OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER"

Transcription

1 MODULE3 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER Contents 1. INTRODUCTION Operational Amplifier Block Diagram Operational Amplifier Characteristics Operational Amplifier Package Op Amp Pins Identification Op Amp Pins Description Op Amp Symbols Op Amp s Power Supply Requirements OPAMP CONFIGURATION COMPARATOR OPAMP WITH NEGATIVE FEEDBACK NONINVERTING AMPLIFIER INVERTING AMPLIFIER OPAMP WITH POSITIVE FEEDBACK OPAMP APPLICATIONS Positive Feedback Typical Application Negative Feedback Typical Application Noninverting amplifier (Voltage Follower) Inverting amplifier Typical Applications Comparator Typical Applications are: PRACTICAL OPAMP DUAL POWER SUPPLIES Offset Null Adjustment of the µa Addition of Signals (Summing Amplifier) INSTITUTE OF APPLIED TECHNOLOGY 1

2 OBJECTIVES On successful completion of this module, the student will be able to: Understand the internal block diagram of an OpAmp. Describe the symbol and package types of an OpAmp. Explain the function and locate the terminals of an OpAmp. Know how to power up the OpAmp chip. Recognize the connection of OpAmp configurations. Compute the gain of different OpAmp circuits. Explain briefly the operation of OpAmp basic circuits. Openloop comparator circuit. Closedloop inverting amplifier circuit. Closedloop noninverting amplifier circuit. List the applications of different configuration circuits. INSTITUTE OF APPLIED TECHNOLOGY 2

3 1. INTRODUCTION The term Operational amplifier (OpAmp) was originally used to describe a chain of high performance DC amplifiers that were used as a basis for the analogue type computers long ago. The very high gain OpAmp of our days is a solidstate integrated circuit (IC) that is used in signal processing circuits, control circuits, and instrumentation. Of all analog (IC s), the Op Amp is the most widely used in the widest variety of electronic circuits. 2. Operational Amplifier Block Diagram The Op Amp consists of three stage amplifier circuits; all are interconnected and contained in a single IC. Referring to the block diagram in Figure 1, these three stages are: a) First stage (Differential Amplifier): gives the OpAmp its high input impedance. b) Second stage (Voltage Amplifier): gives the very high gain characteristics. c) Third stage (EmitterFollower): gives the low output impedance characteristics. Inverting Input ( V IN ) V Differential Amplifier Voltage Amplifier Output Amplifier Output Noninverting Input ( V IN ) V Figure 1 Op Amp Block Diagram 3. Operational Amplifier Characteristics Combined, these three stages circuits give the Op Amp its key characteristic: a) Very high input impedance. b) Very low output impedance. c) Very high gain. Therefore OpAmp is a differential, voltage amplifier, high gain amplifier. It is a differential amplifier: because it amplifies the difference between two voltages. It is a voltage amplifier: because the input and the output are voltages. It is a high gain amplifier: because the gain is very high typically, over 100,000. INSTITUTE OF APPLIED TECHNOLOGY 3

4 4. Operational Amplifier Package The entire opamp circuit usually is placed within one of three basic packages, these are: Dual InLine throughhole Package (DIP) typically has 8 or 14 pins as in Figure 2a. DIP SurfaceMount package (SMT) typically has 8 or 14 pins as in Figure 2b. The TO5 metalcan package is available with 8, 10, or 12 leads as in Figure 2c. (a) Op Amp 741 8pins DIP package (b) OPA547FKTWT DIP SMT package Figure 2 Op Amp packages (c) TO Leads package 4.1 Op Amp Pins Identification Like all ICs a notch or a dot is used to ease the pinsidentification and placement of an Op Amp. Figure 3(a) and (b) shows the most used markings system and are read as follows: The dot in one corner is located next to Pin1. The notch at one end is located between Pins1 and Pins8 (on the left is Pin1). The rest of the pins are numbered proceeding anticlockwise from Pin 1. 1 V CC V CC V EE 4 5 V EE 4 5 a) Dot marked Package b) Notched Package Figure 3 Op Amp pins Identification INSTITUTE OF APPLIED TECHNOLOGY 4

