# EE 1202 Experiment #7 Signal Amplification

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 EE 1202 Experiment #7 Signal Amplification 1. Introduction and Goal: s increase the power (amplitude) of an electrical signal. They are used in audio and video systems and appliances. s are designed to amplify signals within a frequency range. Today, we study an operational amplifier and use it to amplify a sinusoidal signal. 2. Equipment List: Required instruments and components are shown below. Power Supply, HP Model E3630A. Multimeter, HP Model 34401A. Signal Generator HP Model 33220A. Oscilloscope, Agilent Model 54622D. Electronic prototyping board. Resistors, 5%, ¼ Watt: 1K and others, as needed. Fairchild Model 741 operational amplifier. Oscilloscope probes and connecting leads: banana plug, coaxial, coaxial-to-hook-end. 3. Experimental Theory: s increase signal strength (Fig. 1) due to power from an external source, unlike the passive circuit elements that we have studied so far. We won t cover amplifier internals but instead concentrate on the fundamentals of operation. Signal In Signal Out Fig. 1. Operation V. Inputs Output Figure 2. Basic op amp. V Theory of the operational amplifier: Fig. 2 shows a basic op amp The op amp has inverting and non-inverting inputs ( and ), an output, and two power inputs, V and V (DC voltages). It has no ground (or 0 V) input, but you can use power supply ground to attach to the ground lead of the oscilloscope probe An op amp cannot have an output larger than its power supply voltages. If the positive DC voltage is, for example, 15V., then the output cannot possibly exceed 15V. If the output would have a

2 swing of more than ±15 V or more, the output voltage swing will be clipped (Fig. 3). In practice, clipping occurs when the output of the op amp is much less than the ± supply voltage. A good rule of thumb is that the op amp output should limited to about 60-70% of the supply voltage limits. Signal In Clipped Signal Out Figure 3. Clipped Output The amount of amplification of an op amp is called gain. The maximum gain of most operational amplifiers is very large (usually > 100,000). Op amp gain can be reduced to a useful range by negative feedback, which is discussed below. v i Signal In Linear Gain Signal Out v o =Kv i Figure 4. Linear Gain If op amp output is between ±0.6V, (± V = the DC power levels), it is operating in its linear gain region. Thus, amplification is constant and linear. Output is K times the input, K a constant (Fig. 4) Important op amp characteristics: (1) high input resistance, (~ 1 MegΩ), and (2) low output impedance (~ a few hundred Ω or less) With its high gain, low output resistance and high input impedance, the op amp is easy to analyze if we assume: (1) Input impedance is infinite ( ), (2) output impedance 0, (3) gain Negative Feedback: With such high K, the op amp would be useful to amplify only tiny inputs. We can use negative feedback to lower K In Fig. 5, the input is v i (t) and the output signal is v 0 (t). The circuit resistors are R i (input resistor), R f (feedback resistor), and R L (load resistor). Input voltages are ±V Using assumptions of 3.1.6: Since amplifier input impedance is large, we assume input current is negligible: i n 0. Since v p = 0 (ground = 0V), and since i n is 0, then v n = v p = 0. These are approximations, but they are close enough for our analysis By Kirchoff s current node law i node 0 at Node n (Fig. 6). Then i i i f i n. Since i n = 0, then ii if 0. From the diagram, i ( v v )/ R and i ( v v )/ R. But v n = v p = 0, so that f 0 n f / f 0 f i v R, and i v / R. i i s i i n s 2

3 i i R i i f i n R f V. v i (t) Signal Gen. Node n Fig. 6 v n v p V. v 0 (t) R L Figure 5. Op amp negative feedback circuit. i i R i i f i n Figure 6. Current Relationships. Node n (0 V) 3.3. Discovery Exercise: In your worksheet, use the information above to develop a formula for the gain, which you will use in the exercises below. 4. Pre-Work: Prior to lab, review exercise and complete Worksheet #7. 5. Experimental Procedure: 5.1. Negative Feedback : In the exercises below, record the measured value of the selected resistors and enter in the data sheet (See op amp diagram on last page of this exercise). Plug a 741 op amp into the circuit board. Connect ± 20V DC power to the two power inputs. Connect the negative signal input to a 1K resistor, and the other side of the resistor to the signal generator (Fig. 7). The positive terminal of the op amp, DC power supply ground, and the low side of the oscilloscope probes should be connected together Turn on power supply. Set outputs to ± 15V. Note that when the tracking ratio knob is in the fixed position (max CCW), the ± 20 V voltage control knob sets the ± voltages to be equal and opposite. Signal inputs V 3 V DC Power Fig. 7. Op amp basic hookup (ground lines and oscilloscope probes not shown).

