Lecture 13: DNA Technology. DNA Sequencing. DNA Sequencing Genetic Markers - RFLPs polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of biotechnology

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Lecture 13: DNA Technology. DNA Sequencing. DNA Sequencing Genetic Markers - RFLPs polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of biotechnology"

Transcription

1 Lecture 13: DNA Technology DNA Sequencing Genetic Markers - RFLPs polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of biotechnology DNA Sequencing determine order of nucleotides in a strand of DNA > bases = A, T, G, C using an automated sequencer ingredients > DNA template - many copies > nucleotides for DNA synthesis > fluorescent termination nucleotides (stops DNA synthesis) > DNA primers: short pieces (<20 nt) that match ends of the template > DNA polymerase - catalyze DNA synthesis 1

2 DNA Sequencing continued DNA Sequencing - the movie (Celera Genomics) ( 1. primers attach to template 2. polymerase starts DNA elongation by adding nucleotides 3. stops randomly when termination nucleotide is used DNA copies of varying lengths with known ends (diff color) 4. construct sequence by reading termination nucleotide from shorted to longest fragment done by automated sequencers DNA Sequencing 2

3 Genetic Markers DNA varies from individual to individual (twins excepted) > differences in DNA sequences > one or more nucleotides may differ importance of these markers > unique identity ( genetic finger prints ) > indicate genetic diseases how do you detect these differences? > sequence genome directly > human genome project = ~3 billion base per bp + 10 yr > look for indirect evidence of genetic differences? restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) > +/- of specific DNA sequences varying lengths RFLPs type of genetic analysis > looks for presence or absence of specific sequences of DNA overview > get DNA from patient or suspect > cut up DNA using restriction enzymes > results in DNA fragments of varying lengths > test for presence or absence of specific DNA fragments > see fig 12.11C (p241) 3

4 Steps in RFLP Analysis DNA extraction > break up cells - physical and chemical means > isolate DNA cut up DNA using restriction enzymes > enzymes cut DNA at specific sites > many different enzymes available > DNA in smaller fragments RFLP Analysis continued gel electrophoresis > separate DNA according to size and charge > DNA negatively charged > place DNA at one end of a gel (jello-like substance) encased in glass > hook up gel to an outlet > DNA move to positive end / small fragments move faster 4

5 RFLP Analysis continued Blotting > separate the two strands of DNA (chemical process) > transfer DNA from gel to filter paper Probing > single stranded DNA > have radioactive phosphorous > known sequence > pour over DNA stuck on filter paper > probe sticks to DNA of interest RFLP Analysis continued detect genetic markers > overlay the filter paper with photographic film > radiation from probe forms image on film > develop film to visualize genetic markers (radioactive bands) filter paper photo film 5

6 Overview of RFLP Analysis cut up DNA > restriction enzyme separate DNA fragments > gel electrophoresis - small fragments travel further on gel > DNA occur as bands on gel blot DNA onto filter paper > add chemicals to split DNA into single strands > overlay gel with filter paper d probe for specific DNA > radioactive DNA of known sequence > bind to specific sequences of DNA (genetic markers) visualize genetic markers > overlay filter paper with photographic film and expose > develop to see presence of genetic markers RFLPs - Genetic Screening identify genetic diseases before symptom are detected > some diseases are due to mutations > e.g., hemophilia, PKU, cystic fibrosis > mutation will affect RFLP pattern > genetic screening consists of examining RFLPs > first step in locating the disease gene 6

7 RFLPs - Forensic Science match DNA samples from crime scenes with DNA from potential suspects RFLP s can be unique to individuals > genetic fingerprinting only small sample of cells are needed > drop of blood > skin under finger nails what is the probability that two people (non-twins) will have same RFLP patterns? > depends on the number of genetic markers compared > can be lower than 1 in a billion! not enough DNA? Not Enough DNA? Polymerase Chain Reaction - PCR replicate conditions for making copies of DNA outside the cell copying occur in cycles > separate strands > make copies of each strand number of copies double each cycle > after 5 cycles = 32 > after 10 cycles = 1,024 > after 15 cycles = 32,768 > after 20 cycles = 1,048,576 > after 25 cycles = 33,444,432 > after 30 cycles = 1,073,741,824 7

8 Products of Biotechnology some products of biotechnology > gene therapy > genetically modified organisms both are recombinant DNA technologies > DNA of more than one organism requires use of a vector > a way of inserting genes into the target cells > viruses (retroviruses) - made harmless > plasmid - circular pieces of DNA that can general steps > isolate useful gene > insert into vector > allow vector to insert DNA into host cells > all host cells to develop into adult Gene Therapy treatment of genetic diseases > replace defective gene not yet fully developed > not a one time fix > treatment must be continual example > defective gene not producing a protein in bone cells > treat patient with recombinant bone cells uses retrovirus as vector > restroviruses insert DNA in the host > made harmless -- does not kill host cells 8

