Chemical Equations. Chemical Equations. Chemical reactions describe processes involving chemical change

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1 Chemical Reactions Chemical Equations Chemical reactions describe processes involving chemical change The chemical change involves rearranging matter Converting one or more pure substances into new pure substances Reactants Substances combined in the reaction Products Substances produced in the reaction Chemical equations are used to describe chemical reactions The chemical symbols for the reactants are shown on the left The chemical symbols for the products are shown on the right An arrow ( ) is used to indicate that reactants are converting to products A plus sign () is used to separate individual reactants and products Chemical Equations Chemical Equations hydrogen and oxygen react to form water Chemical equation describing the action: Subscripts? Coefficients? 2 H 2 (g) O 2 (g) 2 H 2 O(l) Letters in parentheses? 2 H 2 (g) O 2 (g) 2 H 2 O(l) Or, P 4 (s) 6Cl 2 4PCl 3 The equation accomplishes several things: Demonstrates the fundamental law of conservation of matter Atoms are neither created nor destroyed in chemical reactions, they are only rearranged

2 Stoichiometry Pronounced as stoy-key-ahm-uh-tree Balancing Chemical Equations For example, in the equation describing the formation of liquid water from hydrogen gas and oxygen gas 2 H 2 (g) O 2 (g) 2 H 2 O(l) The relationship between the quantities of reactants and products There are four hydrogen atoms on both the left and right sides of the equation There are two oxygen atoms on both the left and right sides of the equation Therefore the equation is balanced Balancing Chemical Equations Other examples NO(g) O 2 (g) NO 2 (g) Is it balanced? NO(g) O(g) NO 2 (g) Is this OK? Is it balanced? NO(g) ½ O 2 (g) NO 2 (g) Is this OK? How to Balance a Chemical Equation? NH 3 (g) O 2 (g) NO(g) H 2 O (g) First step: balance nitrogen atoms on both sides NH 3 (g) O 2 (g) NO(g) H 2 O (g) 2 nd step: Then hydrogen atoms 2NH 3 (g) O 2 (g) NO(g) 3H 2 O (g) But I will need to balance the N atoms again 2NH 3 (g) O 2 (g) 2NO(g) 3H 2 O (g) 3 rd step: Balance oxygens 2NH 3 (g) (5/2) O 2 (g) 2NO(g) 3H 2 O (g) 4 th and final step: Just remove the fractions 4NH 3 (g) 5 O 2 (g) 4NO(g) 6H 2 O (g) Now try NO(g) O 2 (g) NO 2 (g)

3 Balancing Chemical Equations Balancing Chemical Equations H 2 S(aq) I 2 (aq) HI(aq) S(s) H 2 S(aq) I 2 (aq) 2HI(aq) S(s) Fe(s) O 2 Fe 2 O 3 KClO 3 (s) KCl(s) O 2 (g) Mg O 2 (g) MgO Ca(OH) 2 (s) H 3 PO 4 (aq) Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 (s) H 2 O(l) P 4 (s) O 2 (g) P 4 O 10 (s) Ba(ClO 3 ) 2 (aq) H 2 SO 4 (aq) HClO 3 (aq) BaSO 4 (s) NH 3 (g)o 2 (g) NO(g) H 2 O(g) C 3 H 8 (g) O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) H 2 O(g) C 8 H 18 (l) O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) H 2 O(g) 4Fe(s) 3O 2 2Fe 2 O 3 2KClO 3 (s) 2KCl(s) 3O 2 (g) 2Mg O 2 (g) 2MgO 3Ca(OH) 2 (s) 2H 3 PO 4 (aq) Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 (s) 6H 2 O(l) P 4 (s) 5O 2 (g) P 4 O 10 (s) Ba(ClO 3 ) 2 (aq) H 2 SO 4 (aq) 2HClO 3 (aq) BaSO 4 (s) 4NH 3 (g)5o 2 (g) 4NO(g) 6H 2 O(g) C 3 H 8 (g) 5O 2 (g) 3CO 2 (g) 4H 2 O(g) 2C 8 H 18 (l) 25O 2 (g) 16CO 2 (g) 18H 2 O(g) More Chemical Equations Types of Reactions Balance the following equations SO 2 (g) O 2 (g) SO 3 (g) N 2 (g) O 2 (g) N 2 O(g) C 6 H 14 (l) O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) H 2 O(l) Reaction Types Combination Decomposition Double Replacement Precipitation Acid-Base Single Replacement Oxidation-Reduction Gas Forming HOMEWORK