4 Connect oscilloscope channel 1 to the 1K input resistor and channel 2 to the output Set up the feedback resistor for an amplification of 10 (technically 10). Based on the 1K value of R i, use your formula for K to select the feedback resistor, R f, and connect it between the negative op amp input node and output terminal (you may have to chose an approximate value be sure to measure the exact resistance) Turn on signal generator. Using oscilloscope channel 1, set AC input to 1 V p-p at 1000 Hz. Autoscale channel 2 sensitivity to see the output AC signal. If resistor selection is correct, the output should be ~ 10 V, p-p. Is your output that value? Note input and output peak-to-peak voltages on your data sheet Calculate gain using measured resistor values. Are they close? Turn off power supply. Change feedback resistor for a gain of ~ 50 (again, you may have to use an approximate value). Set signal generator at 200 mv, p-p. Turn on power supply; check the output channel. Record second resistor value calculated for K= In both cases, the output voltage should look as shown in Fig Note on high-frequency noise: You may see high-frequency noise on the display at higher oscilloscope sensitivities. This is not an equipment flaw. It is due to detecting environmental noise, radio or other signals due to sources in or near the lab. This may increase measurement difficulty, but does not affect circuit performance. 200 mv, p-p. 10V, p-p. v i v o Note that 200 mv signal shows high-frequency "noise. Fig 8. Input AC signal and amplified output signal with amplification of The op amp is an inverting amplifier in negative-feedback mode. Looking at Fig. 8, or the oscilloscope traces, you can see that 4

5 the phase of the output is 180 degrees from the input, (it might be slightly off). Based on knowledge of AC circuits from earlier experiments, what can you speculate might cause any slight offset from a perfect 180 degree phase shift? Discuss this in your report Design Exercise a Non-Inverting : What if you need a noninverting amplifier (one that does not reverse the phase)? Design a non-inverting op amp circuit with a gain of 100, using resistors from your parts kit and a second op amp chip. You can still use the equation that you developed for the earlier design. Note: to preserve the condition that the op amp output voltage be no more than about 60-70% of the power supply maximum input voltages, the input should be no more than 100 mv, peak-to-peak. Hints: (1) When amplifiers are cascaded (put in series), their gain multiplies; (2) Each negative-feedback op amp inverts the signal After demonstrating amplifier circuit, the experiment is complete. Make sure you include the circuit schematic on your data sheet. 6. Laboratory Area Cleanup: Return parts kit to equipment cabinet. Make sure work area is clean. 7. Writing the Laboratory Report: In your report, do the following: 7.1. Discuss gain characteristics of the op amp. Did your amplification formula work? 7.2. How did the calculated gain and actual gain compare? 7.3. How accurate was the amplification in your non-inverting circuit? 7.4. What problems did you encounter? Signal inputs Power ( 15V) connection NC NC LM 741 Operational Notch or circle denotes pin 1 8 NC Power (15V) 7 connection 6 Signal Out Fig. 9. Circuit Information and Pin-outs. 5

6 Experiment #7 Data Sheet 1. In the worksheet, you developed an equation for the gain K of an op amp operated in negative-feedback mode. Write that formula below: K ( v / v ) 2. Measured value of 1K input resistor: O i and feedback resistor that you chose in 5.1.4: 3. Measured value of input AC signal (p-p): and amplifier output voltage (p-p) in 5.1.5: 4. Gain ( v / 0 vi ) using measured values in #3 above: 5. Op amp calculated gain using your formula and the measured resistor values in #2 above: 6. Resistor value of for gain of 50 (section 5.1.7): 7. Amplitude of input AC signal (p-p): and amplifier output from section 6.1.7: 8. Gain ( v / 0 vi ) using measured values in #7 above: 9. Calculated gain using measured value of 1K resistor (#2 above) and resistor for 50 gain (#6): 10. Non-inverting amplifier design: State below how you did this. What were the resistor values for your circuit? 11. Did you use both op amps in the non-inverting amplifier? If so, show the circuit below (like Fig. 5). Label all components. 6