9 Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) plasmids used to insert useful genes into target organisms e.g., StarLink corn pesticide gene (bt) into corn plants > bt gene isolated from a bacterium > bt corn can be used for feed > not clear if bt gene is harmful to humans Ethics of Genetic Engineering is there a difference between breeding species in the field and genetic engineering in the lab? 9

CCR Biology - Chapter 9 Practice Test - Summer 2012

CCR Biology - Chapter 9 Practice Test - Summer 2012 Name: Class: Date: CCR Biology - Chapter 9 Practice Test - Summer 2012 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Genetic engineering is possible

More information

Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA (Chapter 9) Lecture Materials for Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. Suffolk County Community College

Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA (Chapter 9) Lecture Materials for Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. Suffolk County Community College Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA (Chapter 9) Lecture Materials for Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. Suffolk County Community College Primary Source for figures and content: Eastern Campus Tortora, G.J. Microbiology

More information

The Techniques of Molecular Biology: Forensic DNA Fingerprinting

The Techniques of Molecular Biology: Forensic DNA Fingerprinting Revised Fall 2011 The Techniques of Molecular Biology: Forensic DNA Fingerprinting The techniques of molecular biology are used to manipulate the structure and function of molecules such as DNA and proteins

More information

DNA Fingerprinting. Unless they are identical twins, individuals have unique DNA

DNA Fingerprinting. Unless they are identical twins, individuals have unique DNA DNA Fingerprinting Unless they are identical twins, individuals have unique DNA DNA fingerprinting The name used for the unambiguous identifying technique that takes advantage of differences in DNA sequence

More information

Genetic Technology. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Genetic Technology. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Name: Class: Date: Genetic Technology Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. An application of using DNA technology to help environmental scientists

More information

Biotechnology: DNA Technology & Genomics

Biotechnology: DNA Technology & Genomics Chapter 20. Biotechnology: DNA Technology & Genomics 2003-2004 The BIG Questions How can we use our knowledge of DNA to: diagnose disease or defect? cure disease or defect? change/improve organisms? What

More information

DNA Technology Mapping a plasmid digesting How do restriction enzymes work?

DNA Technology Mapping a plasmid digesting How do restriction enzymes work? DNA Technology Mapping a plasmid A first step in working with DNA is mapping the DNA molecule. One way to do this is to use restriction enzymes (restriction endonucleases) that are naturally found in bacteria

More information

Recombinant DNA and Biotechnology

Recombinant DNA and Biotechnology Recombinant DNA and Biotechnology Chapter 18 Lecture Objectives What Is Recombinant DNA? How Are New Genes Inserted into Cells? What Sources of DNA Are Used in Cloning? What Other Tools Are Used to Study

More information

Basic Concepts Recombinant DNA Use with Chapter 13, Section 13.2

Basic Concepts Recombinant DNA Use with Chapter 13, Section 13.2 Name Date lass Master 19 Basic oncepts Recombinant DN Use with hapter, Section.2 Formation of Recombinant DN ut leavage Splicing opyright lencoe/mcraw-hill, a division of he Mcraw-Hill ompanies, Inc. Bacterial

More information

Forensic DNA Testing Terminology

Forensic DNA Testing Terminology Forensic DNA Testing Terminology ABI 310 Genetic Analyzer a capillary electrophoresis instrument used by forensic DNA laboratories to separate short tandem repeat (STR) loci on the basis of their size.

More information

Gene mutation and molecular medicine Chapter 15

Gene mutation and molecular medicine Chapter 15 Gene mutation and molecular medicine Chapter 15 Lecture Objectives What Are Mutations? How Are DNA Molecules and Mutations Analyzed? How Do Defective Proteins Lead to Diseases? What DNA Changes Lead to

More information

Gene Mapping Techniques

Gene Mapping Techniques Gene Mapping Techniques OBJECTIVES By the end of this session the student should be able to: Define genetic linkage and recombinant frequency State how genetic distance may be estimated State how restriction

More information

Chapter 8: Recombinant DNA 2002 by W. H. Freeman and Company Chapter 8: Recombinant DNA 2002 by W. H. Freeman and Company

Chapter 8: Recombinant DNA 2002 by W. H. Freeman and Company Chapter 8: Recombinant DNA 2002 by W. H. Freeman and Company Genetic engineering: humans Gene replacement therapy or gene therapy Many technical and ethical issues implications for gene pool for germ-line gene therapy what traits constitute disease rather than just

More information

Biology Behind the Crime Scene Week 4: Lab #4 Genetics Exercise (Meiosis) and RFLP Analysis of DNA

