Angles that are between parallel lines, but on opposite sides of a transversal.

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1 GLOSSARY Appendix A Appendix A: Glossary Acute Angle An angle that measures less than 90. Acute Triangle Alternate Angles A triangle that has three acute angles. Angles that are between parallel lines, but on opposite sides of a transversal. alternate angles transversal Angle (p) When lines, line segments or rays intersect they form angles. (See size of an angle) A B angle pbac C p q s four angles: p, q, r and s r Angle Bisector The line that divides an angle into two equal parts. angle bisector Apex Arc The point where the triangular sides of a pyramid meet. The point at the tip of a cone. (See pyramid or cone for illustration) The curved path from one point on a circle (or part of a circle) to another. (See circle for illustration) The lines made by a compass during a construction. Appendix A - 1

2 Appendix A GLOSSARY Axis of Symmetry Bilateral Symmetry Bisect Chord Circle radius center See Line of Symmetry. See Reflective Symmetry. Bisect means to cut in half. This can be used with line segments or Angles. (See angle bisector and right bisector) A line segment whose end points lie on a circle or an ellipse. (See circle for illustration) A closed curve, that lies in a plane, with all its points the same distance (radius) from a fixed point (center). sector arc circle diameter center chord segment Circumcircle The circle that passes through the three vertices of a triangle. circumradius circumcircle circumcenter Circumcenter Circumradius Circumference The center of the circumcircle (See circumcircle for illustration) The radius of the circumcircle (See circumcircle for illustration) The perimeter of a circle. The circumference is the path around the circle or the length of that path. perimeter Appendix A - 2

3 GLOSSARY Appendix A Complementary Angles that add to 90. Angles Cone A solid with a circle as a base and a smooth side that ends in a point. The point is called the apex. apex Congruent ( ) Corresponding Angles Two shapes are congruent when all the sides and angles of one shape exactly match those of the other shape. Four pairs of angles formed at parallel lines on the same side of a transversal and in the same relative position with respect to the parallel lines (both angles are either above or below the parallel lines). b a f e a = c b = d d c h g e = g f = h Cube A solid shape which has six congruent squares for its faces. The faces and edges are perpendicular to each other. A cube has 8 vertices and 12 edges. vertex face edge Appendix A - 3

4 Appendix A GLOSSARY Cylinder A solid shape with two identical parallel circular faces and a smooth surface that joins the circular faces. If that surface were flattened out, it would form a rectangle. If the circular faces are perpendicular to the surface joining the ends, it is called a right circular cylinder. right circular cylinder circular cylinder Decagon Diagonal A ten sided polygon. A regular decagon has ten equal sides and ten equal angles. (See polygon for illustration) A line segment drawn from a vertex of a quadrilateral to the opposite vertex. diagonal diagonal Diameter A chord that passes through the center of the circle. It can also mean the length of the diameter. (See circle for illustration) 1 Degree(s) ( ) A unit used to measure the size of an angle. Each degree is of 360 a full turn. The math symbol for degree is shown in brackets. Edges The line segments where faces meet on a solid shape (see cube for illustration). Appendix A - 4

5 GLOSSARY Appendix A Ellipse The smooth closed curve that is formed when a circle is stretched uniformly in two opposite directions. ellipse original circle major axis minor axis Endpoints The end points of a line segment. Equilateral A triangle that has three sides of equal length and Triangle each interior angle is Exterior Angle An angle between the side of a triangle and an extended side of a triangle. For a polygon, it is an angle between a side and an adjacent extended side. Appendix A - 5

6 Appendix A GLOSSARY Faces The surfaces that enclose a solid shape (see cube for illustration). Full Turn A 360 angle. A rotation through an angle of 360 (sometimes called a full rotation). 360 the start and end of a full rotation Half Turn A 180 angle. A rotation through an angle of 180. the end of a half rotation 180 the start of a half rotation Heptagon Hexagon Hypotenuse A seven-sided polygon. A regular heptagon has seven equal sides and seven equal angles. (See polygon for illustration) A six-sided polygon. A regular hexagon has six equal sides and six equal angles. (See polygon for illustration) In a right triangle, the hypotenuse is the side opposite the right angle. hypotenuse Image A shape after it has undergone a transformation. pre-image image Appendix A - 6

