Aim #29: NYS Biodiversity Lab Review

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1 Name: Aim #29: NYS Biodiversity Lab Review Date: 1. Which chemicals are used to cut DNA into fragments for a gel electrophoresis procedure? A) enzymes B) molecular bases C) hormones D) ATP molecules 2. A laboratory setup that can be used to provide information about relationships between four plant species is represented below. This setup is part of the technique known as A) electrophoresis B) biological staining C) dissection D) chromatograph 3. Base your answer to this question on the results of an experiment using plant pigments represented below and on your knowledge of biology. Which phrase could be used to describe this technique? A) the use of chromatography to separate molecules in a mixture B) the use of cut leaves to observe certain colors C) using indicators to determine ph D) using dichotomous keys to identify plants

2 4. DNA electrophoresis is used to study evolutionary relationships of species. The diagram below shows the results of DNA electrophoresis for four different animal species. Which species has the most DNA in common with species A? A) X and Y, only B) Y, only C) Z, only D) X, Y, and Z Base your answers to questions 5 and 6 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology. Caretakers at a zoo are trying to determine which of two male tigers fathered the newest cub. They obtained DNA from the tiger cub, the mother tiger, and the two male tigers. The DNA was analyzed. The results of the analysis are shown below. 5. Which male tiger is the father of the newborn cub? Support your answer. Male tiger:

3 6. The technique used to separate the DNA for analysis is A) genetic engineering B) electrophoresis C) chromatography D) protein synthesis 7. Base your answer to the following question on the information below and on your knowledge of biology. Scientists found members of a plant species they did not recognize. They wanted to determine if the unknown species was related to one or more of four known species, A, B, C, and D. The relationship between species can be determined most accurately by comparing the results of gel electrophoresis of the DNA from different species. The chart below represents the results of gel electrophoresis of the DNA from the unknown plant species and the four known species. The unknown species is most closely related to which of the four known species? Support your answer. Base your answers to questions 8 and 9 on the information below, and on your knowledge of biology. An investigation was carried out on four different plant species to determine which of three species was most closely related to an unknown plant species. The results of the investigation are shown in the data table below. 8. Identify two pieces of evidence, other than those shown in the chart, that can be used to determine if two plant species are related. 9. Which plant species appears to be most closely related to the unknown species? Support your answer.

4 10. Base your answer to the following question on the DNA base sequence below and on your knowledge of biology. AAC GCC GTC CGC TAG If a mutation occurs, leaving 12 bases, what is the maximum number of amino acids that could be coded for by this DNA segment? amino acids Base your answers to questions 11 and 12 on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. A change in hemoglobin, a protein found in red blood cells, causes sickle-cell disease. Hemoglobin samples from different individuals can be compared by using a specific technique. The protein banding patterns of three samples are shown below. 11. Identify another substance that can be analyzed using this technique. 12. Identify the technique that was used to produce these results. 13. The technique of paper chromatography was performed on plant extracts from four different plant species. The results showed the same pattern for two of the plant species. State an evolutionary relationship between these two plants that is supported by this observation.

5 14. Base your answer to the following question on the information below and on your knowledge of biology. The segments of DNA below were extracted from two different species of plants. The segments represent the same region of DNA that codes for a particular pigment (color) in these species. A restriction enzyme is used to cut the DNA from species A and B The enzyme binds to the sequence G G G A T T and cuts between G and A State how many cuts will be made in the DNA sequences of each species when this enzyme is used. 15. Base your answer to the following question on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram represents some of the steps in a procedure used in a specific laboratory activity. Samples of DNA from an eye-color gene of four individuals, W, X, Y, and Z, were cut into pieces using a type of chemical. The results of this procedure are shown below. Which two individuals have DNA base patterns for this gene that are the most similar? Support your answer. Individuals: and

6 Base your answers to questions 16 and 17 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. Letters A through E represent different species of organisms. The arrows represent long periods of geologic time. 16. Identify one species that was not able to adapt to its environment. Support your answer. 17. Which species is the common ancestor to all of the other species? 18. Base your answer to the following question on on the information below and on your knowledge of biology. A valuable medicine is obtained from a certain rare species of plant. Scientists are anxious to find another more abundant species of plant that is closely related to the rare one, and also produces the medicine. Two newly discovered plant species, A and B, were studied and compared to the rare one. The results of the study are shown in the table below. Which newly discovered species is more closely related to the rare species? Support your answer.

