For the circle above, EOB is a central angle. So is DOE. arc. The (degree) measure of ù DE is the measure of DOE.

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1 efinition: circle is the set of all points in a plane that are equidistant from a given point called the center of the circle. We use the symbol to represent a circle. The a line segment from the center of the circle to any point on the circle is a radius of the circle. y definition of a circle, all radii have the same length. We also use the term radius to mean the length of a radius of the circle. To refer to a circle, we may refer to the circle with a given center and a given radius. For example, we can say circle with radius r. r The circumference of a circle is the length around the circle. central angle of a circle is an angle that is formed by two radii of the circle and has the center of the circle as its vertex. In other words, a central angle always has its vertex as the center of the circle. n arc is a connected portion of a circle. n arc that is less than half a circle is a minor arc. n arc that is greater than half a circle is a major arc, and an arc that s equal to half a circle is a semi-circle. y definition, the degree measure of an arc is the central angle that intercepts the arc. We use two letters with an arc symbol on top to refer to a minor arc, and three letters for a major arc. chord is an line segment that has any two points on the circumference as its end-points. chord always lies inside a circle. diameter of a circle is a chord that contains the center of the circle. secant is a line that intersects the circle at two points. F

2 For the circle above, is a central angle. So is ù is a minor arc. The central angle is the angle that intercepts this arc. The (degree) measure of ù is the measure of. ü is a major arc. ù is a semi-circle. is a diameter. is a chord. F is a secant. y definition, two circles are congruent if their radii are congruent. Two arcs are congruent if they have the same degree measure and same length. Postulates and/or facts: For circles that are congruent or the same: ll radii are congruent ll diameters are congruent diameter of a circle divides the circle into two equal arcs (semicircles). onversely, If a chord divides the circle into two equal arcs, then the chord is a diameter ongruent central angles intercept congruent arcs, and conversely, congruent arcs are intercepted by congruent central angles. ongruent chords divide congruent arcs, and conversely, ongruent arcs have congruent chords. F In the picture above, assume =. If central angle = = F, then = = F, and ù = ù = F ù onversely, if ù = ù = F ù, then = = F, and = = F Let be a circle with center and radius r, and let P be a point.

3 If the distance between a point P and the center of a circle is less then the radius of the circle, the point P is inside the circle. If the distance between a point P and the center of a circle is greater then the radius of the circle, the point is outside the circle. If the distance between a point P and the center of a circle is equal to the radius of the circle, the point is on the circle. r In the picture above, is inside circle since < r. is outside circle since > r, and is on circle since = r. Theorem: diameter perpendicular to a chord bisects the chord and its arcs. Proof: Given and a chord, let be a diameter of the circle such that is perpendicular to at point. We must prove that = and ù = ù We will construct the radii and

4 Statements Reasons 1. iameter chord at 1. given 2. = 2. Radii of same are = 3. = 3. Reflexive 4. = 4. HL 5. = ; = 5. PT 6. ù = ù 6. = central s intersect = arc Theorem: perpendicular bisector of a chord to a circle contains the center of the circle. This theorem says that, if is a line that bisects chord and is perpendicular to, then necessarily contains the center,, of the circle. Remember that the distance between a point and a line is the perpendicular distance. We have the following: Theorem: In same or congruent circles, equal chords are equidistant from the center. onversely, chords that are equidistant from the center are congruent to each other. G H The theorem says that, if =, then G = H. onversely, if G = H, then =.

5 Tangent: tangent to a circle is a line that intersects the circle at only one point. The point where the tangent intersects the circle is called the point of tangency. In the above, is the tangent to at point. tangency. Theorem: Point is the point of The tangent to a circle is perpendicular to the radius of the circle at the point of tangency. onversely, if a line is perpendicular to a radius of a circle at a pont on the circle, then that line is a tangent to the circle. In picture above, if is a tangent to, then. conversely, if, then is a tangent to the circle at point. Theorem: If two different tangents to the same circle at a common point, the distance between that point and the two points of tangency are the same. Proof: Let, be tangents to circle at points of tangency and, and intersect at point. We must prove that =

6 1. Statements and are tangents to and intersects at Reasons 1. given 2. = 2. Radii of same are = 3. = 3. Reflexive 4., 4. Tangents are to radius at pt. of tangency 5., are right angles 5. efinition of perpendicular lines 6. = 6. HL 7. = 7. PT In proving the above theorem, notice that PT allows us to say that =. In other words, is an angle bisector of. We have also proved the following: Theorem: The line segment from the center of a circle to the common intersection of two tangents also bisects the angle that is formed by the two tangents. We say that a polygon is inscribed inside a circle if all of the vertices of the polygon are on the circumference of the circle. The circle is said to circumscribe the polygon. In picture below, quadrilateral is an inscribed polygon of circle, and circle circumscribes quadrilateral.

