Chapter 4.1 Parallel Lines and Planes


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1 Chapter 4.1 Parallel Lines and Planes Expand on our definition of parallel lines Introduce the idea of parallel planes. What do we recall about parallel lines? In geometry, we have to be concerned about the different planes lines can be drawn. Definition of Parallel Lines: Two lines are parallel if and only if they are in the same plane and do not intersect. Since segments and rays are parts of lines, segments and rays can be parallel also. To designate that two lines, segments, or rays are parallel, arrowheads are used to show this. A B C D AB CD AB CD AB CD BA DC
2 Chapter 4.1 Parallel Lines and Planes Expand on our definition of parallel lines Introduce the idea of parallel planes. When we look at the shelves of a bookshelf, we see planes, do we not? These planes are parallel planes. In geometry, two or more planes that do not intersect are called parallel planes. The top and bottom planes are parallel. The front and back planes are parallel. The two side planes are parallel.
3 Chapter 4.1 Parallel Lines and Planes Expand on our definition of parallel lines Introduce the idea of parallel planes. What about lines that do not intersect but are on different planes? Does BC intersect AX? Is BC AX then? B C A Definition of Skew Lines: Two lines that are not in the same plane are skew if and only if they do not intersect. Are AC and BC skew lines? No, because points A, B, and C can form their own plane. X
4 Chapter 4.1 Parallel Lines and Planes Expand on our definition of parallel lines Introduce the idea of parallel planes. Points of Focus A C B D Notice that when we have more than one set of parallel lines, additional arrowheads are used for each set of parallel lines. A C AB and CD lie in the same plane and do not intersect. Are they parallel? No, these are line segments, not lines. B D
5 Chapter 4.1 Parallel Lines and Planes Expand on our definition of parallel lines Introduce the idea of parallel planes. Points of Focus A B D C Name all the segments that are skew to WX. AD, BC, DZ, CY CD is not skew to WX because a plane could be drawn through the four points. X W Z Bookwork: page 145; problems Y
6 Chapter 4.2 Parallel Lines and Transversals Define what a transversal line is. Define what interior and exterior angles are. In geometry, a line, line segment, or ray that intersects two or more lines at different points is called a transversal. The lines intersected do not have to be parallel t l m r b c t is a transversal for l and m, and l m. r is a transversal for b and c, and b c. When a transversal intersects two lines, eight angles are formed. These angles are given special names.
7 Chapter 4.2 Parallel Lines and Transversals Define what a transversal line is. Define what interior and exterior angles are t l m r b c Interior Angles lie between the two lines. 3, 4, 5, 6 Alternate Interior Angles lie opposite of the transversal 3 and 5, 4 and 6 Exterior Angles lie outside the two lines. 1, 2, 7, 8 Alternate Exterior Angles lie opposite of the transversal 1 and 7, 2 and 8 Consecutive Interior Angles lie on the same side of the transversal 3 and 6, 4 and 5
8 Chapter 4.2 Parallel Lines and Transversals Define what a transversal line is. Define what interior and exterior angles are l t m 1. Compare the measures of the alternate interior angles? They are equal. 2. What is the sum of the measures of the consecutive interior angles? 180 degrees 3. Compare the measures of the alternate exterior angles? They are equal. If l m, would the same conclusions be made? No
9 Chapter 4.2 Parallel Lines and Transversals Define what a transversal line is. Define what interior and exterior angles are. The following theorems can now be stated: Theorem 41 Alternate Interior Angles: Given two parallel lines and a transversal, alternate interior angles are congruent. Theorem 42 Consecutive Interior Angles: Given two parallel lines and a transversal, each pair of consecutive interior angles is supplementary. Theorem 43 Alternate Exterior Angles: Given two parallel lines and a transversal, each pair of alternate exterior angles is congruent. Bookwork: page 152; problems 1342
10 Chapter 4.3 Transversals and Corresponding Angles Identify the relationship of corresponding angles. When two lines are cut by a transversal, an additional set of angles is created l m Angles 2 and 6 are also called corresponding angles. There are three other pairs of corresponding angles. As with alternate interior angles, if the lines cut by the transversal are parallel, then corresponding angles are congruent.
11 Chapter 4.3 Transversals and Corresponding Angles Identify the relationship of corresponding angles. Postulate 41 Corresponding Angles: If two parallel lines are cut by a transversal, then each pair of corresponding angles is congruent. Look at Preparing for Proof on page 157. This proof leads to the following theorem. Theorem 44 Perpendicular Transversal: If a transversal is perpendicular to one of two lines, then is perpendicular to the other line. Bookwork: page 159; problems 1328, and 31
12 Chapter 4.4 Proving Lines Parallel Learn to construct parallel lines Identify conditions that lead to parallel lines. When using alternate interior angles, alternate exterior angles, corresponding angles, what must be true to determine the measure of congruent angles? Lines must be parallel. HandsOn Geometry page 162 Lets Construct Parallel Lines Postulate 42: If two lines are cut by a transversal so that a pair of corresponding angles is congruent, then the lines are parallel. Theorem 45: If two lines are cut by a transversal so that a pair of alternate interior angles are congruent, then the two lines are parallel. Theorem 46: If two lines are cut by a transversal so that a pair of alternate exterior angles are congruent, then the two lines are parallel.
13 Chapter 4.4 Proving Lines Parallel Learn to construct parallel lines Identify conditions that lead to parallel lines. Theorem 47: If two lines are cut by a transversal so that a pair of consecutive interior angles is supplementary, then the two lines are parallel. Theorem 48: If two lines are perpendicular to the same line, then the two lines are parallel. In Conclusion, the five ways to show two lines are parallel: 1. Pair of corresponding angles are congruent. 2. Pair of alternate interior angles are congruent. 3. Pair of alternate exterior angles are congruent. 4. Pair of consecutive interior angles is supplementary. 5. Two lines perpendicular to the same third line. Bookwork: page 166; problems 923
14 Chapter 4.5 and 4.6 Slope and Equations of Lines Find the slopes of line and identify parallel and perpendicular lines. Write and graph equations of lines. Recall from Algebra I, the steepness of a line is called slope. Slope can be defined as rise change in y, which is equal to run change in x Slope can be calculated by m = y 2 y 1 x 2 x 1, where x 2 x 1. Why can x 2 x 1? An undefined slope is what kind of line? What is the slope of a horizontal line? Δy or.type equation here. Δx The denominator would equal zero, which is undefined. A vertical line. Zero. What does a line with a positive slope look like? What does a line with a negative slope look like? Up and to the right. Down and to the right.
15 Chapter 4.5 and 4.6 Slope and Equations of Lines Find the slopes of line and identify parallel and perpendicular lines. Write and graph equations of lines. Postulate 43: Two nonvertical lines are parallel if and only if they have the same slopes. All vertical lines are considered parallel. Postulate 44: Two nonvertical lines are perpendicular if and only if the product of their slopes is 1. Or their slopes are negative reciprocals of each other. What are the three forms of an equation of a line? Pointslope: y 2 y 1 = m(x 2 x 1 ) Slopeintercept: y = mx + b, where m is the slope and b is the yintercept. Standard Form or Intercept Form: Look at examples 16. Ax + By = C Bookwork: page 172; problems 1029, and page 178; problems 1334
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