Biology Behind the Crime Scene Week 4: Lab #4 Genetics Exercise (Meiosis) and RFLP Analysis of DNA Page 1 of 5 Biology Behind the Crime Scene Week 4: Lab #4 Genetics Exercise (Meiosis) and RFLP Analysis of DNA Genetics Exercise: Understanding how meiosis affects genetic inheritance and DNA patterns

More information

Mitochondrial DNA Analysis

Mitochondrial DNA Analysis Mitochondrial DNA Analysis Lineage Markers Lineage markers are passed down from generation to generation without changing Except for rare mutation events They can help determine the lineage (family tree)

More information

Genetics Module B, Anchor 3

Genetics Module B, Anchor 3 Genetics Module B, Anchor 3 Key Concepts: - An individual s characteristics are determines by factors that are passed from one parental generation to the next. - During gamete formation, the alleles for

More information

Genetics Test Biology I

Genetics Test Biology I Genetics Test Biology I Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Avery s experiments showed that bacteria are transformed by a. RNA. c. proteins.

More information

DNA and Forensic Science

DNA and Forensic Science DNA and Forensic Science Micah A. Luftig * Stephen Richey ** I. INTRODUCTION This paper represents a discussion of the fundamental principles of DNA technology as it applies to forensic testing. A brief

More information

DNA PROFILING IN FORENSIC SCIENCE

DNA PROFILING IN FORENSIC SCIENCE DA PROFILIG I FORESIC SCIECE DA is the chemical code that is found in every cell of an individual's body, and is unique to each individual. Because it is unique, the ability to examine DA found at a crime

More information

Crime Scenes and Genes

Crime Scenes and Genes Glossary Agarose Biotechnology Cell Chromosome DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) Electrophoresis Gene Micro-pipette Mutation Nucleotide Nucleus PCR (Polymerase chain reaction) Primer STR (short tandem repeats)

More information

Section 16.1 Producing DNA fragments

Section 16.1 Producing DNA fragments Section 16.1 Producing DNA fragments Recombinant DNA combined DNA of two different organisms The process of using DNA technology to make certain proteins is as follows: 1.) Isolation of the DNA fragments

More information

14.3 Studying the Human Genome

14.3 Studying the Human Genome 14.3 Studying the Human Genome Lesson Objectives Summarize the methods of DNA analysis. State the goals of the Human Genome Project and explain what we have learned so far. Lesson Summary Manipulating

More information

CURRICULUM GUIDE. When this Forensics course has been completed successfully, students should be able to:

CURRICULUM GUIDE. When this Forensics course has been completed successfully, students should be able to: CURRICULUM GUIDE NAME OF COURSE: FORENSICS COURSE NUMBER: SCI 40 WRITTEN / REVISED: SEPTEMBER, 2011 LEVEL OF COURSE: REPLACMENT NUMBER OF CREDITS: SIX (6) PREREQUISITES: BIOLOGY GRADE LEVELS OFFERED TO:

More information

Recombinant DNA & Genetic Engineering. Tools for Genetic Manipulation

Recombinant DNA & Genetic Engineering. Tools for Genetic Manipulation Recombinant DNA & Genetic Engineering g Genetic Manipulation: Tools Kathleen Hill Associate Professor Department of Biology The University of Western Ontario Tools for Genetic Manipulation DNA, RNA, cdna

More information

1 Mutation and Genetic Change

1 Mutation and Genetic Change CHAPTER 14 1 Mutation and Genetic Change SECTION Genes in Action KEY IDEAS As you read this section, keep these questions in mind: What is the origin of genetic differences among organisms? What kinds

More information

Appendix 2 Molecular Biology Core Curriculum. Websites and Other Resources

Appendix 2 Molecular Biology Core Curriculum. Websites and Other Resources Appendix 2 Molecular Biology Core Curriculum Websites and Other Resources Chapter 1 - The Molecular Basis of Cancer 1. Inside Cancer http://www.insidecancer.org/ From the Dolan DNA Learning Center Cold

More information

The Biotechnology Education Company

The Biotechnology Education Company EDVTEK P.. Box 1232 West Bethesda, MD 20827-1232 The Biotechnology 106 EDV-Kit # Principles of DNA Sequencing Experiment bjective: The objective of this experiment is to develop an understanding of DNA

More information

AP BIOLOGY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES

AP BIOLOGY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES AP BIOLOGY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 4 A bacterial plasmid is 100 kb in length. The plasmid DNA was digested to completion with two restriction enzymes in three separate treatments: EcoRI, HaeIII,

More information

BioBoot Camp Genetics

BioBoot Camp Genetics BioBoot Camp Genetics BIO.B.1.2.1 Describe how the process of DNA replication results in the transmission and/or conservation of genetic information DNA Replication is the process of DNA being copied before

