1 sig. fig.) 2. Make sure the answers to the following

More information

Test 12: Review questions

Test 12: Review questions Name: Wednesday, April 16, 2008 Test 12: Review questions 1. Which reaction represents the process of neutralization? 1. Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq) MgCl 2(aq) + H 2(g) 2. HCl(aq) + KOH(aq) KCl(aq) + H2O(l) 3. Pb(NO

More information

3 Reactions in Aqueous Solution

3 Reactions in Aqueous Solution 3 Reactions in Aqueous Solution Notes: Concentration can be measured in terms of molarity (M). moles of solute Molarity = also Liters of solution moles of solute = (Molarity) (Liters of solution) M O L

More information

A Note on phase symbols, solubility and soluble compounds. Ch 4. Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry. Dissociation.

A Note on phase symbols, solubility and soluble compounds. Ch 4. Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry. Dissociation. Ch 4. Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry Understand the nature of ions in solutions Recognize and write common chemical reactions Use the activity series to predict products of reactions Write

More information

Chem 115 POGIL Worksheet - Week 5 Limiting Reagents, Solubility, and Solution Reactions

Chem 115 POGIL Worksheet - Week 5 Limiting Reagents, Solubility, and Solution Reactions Chem 115 POGIL Worksheet - Week 5 Limiting Reagents, Solubility, and Solution Reactions Why? The limiting reagent concept allows us to calculate amounts of reactants used and products formed in a complete

More information

CHEM 102: Sample Test 5

CHEM 102: Sample Test 5 CHEM 102: Sample Test 5 CHAPTER 17 1. When H 2 SO 4 is dissolved in water, which species would be found in the water at equilibrium in measurable amounts? a. H 2 SO 4 b. H 3 SO + 4 c. HSO 4 d. SO 2 4 e.

More information

1. Read P. 368-375, P. 382-387 & P. 429-436; P. 375 # 1-11 & P. 389 # 1,7,9,12,15; P. 436 #1, 7, 8, 11

1. Read P. 368-375, P. 382-387 & P. 429-436; P. 375 # 1-11 & P. 389 # 1,7,9,12,15; P. 436 #1, 7, 8, 11 SCH3U- R.H.KING ACADEMY SOLUTION & ACID/BASE WORKSHEET Name: The importance of water - MAKING CONNECTION READING 1. Read P. 368-375, P. 382-387 & P. 429-436; P. 375 # 1-11 & P. 389 # 1,7,9,12,15; P. 436

More information

Experiment 1 Chemical Reactions and Net Ionic Equations

Experiment 1 Chemical Reactions and Net Ionic Equations Experiment 1 Chemical Reactions and Net Ionic Equations I. Objective: To predict the products of some displacement reactions and write net ionic equations. II. Chemical Principles: A. Reaction Types. Chemical

More information

c. PCl 3 (l) + 3H 2 O(l) H 3 PO 3 (l) + 3HCl(g)

c. PCl 3 (l) + 3H 2 O(l) H 3 PO 3 (l) + 3HCl(g) Chapter 9 Chemical Quantities 1. Although we define mass as the amount of matter in a substance, the units in which we measure mass are a human invention. Atoms and molecules react on an individual particleby-particle

More information

c) increase the temperature left right no change d) decrease the volume left right no change

c) increase the temperature left right no change d) decrease the volume left right no change 1. (8 pts) Consider the following reaction at equilibrium: N 2 O 4 (g) 2 NO 2 (g) The value of K is 0.90 at 120 o C and 3.2 at 150 o C. Predict how the equilibrium will shift by the following changes.

More information

Reactions in Aqueous Solutions

Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Chem 101 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Lectures 15 and 16 Predicting Whether a Reaction Will Occur Forces that drive a reaction Formation of a solid Formation of water Transfer of electrons Formation

More information

What is a chemical reaction?

