Chemistry B11 Chapter 6 Solutions and Colloids

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1 Chemistry B11 Chapter 6 Solutions and Colloids Solutions: solutions have some properties: 1. The distribution of particles in a solution is uniform. Every part of the solution has exactly the same composition and properties as every other part (a single phase-homogenous). 2. Solutions are almost always transparent (solid solutions are exceptions). 3. A solution cannot be separated into its components by filtration. 4. The components of a solution do not separate on standing. 5. Solutions can be separated into pure components (distillation, chromatography). Note: we have different types of solutions: gas in gas (air), liquid in liquid (alcohol in water), solid in liquid (sugar in water), solid in solid (alloys), and gas in liquid (gas in cokes). Note: All mixtures of gases are solutions. Because gas molecules are far apart from each other and much empty space separates them. Whenever we mix solids, we almost always get a heterogeneous mixture. Note: a solution consists of two parts: 1. Solvent: the component present in the greater amount in a solution (when one liquid is dissolved in another). 2. Solute: the component(s) present in the smaller amount in a solution (when one liquid is dissolved in another). Miscible: some liquids are completely soluble in other liquids to form a solution (no matter what quantities of each are mixed) (for example: methanol and water). Immiscible: some liquids cannot mix together and they produce the different phases (for example: oil and water). Saturated solution: when a solution contains all the solute it can hold at a given temperature, we call the solution saturated. Unsaturated solution: any solution containing a lesser amount of solute than a saturated solution at a given temperature is unsaturated (so we can dissolve more solute in the solvent). Supersaturated solution: when a solution contains more solute in the solvent than it can normally hold at a given temperature under equilibrium conditions. A supersaturated solution is not stable; when disturbed in any way, such as by stirring or shaking, the excess solute precipitates. Solubility: the maximum amount of a solute that will dissolve in a given amount of a particular solvent (at a given temperature). Note: The more similar two compounds are (similar in term of polarity), the more likely that one will be soluble in the other. Like dissolves like. Polar compounds dissolve in polar

2 solvents, and nonpolar compounds dissolve in nonpolar solvents. For example, water dissolves NaCl (two polar compounds) and CCl 4 dissolves C 6 H 14 (two nonpolar compounds). Note: For most solids and liquids that dissolve in liquids, solubility increases with increasing temperature (except for gases, solubility in liquids almost always decreases with increasing temperature). Henry s law: the solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the pressure (the higher the pressure, the greater the solubility of a gas in a liquid). Pressure has little effect on the solubility of liquids or solids. Concentration: amount of a solute dissolved in a given quantity of solvent. Many methods of expressing concentration exist. We learn the three most important here: 1. Percent concentration: Weight solute Weight / Volume (W / V)% = 100 Volume of solution (ml) Weight solute Weight / Weight (W / W)% = 100 Weight of solution Volume solute (ml) V olume / Volume (V / V)% = 100 Volume of solution (ml) 2. Molarity: the number of moles of solute dissolved in 1 liter (L) of solution. The units of molarity are moles per liter. or Molarity (M) = moles solute (n) volume of solution (L) Molarity (M) V = number of moles (n) Note: we can prepare a solution of a given molarity (with a known volume). 3. Pert per million (ppm) and part per billion (ppb): for very dilute solutions. ppm = ppb = g solute g solvent g solute g solvent Dilution: we frequently prepare solutions by diluting concentrated solutions (stock solutions) rather than by weighing out pure solute. When we add only solvent during dilution, the number of moles of solute remains unchanged: 6 9

3 M 1 V 1 = moles before dilution M 2 V 2 = moles after dilution Therefore, M 1 V 1 = M 2 V 2 % 1 V 1 = % 2 V 2 (using percent concentrations) Note: All nitrates (NO 3 -) and acetate (CH 3 COO - ) are soluble in water. Note: Most chlorides (Cl - ) and sulfates (SO 4 2-) are soluble in water (except: AgCl, BaSO 4, PbCl 2, Hg 2 Cl 2, and PbSO 4 ). Note: Most carbonates (CO 3 2-), phosphates (PO 4 3-) and hydroxides (OH - ) are insoluble in water (except: NaOH, LiOH, KOH, and NH 3 ). Hydrate and hydration: when a solid ionic compound is added to water, water molecules surround the ions at the surface of the crystal. Water is a polar molecule. The negative ions (anions) attract the positive poles of water molecules, and the positive ions (cations) attract the negative poles of water molecules. Each ion attracts multiple water molecules and the ion remove from the crystal. We say ions are hydrated and this phenomenon is called hydration (a more general term, covering all solvents, is solvated). Electrolyte: substances that conduct an electric current when dissolved in water or when in the molten state are called electrolytes. These substances can be ionized and produce ions. The positively charged ions (cations) migrate to the negative electrode (cathode) and the negatively charged ions (anions) migrate to the positive electrode (anode). The movement of ions constitutes an electric current. Note: compounds that dissociate (ionize) completely are called strong electrolytes (most of the ionic compounds and some acids). Compounds that dissociate partially are called weak electrolytes (such as CH 3 COOH). Compounds that do not dissociate (do not conduct electricity) are called nonectrolytes (such as distilled water).