7 Experiment #7 Worksheet Small Signal Amplified Signal 1. The gain of an amplifier is a measure of its ability to add power to a signal. Based on information in the text, write down a simple gain formula in terms of input signal and output voltage: 2. Operational amplifiers have several basic characteristics, including high input impedance (~ 1 Meg Ω), low output impedance (typically < 500 Ω), and a specific gain range. What is a typical gain of an op amp? 3. Exercise: We developed some basic relationships for the negative-feedback operational amplifier circuit described in and (Figs. 5 and 6). a. Use the relations ii if 0, or i i i f and the definitions of i i and i f developed in to find a value of the output voltage, v 0, in terms of the input signal, v i. When you find this formula, the multiplier of the input signal v i in the equation is the gain K, as discussed above. b. The formula you develop above gives the gain of the negative feedback amplifier, allowing you to set the amount of gain that it will provide. c. Using negative feedback, output voltage has the opposite sign of the input voltage (i.e., K is negative). If the input is positive, the op amp output voltage will be negative. If the input is negative, the output will be positive. For AC signals, the output will be 180 degrees out of phase with the input. If AC input is changing in a range below 0, the output will change at a rate K times that of the input, but above 0. If the input is a sinusoid, then output and input will have 0 crossings at approximately identical times, but the output will be maximum when the input is a minimum and vice-versa. d. Suppose you have two inverting amplifiers with gains of 10 and 20, and you connect the output of the first to the input of the second. What is the overall gain of this cascaded set of two amplifiers? 7

### EE 1202 Experiment #2 Resistor Circuits

EE 1202 Experiment #2 Resistor Circuits 1. ntroduction and Goals: Demonstrates the voltage-current relationships in DC and AC resistor circuits. Providing experience in using DC power supply, digital multimeter,

### Frequency Response of Filters

School of Engineering Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 332:224 Principles of Electrical Engineering II Laboratory Experiment 2 Frequency Response of Filters 1 Introduction Objectives To

### Designing a Poor Man s Square Wave Signal Generator. EE-100 Lab: Designing a Poor Man s Square Wave Signal Generator - Theory

EE-100 Lab: - Theory 1. Objective The purpose of this laboratory is to introduce nonlinear circuit measurement and analysis. Your measurements will focus mainly on limiters and clamping amplifiers. During

### Lab 5 Operational Amplifiers

Lab 5 Operational Amplifiers By: Gary A. Ybarra Christopher E. Cramer Duke University Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Durham, NC. Purpose The purpose of this lab is to examine the properties

### EXPERIMENT 1.2 CHARACTERIZATION OF OP-AMP

1.17 EXPERIMENT 1.2 CHARACTERIZATION OF OPAMP 1.2.1 OBJECTIVE 1. To sketch and briefly explain an operational amplifier circuit symbol and identify all terminals 2. To list the amplifier stages in a typical

### Lab 7: Operational Amplifiers Part I

Lab 7: Operational Amplifiers Part I Objectives The objective of this lab is to study operational amplifier (op amp) and its applications. We will be simulating and building some basic op amp circuits,

### R f. V i. ET 438a Automatic Control Systems Technology Laboratory 4 Practical Differentiator Response

ET 438a Automatic Control Systems Technology Laboratory 4 Practical Differentiator Response Objective: Design a practical differentiator circuit using common OP AMP circuits. Test the frequency response

### Operational Amplifiers

1. Introduction Operational Amplifiers The student will be introduced to the application and analysis of operational amplifiers in this laboratory experiment. The student will apply circuit analysis techniques

### ENGR 210 Lab 11 Frequency Response of Passive RC Filters

ENGR 210 Lab 11 Response of Passive RC Filters The objective of this lab is to introduce you to the frequency-dependent nature of the impedance of a capacitor and the impact of that frequency dependence

### Overview: The purpose of this experiment is to introduce diode rectifier circuits used in DC power supplies.

UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHARLOTTE Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Experiment No. 3 Diodes and Bridge Rectifiers Overview: The purpose of this experiment is to introduce diode

### DC Circuits: Operational Amplifiers Hasan Demirel

DC Circuits: Operational Amplifiers Hasan Demirel Op Amps: Introduction Op Amp is short form of operational amplifier. An op amp is an electronic unit that behaves like a voltage controlled voltage source.

### Building the AMP Amplifier

Building the AMP Amplifier Introduction For about 80 years it has been possible to amplify voltage differences and to increase the associated power, first with vacuum tubes using electrons from a hot filament;

### EE 1202 Experiment #4 Capacitors, Inductors, and Transient Circuits

EE 1202 Experiment #4 Capacitors, Inductors, and Transient Circuits 1. Introduction and Goal: Exploring transient behavior due to inductors and capacitors in DC circuits; gaining experience with lab instruments.

### UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHARLOTTE. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHARLOTTE Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Experiment No. 5 - Gain-Bandwidth Product and Slew Rate Overview: In this laboratory the student will explore

### School of Engineering Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

1 School of Engineering Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 332:223 Principles of Electrical Engineering I Laboratory Experiment #4 Title: Operational Amplifiers 1 Introduction Objectives

### Scaling and Biasing Analog Signals

Scaling and Biasing Analog Signals November 2007 Introduction Scaling and biasing the range and offset of analog signals is a useful skill for working with a variety of electronics. Not only can it interface

### Generating Common Waveforms Using the LM555, Operational Amplifiers, and Transistors

Generating Common Waveforms Using the LM555, Operational Amplifiers, and Transistors Kenneth Young November 16, 2012 I. Abstract The generation of precise waveforms may be needed within any circuit design.

### Operational Amplifiers

perational Amplifiers. perational Amplifiers perational amplifiers (commonly known as opamps) are integrated circuits designed to amplify small voltages (or currents) to usable levels. The physical packaging

### LM 358 Op Amp. If you have small signals and need a more useful reading we could amplify it using the op amp, this is commonly used in sensors.

LM 358 Op Amp S k i l l L e v e l : I n t e r m e d i a t e OVERVIEW The LM 358 is a duel single supply operational amplifier. As it is a single supply it eliminates the need for a duel power supply, thus

### CIRCUITS LABORATORY EXPERIMENT 9. Operational Amplifiers

CIRCUITS LABORATORY EXPERIMENT 9 Operational Amplifiers 9.1 INTRODUCTION An operational amplifier ("op amp") is a direct-coupled, differential-input, highgain voltage amplifier, usually packaged in the

### Material and Equipment NI ELVIS 741 Op Amp, 5k pot, Assorted Resistors (10k, 100k, 220k (2), 100 (2), 560 )

Lab 8 Operational Amplifier Characteristics Purpose The purpose of this lab is to study the non-ideal characteristics of the operational amplifier. The characteristics that will be investigated include

### LABORATORY 2 THE DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER

LABORATORY 2 THE DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER OBJECTIVES 1. To understand how to amplify weak (small) signals in the presence of noise. 1. To understand how a differential amplifier rejects noise and common

### Chapter 19 Operational Amplifiers

Chapter 19 Operational Amplifiers The operational amplifier, or op-amp, is a basic building block of modern electronics. Op-amps date back to the early days of vacuum tubes, but they only became common

### The output signal may be of the same form as the input signal, i.e. V in produces V out

What is an amplifier? Operational Amplifiers A device that takes an input (current, voltage, etc.) and produces a correlated output Input Signal Output Signal Usually the output is a multiple of the input

### Op-Amps Experiment Theory

EE 4/00 Operational mplifiers Op-mps Experiment Theory. Objective The purpose of these experiments is to introduce the most important of all analog building blocks, the operational amplifier ( op-amp for

### EE320L Electronics I. Laboratory. Laboratory Exercise #5. Clipping and Clamping Circuits. Angsuman Roy

EE320L Electronics I Laboratory Laboratory Exercise #5 Clipping and Clamping Circuits By Angsuman Roy Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Nevada, Las Vegas Objective: The purpose

### Reading: HH Sections 4.11 4.13, 4.19 4.20 (pgs. 189-212, 222 224)

6 OP AMPS II 6 Op Amps II In the previous lab, you explored several applications of op amps. In this exercise, you will look at some of their limitations. You will also examine the op amp integrator and

### Electronics. Discrete assembly of an operational amplifier as a transistor circuit. LD Physics Leaflets P4.2.1.1

Electronics Operational Amplifier Internal design of an operational amplifier LD Physics Leaflets Discrete assembly of an operational amplifier as a transistor circuit P4.2.1.1 Objects of the experiment

### Electrical Resonance

Electrical Resonance (R-L-C series circuit) APPARATUS 1. R-L-C Circuit board 2. Signal generator 3. Oscilloscope Tektronix TDS1002 with two sets of leads (see Introduction to the Oscilloscope ) INTRODUCTION

### Lab 9: Op Amps Lab Assignment

3 class days 1. Differential Amplifier Source: Hands-On chapter 8 (~HH 6.1) Lab 9: Op Amps Lab Assignment Difference amplifier. The parts of the pot on either side of the slider serve as R3 and R4. The