More information

Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology

Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology 1 So, what is biotechnology?? The use of living organisms to carry out defined chemical processes for industrial or commercial application. The office of Technology Assessment of the U.S. Congress defines

More information

Structure and Function of DNA

Structure and Function of DNA Structure and Function of DNA DNA and RNA Structure DNA and RNA are nucleic acids. They consist of chemical units called nucleotides. The nucleotides are joined by a sugar-phosphate backbone. The four

More information

DNA Replication in Prokaryotes

DNA Replication in Prokaryotes OpenStax-CNX module: m44488 1 DNA Replication in Prokaryotes OpenStax College This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 By the end of this section,

More information

IIID 14. Biotechnology in Fish Disease Diagnostics: Application of the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

IIID 14. Biotechnology in Fish Disease Diagnostics: Application of the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) IIID 14. Biotechnology in Fish Disease Diagnostics: Application of the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Background Infectious diseases caused by pathogenic organisms such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa,

More information

From DNA to Protein. Proteins. Chapter 13. Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes. The Path From Genes to Proteins. All proteins consist of polypeptide chains

From DNA to Protein. Proteins. Chapter 13. Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes. The Path From Genes to Proteins. All proteins consist of polypeptide chains Proteins From DNA to Protein Chapter 13 All proteins consist of polypeptide chains A linear sequence of amino acids Each chain corresponds to the nucleotide base sequence of a gene The Path From Genes

More information

2. True or False? The sequence of nucleotides in the human genome is 90.9% identical from one person to the next. False (it s 99.

2. True or False? The sequence of nucleotides in the human genome is 90.9% identical from one person to the next. False (it s 99. 1. True or False? A typical chromosome can contain several hundred to several thousand genes, arranged in linear order along the DNA molecule present in the chromosome. True 2. True or False? The sequence

More information

Chapter 6 DNA Replication

Chapter 6 DNA Replication Chapter 6 DNA Replication Each strand of the DNA double helix contains a sequence of nucleotides that is exactly complementary to the nucleotide sequence of its partner strand. Each strand can therefore

More information

12.1 The Role of DNA in Heredity

12.1 The Role of DNA in Heredity 12.1 The Role of DNA in Heredity Only in the last 50 years have scientists understood the role of DNA in heredity. That understanding began with the discovery of DNA s structure. In 1952, Rosalind Franklin

More information

How many of you have checked out the web site on protein-dna interactions?

How many of you have checked out the web site on protein-dna interactions? How many of you have checked out the web site on protein-dna interactions? Example of an approximately 40,000 probe spotted oligo microarray with enlarged inset to show detail. Find and be ready to discuss

More information

Becker Muscular Dystrophy

Becker Muscular Dystrophy Muscular Dystrophy A Case Study of Positional Cloning Described by Benjamin Duchenne (1868) X-linked recessive disease causing severe muscular degeneration. 100 % penetrance X d Y affected male Frequency

More information

Genetic Testing in Research & Healthcare

Genetic Testing in Research & Healthcare We Innovate Healthcare Genetic Testing in Research & Healthcare We Innovate Healthcare Genetic Testing in Research and Healthcare Human genetic testing is a growing science. It is used to study genes

More information

Willmar Public Schools Curriculum Map

Willmar Public Schools Curriculum Map Subject Area Science Senior High Course Name Forensics Date June 2010 Timeline Content Standards Addressed Skills/Benchmarks Essential Questions Assessments 1-2 Introduction History and Development of

More information

Bob Jesberg. Boston, MA April 3, 2014

Bob Jesberg. Boston, MA April 3, 2014 DNA, Replication and Transcription Bob Jesberg NSTA Conference Boston, MA April 3, 2014 1 Workshop Agenda Looking at DNA and Forensics The DNA, Replication i and Transcription i Set DNA Ladder The Double

More information

PAPER RFLP TEACHER GUIDE

PAPER RFLP TEACHER GUIDE PAPER RFLP TEACHER GUIDE Paper = DNA Scissors = Restriction Enzyme Desktop = Electrophoresis NOTE: There are TWO versions of this activity one where the students write their own sentences (to represent

More information

Transfection-Transfer of non-viral genetic material into eukaryotic cells. Infection/ Transduction- Transfer of viral genetic material into cells.