7 We say that a circle is inscribed by a polygon if each side of the polygon is a tangent of the circle, and the polygon circumscribes the circle. In picture below, pentagon KLMNP circumscribes circle, and circle is inscribed by pentagon KLMNP. ach side of the pentagon is a tangent of the circle. N P M K L We say that two circles are concentric if they share the same center. If two circles are ont concentric, we call the line segment connects their two centers the line of centers of the two circles. In below left figure, the two circles are concentric. The inner (black) and outer (red) circle both have the same center. In below right figure, circles and are not concentric. The segment is the line of centers of the two circles. oncentric circles cannot have a common tangent, but two circles that are not

8 concentric can share one or more common tangents. We say that two circles are internally tangent to each other if they intersect at one point (the same line will be tangent to the two circles at their point of intersection) and one is inside another. circles are externally tangent to each other if they intersect at one point (the same line will be tangent to the two circles at their point of intersection) but each is on the outside of another. tangent that is common to two circles is a common internal tangent if it intersects the line of centers of the two circles. tangent that is common to two circles is a common external tangent if it does not intersects the line of centers of the two circles. The two circles and above are internally tangent to each other. They share one common tangent. The common tangent they share is a common external tangent. The two circles and above share two common external tangents.

9 The two circles and above are externally tangent to each other. The share one common internal tangent (black line), and two common external tangents (blue lines). The two circles and above share two common internal tangents (black lines), and two common external tangents (blue lines). Inscribed ngles Remember that the (degree) measurement of an arc is by definition the (degree) measurement of the central angle that intercepts the arc. In the picture below, the measure of central angle is 40, so we say that the (degree) measure of arc ù is also 40. In other words, m = mù =

10 n inscribed angle to a circle is an angle whose vertex is on the circle and whose sides are chords of the circle. In picture above, is an inscribed angle. is inscribed by arc û and intercepts arc ù Inscribed ngle Theorem: The degree measure of an inscribed angle is half the degree measure of its inscribed arc. Proof: To prove this theorem, let be an inscribed angle of. We must prove that m = mù = 1 2 There are three possible cases we need to consider, the case where the center of the circle,, is outside of the angle, ; another case is where is inside of. The third case is if center is on one of the side of. We prove this third case:

11 Statements Reasons 1. is an inscribed ; enter is on 1. given 2. = 2. Radii of same are = 3. = 3. Isoceles 4. m + m = m 4. Sum of int. of = oppo. exterior 5. m + m = m 5. Substitution m ù 6. m = 1 2 (m ) 6. lgebra 7. m = ef. of measure of an arc Theorem: In the same or congruent circles, inscribed ngles that intercept the same or congruent arcs are congruent. onversely, arcs that are intercepted by congruent angles are congruent. So = since they both intercept the same arc,. ù ù = F ù, then = G. Furthermore, if If N = M, then ù KL = ù HJ G N M K F L H J Thales Theorem: The diameter of a circle subtends a right angle to any point on the circle In other words, an inscribed angle whose intercepted arc is a semi-circle is always a right angle. onversely, if an inscribed angle is right, then the chord that connects the two end-points of the intercepted arc is a diameter. In, if is a diameter, then and are both right angles. onversely, in the circle to the right, if F G is right, then F is a diameter of the circle. In other words, F contains the center of the circle.

12 G F Theorem n angle formed by a tangent and a chord of a circle is equal to half of the (degree) measurement of the intercepted arc. is a tangent to, and is a chord. Therefore, m = 1 2 m ù Theorem: The angle formed by the intersection of two chords is equal to half of the sum of the two intercepted arcs., are chords of, therefore, m = 1 2 m ù + m ù

13 xample: In below, mù = 50, m = 5x + 1, mù = 6x 4, find the value of x. 5x x 4 ns: ccording to the theorem, we have: m = 1 2 m ù + m ù 1 5x + 1 = (50 + (6x 4)) 2 5x + 1 = 1 (6x + 46) 5x + 1 = 3x x = 22 x = 11 2 Theorem: n angle formed by two secants intersecting outside a circle is equal to half of the difference of the two intercepted arcs. In picture below, and are secants that intersect at point outside of, we have: m = 1 2 m ù m ù xample: In picture below, m = x + 15, mù = 12x, m ù = 5x 5, find the value of x. 12x 5x 5 x + 15

14 ns: ccording to theorem, m = 1 2 m ù m ù 1 x + 15 = (12x (5x 5)) 2 x + 15 = 1 2 (12x 5x + 5) x + 15 = 1 (7x + 5) 2(x + 15) = 7x x + 30 = 7x + 5 5x = 25 x = 5 Theorem: The angle formed with a tangent and a secant intersecting at a point outside a circle is equal to half of the difference of the intercepted arcs. In picture below, is a tangent and a secant to, intersecting at, the theorem says that: m = 1 2 m ù m ù Theorem: The angle formed with two tangents to a circle intersecting at a point outside the circle is equal to half of the difference of the intercepted arcs. In picture below,, are tangents to, the theorem says that: m = 1 2 m û m ù

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