4 Solubility of covalent compounds in water: some acids are soluble in water. Covalent compounds will dissolve in water if they can form hydrogen bonds with water. In general, they should have no more than three C atoms for each O or N atom. For example, acetic acid, CH 3 COOH, is soluble in water, but benzoic acid, C 6 H 5 COOH, is not. The exception to this generalization is the rare case where a covalent compound reacts with water-for instance, HCl. Colloids: in a colloid, the diameter of the solute particles ranges from about 1 to 1000 nm (this diameter is under 1 nm in a rue solution). The colloids are not uniform and transparent (they appear cloudy and milky). Colloidal systems are stable and their components do not separate on standing (for example: milk, butter, smoke, and fog). Tyndall effect: if light passes through a colloidal system, we can see the pathway of the light without seeing the colloidal particles themselves (they are too small to see). This method is used to distinguish a colloid from a solution (because we cannot see the pathway of the light in a solution). Brownian motion: colloidal particles are in constant motion in a solvent (randomly). For example, the motion of the dust particles dispersed in air. This motion creates favorable conditions for collisions between particles. Why do colloidal particles remain in solution despite all the collisions? 1. Most colloidal particles carry a large solvation layer. They do not actually touch each other; instead, only their solvent layers collide. 2. All colloids in a particular solution acquire the same kind of charge. Therefore, the like charges repel each other. Emulsion: a mixture of immiscible substances (liquid-liquid). Emulsion is a type of the colloidal systems (usually as droplets of larger than colloidal size). The emulsion systems are usually stable. Milk and mayonnaise are two examples of the emulsion systems. Suspension: when the diameter of the solute particles is greater than 1000 nm, we have a suspension system. Suspension is not a type of the colloidal systems. The suspension systems are not stable and separate into phases (for example: sand in water). Note: by adding a solute, the boiling point of a liquid increases and the freezing point of a liquid decreases (compare to a pure solvent). We can find any changes of the temperature by using the following formulas: t b = ik b M t f = ik f M t b : change of the boiling point (ºC), t f : change of the freezing point (ºC), M: molarity (mole/l), K f and K b : constant (depend on nature of a solute), i: number of particles (if we have NaCl, two particles will be formed. Because it dissociates to Na + and Cl -. However, if we have C 2 H 6 O 2, only one particle will be produced. Because this covalent compound does not dissociate).

5 Osmotic membrane (semipermeable membrane): is a selective membrane that contains very tiny pores, large enough to allow solvent molecules to pass through them but not the larger solvated molecules. Osmotic pressure: imagine that we have a concentrated sugar solution on one side of a semipermeable memberane and a dilute sugar solution on other side. Water molecules are smaller than sugar molecules and they move back and forth across the membrane. Water flows from the dilute solution into the concentrated solution (because molecules will always diffuse from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration). However, sugar molecules cannot pass through the membrane (because the size of these molecules is bigger). The amount of external pressure that must be applied to the more concentrated solution to stop the passage of solvent molecules across a semipermeable membrane is called osmotic pressure and this phenomenon is called osmosis. Note: The solution of higher concentration always has a higher osmatic pressure than the one of lower concentration, which means that the flow of solvent molecules always occurs from the more dilute solution to the more concentrated solution. Osmolarity: Osmolarity = M i M: molarity i: number of particles Isotonic solutions: two solutions with the same osmolarity. Plasma should be isotonic with red blood cells. Hypertonic solutions: a hypertonic solution has a greater osmolarity (and greater osmotic pressure) than the red blood cells. If the blood cells are placed in a hypertonic solution, water flows from the cells into the plasma. This process is called crenation, shrivels the cells. Hypotonic solutions: a hypotonic solution has a lower osmolarity (and lower osmotic pressure) than the red blood cells. If the blood cells are placed in a hypotonic solution, water flows from the plasma into the cells. This process is called hemolysis, swells the cells (the red blood cells eventually burst).

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