Transfection-Transfer of non-viral genetic material into eukaryotic cells. Infection/ Transduction- Transfer of viral genetic material into cells. Transfection Key words: Transient transfection, Stable transfection, transfection methods, vector, plasmid, origin of replication, reporter gene/ protein, cloning site, promoter and enhancer, signal peptide,

More information

Pharmaceutical Biotechnology. Recombinant DNA technology Western blotting and SDS-PAGE

Pharmaceutical Biotechnology. Recombinant DNA technology Western blotting and SDS-PAGE Pharmaceutical Biotechnology Recombinant DNA technology Western blotting and SDS-PAGE Recombinant DNA Technology Protein Synthesis Western Blot Western blots allow investigators to determine the molecular

More information

CHAPTER 6: RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY YEAR III PHARM.D DR. V. CHITRA

CHAPTER 6: RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY YEAR III PHARM.D DR. V. CHITRA CHAPTER 6: RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY YEAR III PHARM.D DR. V. CHITRA INTRODUCTION DNA : DNA is deoxyribose nucleic acid. It is made up of a base consisting of sugar, phosphate and one nitrogen base.the

More information

DNA Sequence Analysis

DNA Sequence Analysis DNA Sequence Analysis Two general kinds of analysis Screen for one of a set of known sequences Determine the sequence even if it is novel Screening for a known sequence usually involves an oligonucleotide

More information

4. DNA replication Pages: 979-984 Difficulty: 2 Ans: C Which one of the following statements about enzymes that interact with DNA is true?

4. DNA replication Pages: 979-984 Difficulty: 2 Ans: C Which one of the following statements about enzymes that interact with DNA is true? Chapter 25 DNA Metabolism Multiple Choice Questions 1. DNA replication Page: 977 Difficulty: 2 Ans: C The Meselson-Stahl experiment established that: A) DNA polymerase has a crucial role in DNA synthesis.

More information

How is genome sequencing done?

How is genome sequencing done? How is genome sequencing done? Using 454 Sequencing on the Genome Sequencer FLX System, DNA from a genome is converted into sequence data through four primary steps: Step One DNA sample preparation; Step

More information

2. The number of different kinds of nucleotides present in any DNA molecule is A) four B) six C) two D) three

2. The number of different kinds of nucleotides present in any DNA molecule is A) four B) six C) two D) three Chem 121 Chapter 22. Nucleic Acids 1. Any given nucleotide in a nucleic acid contains A) two bases and a sugar. B) one sugar, two bases and one phosphate. C) two sugars and one phosphate. D) one sugar,

More information

Bio 102 Practice Problems Recombinant DNA and Biotechnology

Bio 102 Practice Problems Recombinant DNA and Biotechnology Bio 102 Practice Problems Recombinant DNA and Biotechnology Multiple choice: Unless otherwise directed, circle the one best answer: 1. Which of the following DNA sequences could be the recognition site

More information

Annex to the Accreditation Certificate D-PL-13372-01-00 according to DIN EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005

Annex to the Accreditation Certificate D-PL-13372-01-00 according to DIN EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005 Deutsche Akkreditierungsstelle GmbH German Accreditation Body Annex to the Accreditation Certificate D-PL-13372-01-00 according to DIN EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005 Period of validity: 26.03.2012 to 25.03.2017

More information

VLLM0421c Medical Microbiology I, practical sessions. Protocol to topic J10

VLLM0421c Medical Microbiology I, practical sessions. Protocol to topic J10 Topic J10+11: Molecular-biological methods + Clinical virology I (hepatitis A, B & C, HIV) To study: PCR, ELISA, your own notes from serology reactions Task J10/1: DNA isolation of the etiological agent

More information

Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP): Genetic Transformation, Synthesis and Purification of the Recombinant Protein

Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP): Genetic Transformation, Synthesis and Purification of the Recombinant Protein Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP): Genetic Transformation, Synthesis and Purification of the Recombinant Protein INTRODUCTION Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) is a novel protein produced by the bioluminescent

More information

1/12 Dideoxy DNA Sequencing

1/12 Dideoxy DNA Sequencing 1/12 Dideoxy DNA Sequencing Dideoxy DNA sequencing utilizes two steps: PCR (polymerase chain reaction) amplification of DNA using dideoxy nucleoside triphosphates (Figures 1 and 2)and denaturing polyacrylamide

More information

HiPer RT-PCR Teaching Kit

HiPer RT-PCR Teaching Kit HiPer RT-PCR Teaching Kit Product Code: HTBM024 Number of experiments that can be performed: 5 Duration of Experiment: Protocol: 4 hours Agarose Gel Electrophoresis: 45 minutes Storage Instructions: The

More information

Recombinant DNA Technology

Recombinant DNA Technology Recombinant DNA Technology Dates in the Development of Gene Cloning: 1965 - plasmids 1967 - ligase 1970 - restriction endonucleases 1972 - first experiments in gene splicing 1974 - worldwide moratorium

More information

Biological Sciences Initiative. Human Genome

Biological Sciences Initiative. Human Genome Biological Sciences Initiative HHMI Human Genome Introduction In 2000, researchers from around the world published a draft sequence of the entire genome. 20 labs from 6 countries worked on the sequence.