5 4.2 Op Amp Pins Description The pin connections of nearly all Op Amps are standard. Figure 4 shows the pin configuration of the type 741, the most common one being used worldwide. Pin 1 and Pin 5: Offset null input, are used to remove the Offset voltage. Pin 2: Inverting input (V IN ), signals at this pin will be inverted at output Pin 6. Pin 3: Noninverting input (V IN ), signals at pin 3 will be processed without inversion. Pin 4: Negative power supply terminal (V EE ). Pin 6: Output (UT ) of the OpAmp Pin 7: Positive power supply terminal (V CC ) Pin 8: No connection (N\C), it is just there to make it a standard 8pin package Offset Null Inverting Input VIN Noninverting Input VIN V EE N / C V CC Output Offset Null Figure 4 Op Amp pins Description 4.3 Op Amp Symbols Figure 5(a) and (b) shows the triangleshaped amplifier symbol used to represent the Op Amp in an electronics schematic diagram. It comprises a total of 5 pins, as follows: Two inputs ( V IN and V IN ) and one output (UT ). Two power supply connections (V CC V S ) and ( V EE V S ). V S V IN U V IN U V IN V IN (a) Without power connection V S (b) With power connection Figure 5 Op Amp Schematic Symbols INSTITUTE OF APPLIED TECHNOLOGY 5

6 5. Op Amp s Power Supply Requirements Most opamp circuits require a dual power supply having two opposite polarity voltages (V S & V S ) together with common ground as shown in Figure 6. Some circuits can be designed to work from a single supply as shown in Figure 7. To power the chip from a dual power supply make the connections as follow: The positive voltage of the supply (usually 5V to 15V) to pin7 (V S ) of the chip. The negative voltage of the supply (usually 5V to 15V) to pin4 (V S ) of the chip. V S V IN V IN 7 4 V S UT Common Ground Figure 6 Dual Supply Voltages connection To power the chip from a single power supply make the connections as follow: The positive voltage of the supply (V S ) to pin 7 and pin 4 grounded (Figure 7a); or The negative voltage of the supply (V S ) to pin 4 and pin 7 grounded (Figure 7b). V S V IN 7 UT V IN 7 UT V IN 4 V IN 4 V S (a) Single Positive Voltage (b) Single Negative Voltage Figure 7 Single Supply Voltages connection What is the advantage of using dual power supply? Using dual power supply will let the op amp to output true AC voltage. For instance having (15V & 15V), will allow the output to swing between (15V & 15V) as shown in Figure 8a; instead of 30Vto0V as in the case of single power supply as shown in Figure 8b. 15V 30V Output 0V 30 V Output 30 V 15V Figure 8a Op Amp powered from Dual supply 0V Figure 8b Op Amp powered from Single supply INSTITUTE OF APPLIED TECHNOLOGY 6

7 6. OPAMP CONFIGURATION Feedback refers to connecting the output of the opamp to its input, usually through resistors. According to the type of feedback employed, there are three basic circuit configurations shown in Figure 9: a) Op Amp without Feedback (Openloop comparator circuit). b) Op Amp with Negative Feedback. c) Op Amp with Positive Feedback. (a) Without Feedback (b) Negative Feedback (c) Positive Feedback 6.1 COMPARATOR Figure 9 Types of Feedback Figure 10a shows an opamp as a comparator. The comparator is an opamp configuration without any feedback. Its function is to compare two voltages and produce a signal that indicates which voltage is greater. Refer to Figure 10b; due to very large openloop gain of an opamp (A O ), any difference ( V IN ) will always saturate the output ( ) at either of the power supply rails, (V S ) or ( V S ), as follows: When V IN > V IN V IN is positive the output saturate at V S = V S. When V IN < V IN V IN is negative the output saturate at V S = V S. will change its state (V S V S ) when V IN changes its sign (i.e. at V IN = 0). V S V S V IN V IN 0 V IN > V IN V IN = V IN V IN < V IN V S V S (a) Comparator Circuit (b) Comparator Output Figure 10 OpAmps as Comparator The will saturate at (V S ) or ( V S ) If V S V S where = A O V IN. INSTITUTE OF APPLIED TECHNOLOGY 7