7 GLOSSARY Appendix A Incircle The circle that just touches the three sides of a triangle (sometimes called the inscribed circle) incircle incenter inradius Incenter Inradius Interior Angles The center of the incircle. (See incircle for illustration) The radius of the incircle. (See incircle for illustration) The angles that are between parallel lines but on the same side of a transversal. The angles inside a triangle or polygon. interior angles interior angles interior angles Isosceles Triangle A triangle that has two sides of equal length. Line A line is a straight path that passes through any two points and goes forever in two directions. line AB A B Appendix A - 7

8 Appendix A GLOSSARY Line of Symmetry The mirror line used in a reflection that reflects a shape exactly on top of itself (sometimes called the axis of symmetry). line of symmetry Line Segment The part of a line that is between two points called endpoints. line segment AB A B Magnification A transformation that changes only the size of a shape (sometimes magnifications are called dilations). magnification Magnification Factor Major Axis Midpoint The number that all the lengths of a pre-image shape are multiplied by to get the image shape during a magnification. If it is greater than 1, the image is larger than the pre-image. If it is smaller than 1, the image is smaller than the pre-image. The longest chord in an ellipse that passes through its exact center. (See ellipse for illustration) The point in the middle of a line segment. B A midpoint of line segment AB Appendix A - 8

9 GLOSSARY Appendix A Minor Axis Mirror The shortest chord in an ellipse that passes through its exact center. (See ellipse for illustration) The line used in the reflection transformation. mirror Net Nonagon A pattern that can be cut out and folded to form a model of a solid. A nine-sided polygon. A regular nonagon has nine equal sides and nine equal angles. (See polygon for illustration) Obtuse Angle An angle that measures more than 90 but less than 180. Obtuse Triangle Octagon Opposite Angles A triangle that has one obtuse angle. An eight-sided polygon. A regular octagon has eight equal sides and eight equal angles. (See polygon for illustration) Angles that are on opposite corners at an intersection (sometimes called vertically opposite angles). Orientation Clockwise or counterclockwise direction as you travel around the perimeter of a plane shape. clockwise A A counterclockwise C B C B Appendix A - 9

10 Appendix A GLOSSARY Parallel Lines Lines that do not intersect. Indicated with small arrows on the ( ) lines. The math symbol for parallel line is shown in brackets. AB CD A C D B Parallelepiped A solid shape which has six parallelograms for its faces. Parallelogram A quadrilateral that has two pairs of parallel sides. Pentagon Perimeter Perpendicular Perpendicular Lines ( z ) Plane Point A five-sided polygon. A regular pentagon has five equal sides and five equal angles. (See polygon for illustration) The path around a closed shape or the length of that path. A line that is at right angles to another line. Lines that intersect at right angles. The math symbol for perpendicular line is shown in brackets. An infinitely large flat surface. A point is a location. A point has no size, length or width. Appendix A - 10

11 GLOSSARY Appendix A Polygon A closed shape formed by five or more line segments. Sometimes quadrilaterals and triangles are considered to be a polygons. pentagon (5 sides) hexagon (6 sides) heptagon (7 sides) octagon (8 sides) nonagon (9 sides) decagon (10 sides) Polyhedron (pl. Polyhedra) Pre-image Prism Solid shapes which have surfaces made from triangles, quadrilaterals and polygons. A point or shape before it has undergone a transformation. (See image for illustration) A solid that has two parallel polygonal ends and rectangular sides joining the polygons. The ends can also be triangles or quadrilaterals. Proof Protractor A logically reasoned explanation of why something is true. A tool for measuring the size of an angle. Appendix A - 11