More information

Viruses. Viral components: Capsid. Chapter 10: Viruses. Viral components: Nucleic Acid. Viral components: Envelope

Viruses. Viral components: Capsid. Chapter 10: Viruses. Viral components: Nucleic Acid. Viral components: Envelope Viruses Chapter 10: Viruses Lecture Exam #3 Wednesday, November 22 nd (This lecture WILL be on Exam #3) Dr. Amy Rogers Office Hours: MW 9-10 AM Too small to see with a light microscope Visible with electron

More information

1. Molecular computation uses molecules to represent information and molecular processes to implement information processing.

1. Molecular computation uses molecules to represent information and molecular processes to implement information processing. Chapter IV Molecular Computation These lecture notes are exclusively for the use of students in Prof. MacLennan s Unconventional Computation course. c 2013, B. J. MacLennan, EECS, University of Tennessee,

More information

Lecture 6: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (RFLPs)

Lecture 6: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (RFLPs) Lecture 6: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (RFLPs) Single nucleotide polymorphisms or SNPs (pronounced "snips") are DNA sequence variations that occur

More information

DNA Detection. Chapter 13

DNA Detection. Chapter 13 DNA Detection Chapter 13 Detecting DNA molecules Once you have your DNA separated by size Now you need to be able to visualize the DNA on the gel somehow Original techniques: Radioactive label, silver

More information

a. Ribosomal RNA rrna a type ofrna that combines with proteins to form Ribosomes on which polypeptide chains of proteins are assembled

a. Ribosomal RNA rrna a type ofrna that combines with proteins to form Ribosomes on which polypeptide chains of proteins are assembled Biology 101 Chapter 14 Name: Fill-in-the-Blanks Which base follows the next in a strand of DNA is referred to. as the base (1) Sequence. The region of DNA that calls for the assembly of specific amino

More information

Beginner s Guide to Real-Time PCR

Beginner s Guide to Real-Time PCR Beginner s Guide to Real-Time PCR 02 Real-time PCR basic principles PCR or the Polymerase Chain Reaction has become the cornerstone of modern molecular biology the world over. Real-time PCR is an advanced

More information

Human Genome Organization: An Update. Genome Organization: An Update

Human Genome Organization: An Update. Genome Organization: An Update Human Genome Organization: An Update Genome Organization: An Update Highlights of Human Genome Project Timetable Proposed in 1990 as 3 billion dollar joint venture between DOE and NIH with 15 year completion

More information

Lab 5: DNA Fingerprinting

Lab 5: DNA Fingerprinting Lab 5: DNA Fingerprinting You are about to perform a procedure known as DNA fingerprinting. The data obtained may allow you to determine if the samples of DNA that you will be provided with are from the

More information

DNA: A Person s Ultimate Fingerprint

DNA: A Person s Ultimate Fingerprint A partnership between the UAB Center for Community Outreach Development and McWane Center DNA: A Person s Ultimate Fingerprint This project is supported by a Science Education Partnership Award (SEPA)

More information

Recombinant DNA Unit Exam

Recombinant DNA Unit Exam Recombinant DNA Unit Exam Question 1 Restriction enzymes are extensively used in molecular biology. Below are the recognition sites of two of these enzymes, BamHI and BclI. a) BamHI, cleaves after the

More information

Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs)

Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) Additional Markers 13 core STR loci Obtain further information from additional markers: Y STRs Separating male samples Mitochondrial DNA Working with extremely degraded

More information

The E. coli Insulin Factory

The E. coli Insulin Factory The E. coli Insulin Factory BACKGROUND Bacteria have not only their normal DNA, they also have pieces of circular DNA called plasmids. Plasmids are a wonderfully ally for biologists who desire to get bacteria

More information

Intended Use: The kit is designed to detect the 5 different mutations found in Asian population using seven different primers.

Intended Use: The kit is designed to detect the 5 different mutations found in Asian population using seven different primers. Unzipping Genes MBPCR014 Beta-Thalassemia Detection Kit P r o d u c t I n f o r m a t i o n Description: Thalassemia is a group of genetic disorders characterized by quantitative defects in globin chain

More information

The Human Genome Project. From genome to health From human genome to other genomes and to gene function Structural Genomics initiative

The Human Genome Project. From genome to health From human genome to other genomes and to gene function Structural Genomics initiative The Human Genome Project From genome to health From human genome to other genomes and to gene function Structural Genomics initiative June 2000 What is the Human Genome Project? U.S. govt. project coordinated

More information

restriction enzymes 350 Home R. Ward: Spring 2001

restriction enzymes 350 Home R. Ward: Spring 2001 restriction enzymes 350 Home Restriction Enzymes (endonucleases): molecular scissors that cut DNA Properties of widely used Type II restriction enzymes: recognize a single sequence of bases in dsdna, usually

More information

DNA Replication & Protein Synthesis. This isn t a baaaaaaaddd chapter!!!

