# A summary of definitions, postulates, algebra rules, and theorems that are often used in geometry proofs:

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1 summary of definitions, postulates, algebra rules, and theorems that are often used in geometry proofs: efinitions: efinition of mid-point and segment bisector M If a line intersects another line segment at a point M that makes M = M, then M is the mid-point of segment, and is a segment bisector of. efinition of djacent ngles are two angles that share a common side with each other and have the same vertex. In the above, and are adjacent angles, they share a common side and have the same vertex,. efinition of Vertical ngles are two non-adjacent angles formed by two intersecting lines. Vertical angles also share the same vertex. E In the picture above, segment intersects at point E, so E and E are vertical angles.

2 E and E are also vertical angles. efinition of Right ngles and Perpendicular Lines: If two lines intersect and make the two adjacent angles equal to each other, then each of the equal angle is a right angle. The two lines that intersect this way is said to be perpendicular to each other. E In the picture above, intersects at point E in such a way that makes E = E. Therefore both E and E are both right angles. Since they intersect to form right angles, segments and are perpendicular to each other. We write n acute angle is one which is less than a right angle. an obtuse angle is one that is greater than a right angle. E In the above, is acute, is right, and E is obtuse. In degree measure, a right angle has a measurement of 90. straight line (straight angle) has a measurement of 180 efinition: Two angles are complementary if, when placed adjacent to each other with one side in common, their non-common sides form a right angle. Numerically, we say that two angles are complementary if the sum of their degree measurement equals 90 In the above picture, and are complementary because they form a right angle.

3 efinition: Two angles are supplementary if, when placed adjacent to each other with one side in common, their non-common sides form a straight line. Numerically, we say that two angles are supplementary if the sum of their degree measure equals 180 In the above, and are supplementary. Their non-common sides form the straight line. efinition of ngle isector: If a line cuts an angle into two equal smaller angles, the line is said to bisect the angle and is an angle bisector of the angle. In the picture above, =, so is the angle bisector of triangle where all three sides are unequal is a scalene triangle triangle where at least two of its sides is equal is an isoceles triangle triangle where all three sides are the same is an equilateral triangle. triangle where one of its angle is right is a right triangle. In a right-triangle, the side that is opposite the right-angle is called the hypotenuse of the right-triangle. The other two sides are the legs of the righttriangle. triangle where one of its angle is obtuse is an obtuse triangle: triangle that does not have any obtuse angle (all three angles are acute) is called an acute triangle. ltitude of a Triangle In a triangle, if through any vertex of the triangle we draw a line that is perpen-

4 dicular to the side opposite the vertex, this line is an altitude of the triangle. The line opposite the vertex where the altitude is perpendicular to is the base. In above, is an altitude. It contains vertex and is perpendicular to, which is the base. Median of a Triangle: In any triangle, if through one of its vertex we draw a line that bisects the opposite side, this line is called a median of the triangle. In above, bisects in ( = ), so by definition, is a median of ngle isector n angle bisector of a triangle is a line that bisects an angle of the triangle and intersects the opposite side. In above, is an angle bisector of

5 Properties, Postulates, Theorems: Segment ddition Postulate: In a line segment, if points,, are colinear and point is between point and point, then: + = ngle ddition Postulate: The sum of the measure of two adjacent angles is equal to the measure of the angle formed by the non-common sides of the two adjacent angles. In the above, m + m = m. Properties of Equality: For any object x, x = x (reflexive property). If a = b, then b = a (symmetric property) If a = b, and b = c, then a = c (transitive property) If a = b, then anywhere a is used in a statement, b can be used instead and the meaning of the statement is unchanged. (substitution property) If a = b and c = d, then a + c = b + d (addition postulate) If a = b and c = d, then a c = b d (subtraction postulate) omplementary ngle Theorem: If two angles are complementary to the same angle, then they are congruent to each other Supplementary ngle Theorem: If two angles are supplementary to the same angle, then they are congruent to each other Vertical ngles Theorem: Vertical ngles are ongruent. Ways to prove triangles are congruent: Side-Side-Side (SSS)

6 If all three sides of a triangle is congruent to all three sides of another triangle, the two triangles are congruent. Side-ngle-Side (SS): If two sides of a triange is congruent to two sides of another triangle, and the angle formed by the two sides is also congruent, then the two triangles are congruent. ngle-side-ngle (S): If two angles of a triange is congruent to two angles of another triangle, and the side between the two angles is also congruent, then the two triangles are congruent. Isoceles Triangle Theorem: In an isoceles triangle, the base angles (the angles on the opposite sides of the congruent sides) are congruent. Equilateral Triangle Theorem: In an equilateral triangle, all three angles are congruent. F E

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Name Class Date 22.1 Interior and Exterior ngles Essential Question: What can you say about the interior and exterior angles of a triangle and other polygons? Resource Locker Explore 1 Exploring Interior