### Cornerstone Electronics Technology and Robotics I Week 15 Voltage Comparators Tutorial

Cornerstone Electronics Technology and Robotics I Week 15 Voltage Comparators Tutorial Administration: o Prayer Robot Building for Beginners, Chapter 15, Voltage Comparators: o Review of Sandwich s Circuit:

### Analog Electronics II Laboratory Exercise 2 Cascade amplifier with BJT

Analog Electronics II Laboratory Exercise 2 Cascade amplifier with BJT Aim of the exercise The aim of this laboratory exercise is to become familiar with the operation of the cascade connection of the

### Multi-Stage Amplifiers

Experiment-4 Multi-Stage Amplifiers Introduction The objectives of this experiment are to examine the characteristics of several multi-stage amplifier configurations. Several of these will be breadboarded

### PH 210 Electronics Laboratory I Instruction Manual

PH 210 Electronics Laboratory I Instruction Manual Index Page No General Instructions 2 Experiment 1 Common Emitter (CE) Amplifier 4 Experiment 2 Multistage amplifier: Cascade of two CE stages 7 Experiment

### The George Washington University School of Engineering and Applied Science Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

The George Washington University School of Engineering and Applied Science Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Final Design Report Dual Channel Stereo Amplifier By: Kristen Gunia Prepared

### Op Amp Circuits. Inverting and Non-inverting Amplifiers, Integrator, Differentiator

M.B. Patil, IIT Bombay 1 Op Amp ircuits Inverting and Non-inverting Amplifiers, Integrator, Differentiator Introduction An Operational Amplifier (Op Amp) is a versatile building block used in a variety

### RLC Series Resonance

RLC Series Resonance 11EM Object: The purpose of this laboratory activity is to study resonance in a resistor-inductor-capacitor (RLC) circuit by examining the current through the circuit as a function

### Class A Amplifier Design

Module 2 Amplifiers Introduction to Amplifier Design What you ll learn in Module 2. Basic design process. Section 2.0 Introduction to Amplifier Design. Section 2.1 DC Conditions. Design a BJT class A common

### ELECTRONICS. EE 42/100 Lecture 8: Op-Amps. Rev C 2/8/2012 (9:54 AM) Prof. Ali M. Niknejad

A. M. Niknejad University of California, Berkeley EE 100 / 42 Lecture 8 p. 1/23 EE 42/100 Lecture 8: Op-Amps ELECTRONICS Rev C 2/8/2012 (9:54 AM) Prof. Ali M. Niknejad University of California, Berkeley

### Operational Amplifiers

Operational Amplifiers Introduction The operational amplifier (op-amp) is a voltage controlled voltage source with very high gain. It is a five terminal four port active element. The symbol of the op-amp

### Experiment 2 Diode Applications: Rectifiers

ECE 3550 - Practicum Fall 2007 Experiment 2 Diode Applications: Rectifiers Objectives 1. To investigate the characteristics of half-wave and full-wave rectifier circuits. 2. To recognize the usefulness

### OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER

MODULE3 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER Contents 1. INTRODUCTION... 3 2. Operational Amplifier Block Diagram... 3 3. Operational Amplifier Characteristics... 3 4. Operational Amplifier Package... 4 4.1 Op Amp Pins

### Operational Amplifiers

662 25 Principles of Electronics Operational Amplifiers 25.1 Operational Amplifier 25.3 Basic Circuit of Differential Amplifier 25.5 Common-mode and Differentialmode signals 25.7 Voltage Gains of DA 25.9

### Basic Op Amp Circuits

Basic Op Amp ircuits Manuel Toledo INEL 5205 Instrumentation August 3, 2008 Introduction The operational amplifier (op amp or OA for short) is perhaps the most important building block for the design of

### Operational Amplifiers

Operational Amplifiers Aims: To know: Basic Op Amp properties eal & Ideal Basic ideas of feedback. inv input noninv input output gnd To be able to do basic circuit analysis of op amps: using KCL, KL with

### See Horenstein 4.3 and 4.4

EE 462: Laboratory # 4 DC Power Supply Circuits Using Diodes by Drs. A.V. Radun and K.D. Donohue (2/14/07) Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Kentucky Lexington, KY 40506 Updated

### Experiment IX: AM Transistor Radio: The Transistor Amplifier Circuit

Experiment IX: AM Transistor Radio: The Transistor Amplifier Circuit I. References Horowitz and Hill, The Art of Electronics. Diefenderfer and Holton, Principles of Electronic Instrumentation The American