DNA Replication & Protein Synthesis. This isn t a baaaaaaaddd chapter!!! DNA Replication & Protein Synthesis This isn t a baaaaaaaddd chapter!!! The Discovery of DNA s Structure Watson and Crick s discovery of DNA s structure was based on almost fifty years of research by other

More information

How DNA Evidence Works

How DNA Evidence Works How DNA Evidence Works by An Meeker-O'Connell The public has always been captivated by the drama that occurs in the courtroom. There is even a whole channel, CourtTV, devoted to showing real court cases

More information

RNA and Protein Synthesis

RNA and Protein Synthesis Name lass Date RN and Protein Synthesis Information and Heredity Q: How does information fl ow from DN to RN to direct the synthesis of proteins? 13.1 What is RN? WHT I KNOW SMPLE NSWER: RN is a nucleic

More information

The following chapter is called "Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD)".

The following chapter is called Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD). Slide 1 Welcome to chapter 9. The following chapter is called "Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD)". The author is Dr. Maria Lalioti. Slide 2 The learning objectives of this chapter are: To learn the

More information

DNA, RNA, Protein synthesis, and Mutations. Chapters 12-13.3

DNA, RNA, Protein synthesis, and Mutations. Chapters 12-13.3 DNA, RNA, Protein synthesis, and Mutations Chapters 12-13.3 1A)Identify the components of DNA and explain its role in heredity. DNA s Role in heredity: Contains the genetic information of a cell that can

More information

Objectives: Vocabulary:

Objectives: Vocabulary: Introduction to Agarose Gel Electrophoresis: A Precursor to Cornell Institute for Biology Teacher s lab Author: Jennifer Weiser and Laura Austen Date Created: 2010 Subject: Molecular Biology and Genetics

More information

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON HARMONISATION OF TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF PHARMACEUTICALS FOR HUMAN USE Q5B

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON HARMONISATION OF TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF PHARMACEUTICALS FOR HUMAN USE Q5B INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON HARMONISATION OF TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF PHARMACEUTICALS FOR HUMAN USE ICH HARMONISED TRIPARTITE GUIDELINE QUALITY OF BIOTECHNOLOGICAL PRODUCTS: ANALYSIS

More information

DNA SEQUENCING SANGER: TECHNICALS SOLUTIONS GUIDE

DNA SEQUENCING SANGER: TECHNICALS SOLUTIONS GUIDE DNA SEQUENCING SANGER: TECHNICALS SOLUTIONS GUIDE We recommend for the sequence visualization the use of software that allows the examination of raw data in order to determine quantitatively how good has

More information

Amazing DNA facts. Hands-on DNA: A Question of Taste Amazing facts and quiz questions

Amazing DNA facts. Hands-on DNA: A Question of Taste Amazing facts and quiz questions Amazing DNA facts These facts can form the basis of a quiz (for example, how many base pairs are there in the human genome?). Students should be familiar with most of this material, so the quiz could be

More information

Just the Facts: A Basic Introduction to the Science Underlying NCBI Resources

Just the Facts: A Basic Introduction to the Science Underlying NCBI Resources 1 of 8 11/7/2004 11:00 AM National Center for Biotechnology Information About NCBI NCBI at a Glance A Science Primer Human Genome Resources Model Organisms Guide Outreach and Education Databases and Tools

More information

Using Digital Photography to Supplement Learning of Biotechnology. Methods

Using Digital Photography to Supplement Learning of Biotechnology. Methods RESEARCH ON LEARNING Using Digital Photography to Supplement Learning of Biotechnology Fran n orf l u s AbstrAct The author used digital photography to supplement learning of biotechnology by students

More information

Chapter 3 Contd. Western blotting & SDS PAGE

Chapter 3 Contd. Western blotting & SDS PAGE Chapter 3 Contd. Western blotting & SDS PAGE Western Blot Western blots allow investigators to determine the molecular weight of a protein and to measure relative amounts of the protein present in different

More information

Nucleic Acid Techniques in Bacterial Systematics

Nucleic Acid Techniques in Bacterial Systematics Nucleic Acid Techniques in Bacterial Systematics Edited by Erko Stackebrandt Department of Microbiology University of Queensland St Lucia, Australia and Michael Goodfellow Department of Microbiology University

More information

Molecular and Cell Biology Laboratory (BIOL-UA 223) Instructor: Ignatius Tan Phone: 212-998-8295 Office: 764 Brown Email: ignatius.tan@nyu.