12 Appendix A GLOSSARY Pyramid A solid shape that has a polygonal base and sides that are triangles. The triangular sides meet at a point called the apex. The base of a polygon can be any polygon but most often is either a triangle or a quadrilateral. apex Quadrilateral A closed shape formed by four line segments. Radius (pl. Radii) Radius of an Arc Ray The line segment from the center of a circle to the circle. The line segment from the center of a sphere to the surface of the sphere. Radius can also mean the length of a radius. The distance from the center of an arc to the arc itself. A ray is the part of a straight line that starts at a point and goes in one direction forever.. Rectangle A parallelogram that has four right angles. Its opposite sides have equal lengths. Appendix A - 12

13 GLOSSARY Appendix A Rectangular Parallelepiped A solid shape formed with 6 faces that are rectangles or squares. It is a parallelepiped in which the faces meet at right angles. Reflection A transformation that moves a point to another point that is an equal distance on the other side of a line. The line is called the mirror. The mirror is the right bisector of the line joining a pre-image point to its image. mirror Reflective Symmetry A shape has reflective symmetry if it can be reflected onto an exact copy of itself and is in the same position. The mirror is called the line of symmetry. Reflective symmetry is sometimes called bilateral symmetry or line symmetry. line of symmetry Reflex Angle An angle that measures more than 180. Regular Polygon A polygon which has equal angles and equal sides. (See polygon for illustration) Appendix A - 13

14 Appendix A GLOSSARY Rhombus (pl. Rhombi) A parallelogram that has four sides of equal length. Right Angle An angle that measures 90. Right Bisector Right Circular Cylinder Right Triangle A line that is perpendicular to a line segment and passes through the midpoint of that line segment. Right bisector is sometimes called perpendicular bisector. A cylinder whose circular ends are perpendicular to the curved faces. A triangle that has one right angle. Rotation A transformation that moves points and shapes by turning them around a fixed point through a fixed angle. The fixed point is called the center of rotation. The fixed angle is called the angle of rotation. image center of rotation angle of rotation pre-image Rotational Symmetry A shape has rotational symmetry if it can be rotated onto an exact copy of itself and is in the same position. The center of rotation is called the center of symmetry. center of symmetry Appendix A - 14

15 GLOSSARY Appendix A Scalene Triangle A triangle that has three sides of different length. B A C Sector Segment Similar A region inside a circle enclosed by an arc of the circle and the radii to the ends of the arc. (See circle for illustration) A region inside a circle enclosed by an arc and a chord. (See circle for illustration) Two shapes are similar when all the angles of one shape match the angles of the other shape. Size of an Angle ( Ê ) How much you have to turn one line of an angle so that it lies on top of the other line of the angle. The size of an angle is measured in degrees (360 = 1 full turn). (Sometimes called the measure of an angle) Sphere A solid shape whose surface is formed from all points that are a fixed distance (radius) from a fixed point (center). center radius Square A quadrilateral with four right angles and four equal sides. Straight Angle An angle that measures 180. Supplementary Angles Angles that add to 180. Symmetry Tessellation A shape has symmetry if it can be transformed into a congruent shape that lies on top of itself. (See reflective symmetry or rotational symmetry for illustrations) A pattern created by completely covering a surface with similar shapes. Appendix A - 15

16 Appendix A GLOSSARY Theorem Tiles Transformation Translation Transversal Trapezoid A statement of a mathematical fact that can be proved. (See proof) The shapes used to make a tessellation. A transformation is a rule or method of changing a shape. Rotations, reflections, translations and magnifications are examples of transformations. A transformation that moves one shape to a different place without rotation or reflection. (Sometimes called a glide or a shift ) A line that intersects parallel lines. A quadrilateral that has only one pair of parallel sides. This is called a trapezium depending on whether or not it has reflective symmetry. trapezoid trapezium Triangle ( ) Vertex (pl. Vertices ) A closed shape formed by three line segments. The line segments meet at three points called vertices. The point where the lines that form an angle meet. A point where the sides of a triangle or sides of a polygon meet. The point where edges of a solid shape meet. The points where the corners of tiles in a tessellation meet a vertex vertices vertices vertices Appendix A - 16

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