### Use and Application of Output Limiting Amplifiers (HFA1115, HFA1130, HFA1135)

Use and Application of Output Limiting Amplifiers (HFA111, HFA110, HFA11) Application Note November 1996 AN96 Introduction Amplifiers with internal voltage clamps, also known as limiting amplifiers, have

### Charge and Discharge of a Capacitor

Charge and Discharge of a Capacitor INTRODUCTION Capacitors 1 are devices that can store electric charge and energy. Capacitors have several uses, such as filters in DC power supplies and as energy storage

### Lab E1: Introduction to Circuits

E1.1 Lab E1: Introduction to Circuits The purpose of the this lab is to introduce you to some basic instrumentation used in electrical circuits. You will learn to use a DC power supply, a digital multimeter

### Oscilloscope, Function Generator, and Voltage Division

1. Introduction Oscilloscope, Function Generator, and Voltage Division In this lab the student will learn to use the oscilloscope and function generator. The student will also verify the concept of voltage

### Laboratory 4: Feedback and Compensation

Laboratory 4: Feedback and Compensation To be performed during Week 9 (Oct. 20-24) and Week 10 (Oct. 27-31) Due Week 11 (Nov. 3-7) 1 Pre-Lab This Pre-Lab should be completed before attending your regular

### EXPERIMENT NUMBER 5 BASIC OSCILLOSCOPE OPERATIONS

1 EXPERIMENT NUMBER 5 BASIC OSCILLOSCOPE OPERATIONS The oscilloscope is the most versatile and most important tool in this lab and is probably the best tool an electrical engineer uses. This outline guides

### RC Circuits and The Oscilloscope Physics Lab X

Objective RC Circuits and The Oscilloscope Physics Lab X In this series of experiments, the time constant of an RC circuit will be measured experimentally and compared with the theoretical expression for

### Operational Amplifier - IC 741

Operational Amplifier - IC 741 Tabish December 2005 Aim: To study the working of an 741 operational amplifier by conducting the following experiments: (a) Input bias current measurement (b) Input offset

### OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS

INTRODUCTION OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS The student will be introduced to the application and analysis of operational amplifiers in this laboratory experiment. The student will apply circuit analysis techniques

### Frequency response of a general purpose single-sided OpAmp amplifier

Frequency response of a general purpose single-sided OpAmp amplifier One configuration for a general purpose amplifier using an operational amplifier is the following. The circuit is characterized by:

### Lab 4: BJT Amplifiers Part I

Lab 4: BJT Amplifiers Part I Objectives The objective of this lab is to learn how to operate BJT as an amplifying device. Specifically, we will learn the following in this lab: The physical meaning of

### PHYS 2426 Engineering Physics II (Revised July 7, 2011) AC CIRCUITS: RLC SERIES CIRCUIT

PHYS 2426 Engineering Physics II (Revised July 7, 2011) AC CIRCUITS: RLC SERIES CIRCUIT INTRODUCTION The objective of this experiment is to study the behavior of an RLC series circuit subject to an AC

### Operational Amplifiers - Configurations and Characteristics

Operational Amplifiers - Configurations and Characteristics What is an Op Amp An Op Amp is an integrated circuit that can be used to amplify both DC and AC signals. One of the most common Op Amps available

### The OP AMP -, Figure 1

The OP AMP Amplifiers, in general, taking as input, one or more electrical signals, and produce as output, one or more variations of these signals. The most common use of an amplifier is to accept a small

### Peggy Alavi Application Engineer September 3, 2003

Op-Amp Basics Peggy Alavi Application Engineer September 3, 2003 Op-Amp Basics Part 1 Op-Amp Basics Why op-amps Op-amp block diagram Input modes of Op-Amps Loop Configurations Negative Feedback Gain Bandwidth

### Bipolar Transistor Amplifiers

Physics 3330 Experiment #7 Fall 2005 Bipolar Transistor Amplifiers Purpose The aim of this experiment is to construct a bipolar transistor amplifier with a voltage gain of minus 25. The amplifier must

### Name Date Day/Time of Lab Partner(s) Lab TA

Name Date Day/Time of Lab Partner(s) Lab TA Objectives LAB 7: AC CIRCUITS To understand the behavior of resistors, capacitors, and inductors in AC Circuits To understand the physical basis of frequency-dependent

### APPLICATION NOTE 29 Testing Capacitors with High DC Bias

APPLICATION NOTE 29 Testing Capacitors with High DC Bias This application note will describe the process of analysing the impedance of a capacitor when subjected to high DC bias voltages. This particular

### Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) LED Dimmer Circuit. Using a 555 Timer Chip

Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) LED Dimmer Circuit Using a 555 Timer Chip Goals of Experiment Demonstrate the operation of a simple PWM circuit that can be used to adjust the intensity of a green LED by varying

### Experiment # (4) AM Demodulator

Islamic University of Gaza Faculty of Engineering Electrical Department Experiment # (4) AM Demodulator Communications Engineering I (Lab.) Prepared by: Eng. Omar A. Qarmout Eng. Mohammed K. Abu Foul Experiment

### FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF AN AUDIO AMPLIFIER

2014 Amplifier - 1 FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF AN AUDIO AMPLIFIER The objectives of this experiment are: To understand the concept of HI-FI audio equipment To generate a frequency response curve for an audio

### Transistor Amplifiers

Physics 3330 Experiment #7 Fall 1999 Transistor Amplifiers Purpose The aim of this experiment is to develop a bipolar transistor amplifier with a voltage gain of minus 25. The amplifier must accept input

### Karaoke Circuit Building Instructions

Karaoke Circuit Building Instructions Background Most popular and rock music recordings use multiple microphones and mixers to generate the left and right signals. Listening in stereo gives a broad presence

### Simple Op-Amp Circuits

ECE A Lab #4 Lab 4 Simple OpAmp Circuits Overview In this lab we introduce the operationalamplifier (opamp), an active circuit that is designed for certain characteristics (high input resistance, low output

### AMPLIFIED HIGH SPEED FIBER PHOTODETECTOR USER S GUIDE

AMPLIFIED HIGH SPEED FIBER PHOTODETECTOR USER S GUIDE Thank you for purchasing your Amplified High Speed Fiber Photodetector. This user s guide will help answer any questions you may have regarding the

### Chapter 12: The Operational Amplifier

Chapter 12: The Operational Amplifier 12.1: Introduction to Operational Amplifier (Op-Amp) Operational amplifiers (op-amps) are very high gain dc coupled amplifiers with differential inputs; they are used

### EXPERIMENT 6 CLIPPING AND CLAMPING DIODE CIRCUITS

EXPERIMENT 6 CLIPPING AND CLAMPING DIODE CIRCUITS OBJECTIVES To understand the theory of operation of the clipping and clamping diode circuits. To design wave shapes that meet different circuits needs.

### MAS.836 HOW TO BIAS AN OP-AMP

MAS.836 HOW TO BIAS AN OP-AMP Op-Amp Circuits: Bias, in an electronic circuit, describes the steady state operating characteristics with no signal being applied. In an op-amp circuit, the operating characteristic

### Operational Amplifiers: Part 2. Non-ideal Behavior of Feedback Amplifiers DC Errors and Large-Signal Operation

Operational Amplifiers: Part 2 Non-ideal Behavior of Feedback Amplifiers DC Errors and Large-Signal Operation by Tim J. Sobering Analog Design Engineer & Op Amp Addict Summary of Ideal Op Amp Assumptions

### RC & RL Transient Response

EE 2006 University of Minnesota Duluth ab 8 1. Introduction R & R Transient Response The student will analyze series R and R circuits. A step input will excite these respective circuits, producing a transient

### EE 2274 DIODE OR GATE & CLIPPING CIRCUIT

Prelab Part I: Diode OR Gate LTspice use 1N4002 EE 2274 DIODE OR GATE & CLIPPING CIRCUIT 1. Design a diode OR gate, Figure 1 in which the maximum current thru R1 I R1 = 9mA assume Vin = 5Vdc. Design the

### Part 2: Operational Amplifiers

Part 2: Operational Amplifiers An operational amplifier is a very high gain amplifier. Op amps can be used in many different ways. Two of the most common uses are a) as comparators b) as amplifiers (either

### Fundamentals of Signature Analysis

Fundamentals of Signature Analysis An In-depth Overview of Power-off Testing Using Analog Signature Analysis www.huntron.com 1 www.huntron.com 2 Table of Contents SECTION 1. INTRODUCTION... 7 PURPOSE...