Molecular and Cell Biology Laboratory (BIOL-UA 223) Instructor: Ignatius Tan Phone: 212-998-8295 Office: 764 Brown Email: ignatius.tan@nyu. Molecular and Cell Biology Laboratory (BIOL-UA 223) Instructor: Ignatius Tan Phone: 212-998-8295 Office: 764 Brown Email: ignatius.tan@nyu.edu Course Hours: Section 1: Mon: 12:30-3:15 Section 2: Wed: 12:30-3:15

More information

Immunology Ambassador Guide (updated 2014)

Immunology Ambassador Guide (updated 2014) Immunology Ambassador Guide (updated 2014) Immunity and Disease We will talk today about the immune system and how it protects us from disease. Also, we ll learn some unique ways that our immune system

More information

DNA Sequencing Troubleshooting Guide

DNA Sequencing Troubleshooting Guide DNA Sequencing Troubleshooting Guide Successful DNA Sequencing Read Peaks are well formed and separated with good quality scores. There is a small area at the beginning of the run before the chemistry

More information

- In 1976 1977, Allan Maxam and walter Gilbert devised the first method for sequencing DNA fragments containing up to ~ 500 nucleotides.

- In 1976 1977, Allan Maxam and walter Gilbert devised the first method for sequencing DNA fragments containing up to ~ 500 nucleotides. DNA Sequencing - DNA sequencing includes several methods and technologies that are used for determining the order of the nucleotide bases adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine in a molecule of DNA. -

More information

Name Class Date. Figure 13 1. 2. Which nucleotide in Figure 13 1 indicates the nucleic acid above is RNA? a. uracil c. cytosine b. guanine d.

Name Class Date. Figure 13 1. 2. Which nucleotide in Figure 13 1 indicates the nucleic acid above is RNA? a. uracil c. cytosine b. guanine d. 13 Multiple Choice RNA and Protein Synthesis Chapter Test A Write the letter that best answers the question or completes the statement on the line provided. 1. Which of the following are found in both

More information

2.1.2 Characterization of antiviral effect of cytokine expression on HBV replication in transduced mouse hepatocytes line

2.1.2 Characterization of antiviral effect of cytokine expression on HBV replication in transduced mouse hepatocytes line i 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Human Hepatitis B virus (HBV) 1 1.1.1 Pathogenesis of Hepatitis B 1 1.1.2 Genome organization of HBV 3 1.1.3 Structure of HBV virion 5 1.1.4 HBV life cycle 5 1.1.5 Experimental models

More information

Every time a cell divides the genome must be duplicated and passed on to the offspring. That is:

Every time a cell divides the genome must be duplicated and passed on to the offspring. That is: DNA Every time a cell divides the genome must be duplicated and passed on to the offspring. That is: Original molecule yields 2 molecules following DNA replication. Our topic in this section is how is

More information

Genetics Lecture Notes 7.03 2005. Lectures 1 2

Genetics Lecture Notes 7.03 2005. Lectures 1 2 Genetics Lecture Notes 7.03 2005 Lectures 1 2 Lecture 1 We will begin this course with the question: What is a gene? This question will take us four lectures to answer because there are actually several

More information

Sequencing the Human Genome

Sequencing the Human Genome Revised and Updated Edvo-Kit #339 Sequencing the Human Genome 339 Experiment Objective: In this experiment, students will read DNA sequences obtained from automated DNA sequencing techniques. The data

More information

The Chinese University of Hong Kong School of Life Sciences Biochemistry Program CUGEN Ltd.

The Chinese University of Hong Kong School of Life Sciences Biochemistry Program CUGEN Ltd. The Chinese University of Hong Kong School of Life Sciences Biochemistry Program CUGEN Ltd. DNA Forensic and Agarose Gel Electrophoresis 1 OBJECTIVES Prof. Stephen K.W. Tsui, Dr. Patrick Law and Miss Fion

More information

Title: Protein Isolation and Identification in Genetically Modified Food

Title: Protein Isolation and Identification in Genetically Modified Food Title: Protein Isolation and Identification in Genetically Modified Food Paula Ladd WestShore JR/SR HS This biotechnology unit is directed toward upper level science research students or AP Biology students.

More information

GENE CLONING AND RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY

GENE CLONING AND RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY GENE CLONING AND RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY What is recombinant DNA? DNA from 2 different sources (often from 2 different species) are combined together in vitro. Recombinant DNA forms the basis of cloning.

More information

Lab # 12: DNA and RNA

Lab # 12: DNA and RNA 115 116 Concepts to be explored: Structure of DNA Nucleotides Amino Acids Proteins Genetic Code Mutation RNA Transcription to RNA Translation to a Protein Figure 12. 1: DNA double helix Introduction Long

More information

European Medicines Agency

European Medicines Agency European Medicines Agency July 1996 CPMP/ICH/139/95 ICH Topic Q 5 B Quality of Biotechnological Products: Analysis of the Expression Construct in Cell Lines Used for Production of r-dna Derived Protein

More information