7 19. A chromatography setup is shown below. Identify one error in the setup. 20. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below that illustrates the results of a laboratory technique and on your knowledge of biology. State one way the information obtained by this technique can be used.

8 21. Base your answer to the following question on the information below and on your knowledge of biology. In an investigation, DNA samples from four organisms, A, B, C, and D, were cut into fragments. The number of bases in the resulting DNA fragments for each sample is shown below. Which two DNA samples are the most similar? Support your answer using data from this investigation. Samples and 22. Base your answer to the following question on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The DNA of three different species of birds was analyzed to help determine if there is an evolutionary relationship between these species. The diagram shows the results of this analysis. The chart above contains amino acid sequences for part of a protein that is found in the feathers on each of these three species of birds. State one way this data supports the inference that these three bird species may be closely related.

9 23. Base your answer to the following question on the information below and on your knowledge of biology. Scientists found members of a plant species they did not recognize. They wanted to determine if the unknown species was related to one or more of four known species, A, B, C, and D. The relationship between species can be determined most accurately by comparing the results of gel electrophoresis of the DNA from different species. The chart below represents the results of gel electrophoresis of the DNA from the unknown plant species and the four known species. Identify one physical characteristic of plants that can be readily observed and compared to help determine the relationship between two different species of plants. 24. Base your answer to the following question on the information below and on your knowledge of biology. Paper chromatography can be used to investigate evolutionary relationships. Leaves from a plant were ground and mixed with a solvent. The mixture of ground leaves and solvent was then filtered. Using a toothpick, twenty drops of the filtrate (material that passed through the filter) were placed at one spot on a strip of chromatography paper. This procedure was repeated using leaves from three other species of plants. A separate strip of chromatography paper was prepared for each plant species. Each of the four strips of chromatography paper was placed in a different beaker containing the same solvent for the same amount of time. One of the laboratory setups is shown below. State how a comparison of these resulting strips could indicate evolutionary relationships.

10 Base your answers to questions 25 and 26 on the information and chart below, which represents a portion of the mrna codon chart and on your knowledge of biology. Researchers studying plants in the rain forest have discovered a new species of plant. A fragment of DNA is cut from a chromosome in this plant. The base sequence of the cut DNA fragment is represented below. DNA base sequence: T A C T T A T C A T A G 25. State one reason why the researchers would be interested in finding new plant species in rain forests. 26. Complete the chart below to show the mrna codons and amino acids coded for by the DNA base sequence.

11 Answer Key NYS Biodiversity Lab Review 1. A 2. D 3. A 4. C 5. All of the cub's DNA fragments match fragments found in either the female or male 1. Half of the cub's DNA fragments matched DNA fragments from male 1. The cub's DNA has two matches with male 1 and only one match with male B 7. It is most closely related to species C. The bands from the DNA of species C are the closest match to those of the unknown species. 8. shapes of the leaves, structures of the stems/flower, characteristics of the seeds, types of chlorophyll present, comparison of DNA sequences, fossil records 9. It has the most characteristics in common with the unknown species. It has the same gel electrophoresis banding pattern. It has only one amino acid sequence different from the unknown species DNA another protein 12. electrophoresis or gel electrophoresis. 13. They have a close evolutionary relationship. They have a common ancestor. These two organisms are more closely related to each other than to the other two. 14. Plant species A cuts: 1; Plant species B cuts: W and Z because 4 of the 5 bands are identical They have the greatest number of matching bands. 16. Species C, because it became extinct. D, because it is no longer alive. Species E does not continue to the present. 17. A 18. Species: B; because it has more characteristics in common with the rare species 19. The pigment spot is below the surface of the solvent. The level of the solvent is too high. 20. Examples: to determine evolutionary relationships screening for a genetic disorder to determine paternity to determine whether the hospital mixed up babies and parents to identify suspects in criminal investigations 21. Examples: B and D because they have the most fragments in common 22. Examples: Since they have similar amino acid sequences, they may be closely related. Since they have amino acid sequences that are very much alike, the species have similar DNA. 23. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to: structure of flowers structure of leaves structure of stems structure of seeds structure of pollen 24. Examples: The more similar the patterns of colors, the closer the relationship. The more similar the number of colors (and relative amounts of color), the closer the relationships. 25. may be a source of new medicines may give new evidence for evolutionary pathways or relationships may be new source of food may be commercially important 26.

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