### Lab #4 Thevenin s Theorem

In this experiment you will become familiar with one of the most important theorems in circuit analysis, Thevenin s Theorem. Thevenin s Theorem can be used for two purposes: 1. To calculate the current

### RESONANCE AND FILTERS

1422-1 RESONANCE AND FILTERS Experiment 1, Resonant Frequency and Circuit Impedance For more courses visit www.cie-wc.edu OBJECTIVES 1. To verify experimentally our theoretical predictions concerning the

### DIGITAL-TO-ANALOGUE AND ANALOGUE-TO-DIGITAL CONVERSION

DIGITAL-TO-ANALOGUE AND ANALOGUE-TO-DIGITAL CONVERSION Introduction The outputs from sensors and communications receivers are analogue signals that have continuously varying amplitudes. In many systems

### Lab #9: AC Steady State Analysis

Theory & Introduction Lab #9: AC Steady State Analysis Goals for Lab #9 The main goal for lab 9 is to make the students familar with AC steady state analysis, db scale and the NI ELVIS frequency analyzer.

### SERIES-PARALLEL DC CIRCUITS

Name: Date: Course and Section: Instructor: EXPERIMENT 1 SERIES-PARALLEL DC CIRCUITS OBJECTIVES 1. Test the theoretical analysis of series-parallel networks through direct measurements. 2. Improve skills

### Typical Doppler Signal Amplifier Application Note AN-04

Typical Doppler Signal Amplifier Application Note AN-04 RFbeam Microwave GmbH www.rfbeam.ch April 16, 2012 1/5 About This Document This application note describes a simple IF signal amplifier for Radar

### Chapter 7: AC Transistor Amplifiers

Chapter 7: AC Transistor Amplifiers The transistor amplifiers that we studied in the last chapter have some serious problems for use in AC signals. Their most serious shortcoming is that there is a dead

### Part I: Operational Amplifiers & Their Applications

Part I: Operational Amplifiers & Their Applications Contents Opamps fundamentals Opamp Circuits Inverting & Non-inverting Amplifiers Summing & Difference Amplifiers Integrators & Differentiators Opamp

### External Filter Requirements for Reducing DC Offset on the Analog Video Outputs of Telestream ClipMail Appliances

APPLICATION NOTE Introduction External Filter Requirements for Reducing DC Offset on the Analog Video Outputs of Telestream ClipMail Appliances This application note is for users of ClipMail Pro and older

### AC CIRCUITS - CAPACITORS AND INDUCTORS

EXPRIMENT#8 AC CIRCUITS - CAPACITORS AND INDUCTORS NOTE: Two weeks are allocated for this experiment. Before performing this experiment, review the Proper Oscilloscope Use section of Experiment #7. Objective

### A Constant-current Source

A Constant-current Source Frequently, such as when you want to measure temperature with a silicon diode, it is desirable to have a source of a reproducible, constant current. Many laboratory power supplies

### " = R # C. Create your sketch so that Q(t=τ) is sketched above the delineated tic mark. Your sketch. 1" e " t & (t) = Q max

Physics 241 Lab: Circuits DC Source http://bohr.physics.arizona.edu/~leone/ua/ua_spring_2010/phys241lab.html Name: Section 1: 1.1. Today you will investigate two similar circuits. The first circuit is

### University of Alberta Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. EE 250 Laboratory Experiment #5 Diodes

University of Alberta Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering EE 250 Laboratory Experiment #5 Diodes Objective: To introduce basic diode concepts. Introduction: The diode is the most fundamental

### ENEE 307 Electronic Circuit Design Laboratory Spring 2012. A. Iliadis Electrical Engineering Department University of Maryland College Park MD 20742

1.1. Differential Amplifiers ENEE 307 Electronic Circuit Design Laboratory Spring 2012 A. Iliadis Electrical Engineering Department University of Maryland College Park MD 20742 Differential Amplifiers

### Operational Amplifiers

Module 6 Amplifiers Operational Amplifiers The Ideal Amplifier What you ll learn in Module 6. Section 6.0. Introduction to Operational Amplifiers. Understand Concept of the Ideal Amplifier and the Need

### EE 320L Electronics I Laboratory. Laboratory Exercise #4 Diode and Power Supply Circuit

EE 320L Electronics I Laboratory Laboratory Exercise #4 Diode and Power Supply Circuit Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Nevada, at Las Vegas Objective: The purpose of this

### Operational amplifiers

Operational amplifiers Types of operational amplifiers (bioelectric amplifiers have different gain values) Low-gain amplifiers (x1 to x10) Used for buffering and impedance transformation between signal

### Analog Electronics. Module 1: Semiconductor Diodes

Analog Electronics s PREPARED BY Academic Services Unit August 2011 Applied Technology High Schools, 2011 s Module Objectives Upon successful completion of this module, students should be able to: 1. Identify