4 Combination Reactions Combination Reactions Combination reactions have the form A B C Two or more reactants produce a single product Other combination reactions: 2 Na(s) S(s) Na 2 S(s) SO 3 (g) H 2 O(l) H 2 SO 4 (aq) 2 H 2 O 2 2 H 2 O = H = O 2Na (s) Cl 2 (g) 2NaCl (s) Decomposition Reactions Decomposition reactions have the form A B C Single reactant breaks down into two or more products 2 H 2 O 2 2 H 2 O O 2 = H = O Decomposition Reactions Further examples: 2 HgO(s) 2 Hg(l) O 2 (g) This reaction was used by Joseph Priestley in the discovery of oxygen in 1774 CaCO 3 (s) CaO(s) CO 2 (g) This reaction is used industrially to produce both lime (CaO) and CO 2 from limestone (CaCO 3 ) Air bags: 2 NaN 3 (s) 2 Na (s) 3 N 2 (g)

5 Double Replacement Double Replacement Double replacement reactions are also called metathesis reactions or partner swapping reactions They have the form AX BY BX AY HF NaOH NaF H 2 O = H = O = Na = F Double replacement reactions often take place in water and are of two basic types: Acid base neutralization reactions: HCl(aq) NaOH(aq) NaCl(aq) H 2 O(l) (acid) (base) (salt) (water) H 2 SO 4 (aq) 2 NaOH(aq) Na 2 SO 4 (aq) H 2 O(l) Precipitation reactions (solid forms): Ba(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) Na 2 SO 4 (aq) BaSO 4 (s) 2 NaNO 3 (aq) Here the barium sulfate precipitates out of solution Mixtures and Solutions Mixtures and Solutions Solute the component of a solution that is dissolved in another substance Solvent the medium in which a solute dissolved to form a solution Solution a homogenous mixture in which the components are evenly distributed in each other Aqueous Any solution in which water is the solvent Precipitate Insoluble product of a reactant Electrolyte All ionic compounds that are soluble in water and conduct electricity Strong electrolyte Weak electrolyte Non-electrolyte

6 Mixtures and Solutions Solubility Rules Compounds Containing Solubility Exceptions Group IA (Na, K ) and NH 4 Soluble Figure 5.2 CuCl 2 (s) Cu 2 (aq) 2Cl - (aq) 100 % dissociation (strong electrolyte) CH 3 COOH(aq) CH 3 COO - (aq) H (aq) <5% ionized (weak electrolyte) Nitrates Soluble Acetates (CH 3COO ) Soluble Perchlorates (ClO 4 ) Soluble Chlorides, Bromides, Iodides Soluble Ag, Pb 2, Hg Fluorides Soluble Mg 2, Ca 2, Ag, Pb 2, Sr 2 Sulfates Soluble Ag, Ba 2, Sr 2, Pb 2, Hg Sulfides Insoluble Group IA and NH 4 Carbonates Insoluble Group IA and NH 4 Phosphates Insoluble Group IA and NH 4 Hydroxides Insoluble Group IA and NH 4 Precipitation Reactions Ionic Equations Precipitation reactions K 2 SO 4 (aq) Pb(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) Writing Equations Molecular Total ionic When an ion appears on both sides of a chemical equation it can be canceled out Spectator Ions Net Ionic Equation Net ionic

7 Ionic Equations Ionic Equations Mg(ClO 4 ) 2 (aq) K 2 CO 3 (aq) MgCO 3 (s) KClO 4 (aq) Net Ionic: Ba(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) Na 2 SO 4 (aq) BaSO 4 (s) NaNO 3 (aq) KNO 3 (aq) CaCl 2 (aq) Net Ionic: Net ionic: Acids and Bases Acids and Bases Acid a substance that, when dissolved in water, increases the concentration of hydrogen ions (H) in solution Base a substance that, when dissolved in water, increases the concentration of hydroxide ions (OH-) in solution Strong acid Strong electrolyte Strong base

8 Acid-Base Reactions Acid-Base Reactions HNO 3 (aq) NaOH(aq) H 2 SO 4 (aq) KOH(aq) Net Ionic: Net Ionic: Single Replacement Single replacement reactions are also called substitution reactions They have the form A BX B AX, where A and B are elements and BX and AX are compounds Single Replacement Other single replacement reactions 3 C(s) 2 Fe 2 O 3 (s) 4 Fe(s) 3 CO 2 (g) Cu(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) Zn(s) Zn(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) Cu(s) Single replacement reactions are also oxidationreduction (REDOX) reactions. Oxidation H 2 CuO = H = O H 2 O Cu = Cu Reduction OXIDATION NUMBER

9 Redox Reactions and Electron Transfer The oxidation number of an atom is the charge that atom would have if the compound was composed of ions. Oxidation of Mg (0) to Mg (II): 2Mg (s) O 2 (g) 2MgO (s) Gas Forming Reactions Reactions leading to the formation of an insoluble gas Examples Na 2 CO 3 (aq) 2HCl (aq) 2NaCl (aq) CO 2 (g) H 2 O (l) Reduction of Fe (III) to Fe(0): Fe 2 O 3 (s) 3CO (g) 2Fe (s) 3 CO 2 (g) Reduction of Ag (I) to Ag and oxidation of Cu (0) to Cu (II): 2Ag (aq) Cu(s) 2 Ag (s) Cu 2 (aq) Gas Forming Reactions

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