What is a chemical reaction? Chapter 5 Chemical Reactions and Equations What is a chemical reaction? How do we know a chemical reaction occurs? Writing chemical equations Predicting chemical reactions Representing reactions in aqueous

More information

Chemistry 51 Chapter 8 TYPES OF SOLUTIONS. A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two substances: a solute and a solvent.

Chemistry 51 Chapter 8 TYPES OF SOLUTIONS. A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two substances: a solute and a solvent. TYPES OF SOLUTIONS A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two substances: a solute and a solvent. Solute: substance being dissolved; present in lesser amount. Solvent: substance doing the dissolving; present

More information

Chapter Four. 4.1 (a) Solvent the medium into which something (a solute) is dissolved to make a solution

Chapter Four. 4.1 (a) Solvent the medium into which something (a solute) is dissolved to make a solution 4.1 (a) Solvent the medium into which something (a solute) is dissolved to make a solution Solute Something dissolved in a solvent to make a solution Concentration the ratio of the quantity of solute to

More information

1. When the following equation is balanced, the coefficient of Al is. Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) 3 (s) + H 2 (g)

1. When the following equation is balanced, the coefficient of Al is. Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) 3 (s) + H 2 (g) 1. When the following equation is balanced, the coefficient of Al is. Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) (s) + H 2 (g) A) 1 B) 2 C) 4 D) 5 E) Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) (s) + H 2 (g) Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH)

More information

Ch 8: Aqueous Solutions: Chemistry of the Hydrosphere

Ch 8: Aqueous Solutions: Chemistry of the Hydrosphere Ch 8: Aqueous Solutions: Chemistry of the Hydrosphere H 2 S + Cu 2+ CuS(s) + 2H + (Fe, Ni, Mn also) HS - + 2 O 2 HSO 4 - + energy (supports life) 1 2 Figure taken from Principles of Biochemistry, 2nd Ed.

More information

Aqueous Reactions. The products are just the cation-anion pairs reversed, or the outies (A and Y joined) and the innies (B and X joined).

Aqueous Reactions. The products are just the cation-anion pairs reversed, or the outies (A and Y joined) and the innies (B and X joined). Aqueous Reactions Defining Aqueous Reactions Aqueous reactions are reactions that take place in water. To understand them, it is important to understand how compounds behave in water. Some compounds are

More information

stronger than the attraction of the water to either the Pb 2+ or SO 4

stronger than the attraction of the water to either the Pb 2+ or SO 4 Reactions in solution Precipitation reactions not all ionic compounds are soluble in water. If PbSO 4 is added to water none of the lead(ii)sulfate will dissolve (the interaction between Pb 2+ and SO 4

More information

CHAPTER 3 STOICHIOMETRY OF FORMULAS AND EQUATIONS

CHAPTER 3 STOICHIOMETRY OF FORMULAS AND EQUATIONS CHAPTER 3 STOICHIOMETRY OF FORMULAS AND EQUATIONS FOLLOW UP PROBLEMS 3.1A Plan: The mass of carbon must be changed from mg to g. The molar mass of carbon can then be used to determine the number of moles.

More information

SCH3UI-02 Final Examination Review (Fall 2014)

SCH3UI-02 Final Examination Review (Fall 2014) SCH3UI-02 Final Examination Review (Fall 2014) 1. Chlorine has an atomic number of 17. Create a Bohr Rutherford diagram of a Cl-35 atom. To achieve a stable arrangement, is this atom most likely to gain

More information

Chapter 4: Amounts, Stoichiometry and Reactions in Aqueous Solutions

Chapter 4: Amounts, Stoichiometry and Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Previous Chapter Table of Contents Net Chapter Chapter 4: Amounts, Stoichiometry and Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Sections 4.1-4.2: Introduction to Molarity Molarity refers to the concentration of species

More information

TYPES OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS & SOLUTION STOICHIOMETRY

TYPES OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS & SOLUTION STOICHIOMETRY TYPES OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS & SOLUTION STOICHIOMETRY Chemists have used reactions to produce the materials Teflon, nylon, Dacron, Kevlar, polystyrene, and PVC among many others! WATER, THE COMMON SOLVENT

More information