8 6.2 OPAMP WITH NEGATIVE FEEDBACK Negative feedback is used stabilize the gain and increase frequency response. The two basic amplifier circuits which utilize negative feedback are: a) The noninverting Amplifier. b) The inverting Amplifier NONINVERTING AMPLIFIER Figure 11 shows how an opamp can be configured as a noninverting amplifier. The input signal is applied to the noninverting input (V IN ). The output is fed back to the inverting input through the feedback circuit formed by R I and R F. The relations are expressed as follow: V A O NI R IN R F = V R IN VO R F = = 1 V R IN Where; = Output voltage F V F = Feedback voltage A NI = Noninverting Gain F R 1 R F V IN Figure 11 ClosedLoop Noninverting Amplifier Circuit INVERTING AMPLIFIER Figure 12 shows how an opamp can be configured as an inverting amplifier. The input signal is applied through a series input resistor R I to the inverting input. Also, the output is fed back through R F to the same input. The noninverting input is grounded. The relations are expressed as follow: V A O I R = R V = V O F F IN V R = R IN F IN Where; = Output voltage V IN = Input voltage A I = Inverting Gain R IN R F V IN Figure 12 ClosedLoop Inverting Amplifier Circuit The negative sign indicate that the input is inverted at the output and hence the name inverting amplifier. INSTITUTE OF APPLIED TECHNOLOGY 8

9 6.3 OPAMP WITH POSITIVE FEEDBACK Positive feedback is generally associated with oscillation. An op amp can be configured to operate as an oscillator if suitable external components are connected and positive feedback used as shown in Figure 13. C 1 R 1 R 2 R 3 Figure 13 Astable Multivibrator 7. OPAMP APPLICATIONS 7.1 Positive Feedback Typical Application Relaxation oscillator (Astable multivibrator) 7.2 Negative Feedback Typical Application Noninverting amplifier (Voltage Follower) Figure 17 shows a noninverting amplifier with a unity gain (A =1) and it is called a VOLTAGE FOLLOWER. It has high input impedance and very low output impedance. It can be used for impedance matching. It is capable of driving several loads. V IN Figure 17 Voltage Follower INSTITUTE OF APPLIED TECHNOLOGY 9

10 7.2.2 Inverting amplifier Typical Applications A) Summing amplifier (Adder). Figure 14 shows how an opamp can be connected as an Adder. R 1 R F V 1 V 2 V 3 R 2 R 3 0V Figure 14 Summing Amplifier B) Integrator Figure 15 shows how an opamp can be connected as an Integrator. C R V IN Figure 15 Inverting OpAmp as Integrator C) Differentiator Figure 16 shows how an opamp can be connected as a Differentiator. R C V IN Figure 16 Inverting OpAmp as Differentiator 7.3 Comparator Typical Applications are: Crossover detectors Analog to digital converters (ADC) Counting applications (e.g. count pulses that exceed a certain voltage level). INSTITUTE OF APPLIED TECHNOLOGY 10

11 8. PRACTICAL 8.1 OPAMP DUAL POWER SUPPLIES In general opamps are designed to be powered from a dual voltage supply. The dual power supply is a DC source with twopolarity voltages (V & V) called the supply rails and one common ground. Sometimes the dual power supply configuration is referred to as a split power supply. Figure 18 shows how the two single power supplies are connected together to form a dual power supply. Figure 19 shows how the common lead is connected to the (V S and V S ) of the power supplies. Single Power Supply Single Power Supply 15V Common 15V Figure 18 Dual Power Supply Power Supply Ranges Positive Supply Rail (V S ): Typically it range from 5V to 15V dc with respect to ground. Negative Supply Rail ( VS): is typically in the range of 5V to 15Vdc with respect to ground. Figure 19 Task: 1) Connect twosingle power supply (of equal output) in series as shown in Figure 19. 2) Take the link between the V S & the V S terminals as common (Ground = G). 3) Measure the voltages between (V S & G), ( V S & G), and (V S & V S ). 4) Compare these reading to the output of a single power supply. 5) Try to build a dual power supply using an even number of dry cells. INSTITUTE OF APPLIED TECHNOLOGY 11

12 8.2 Offset Null Adjustment of the µa741 Differential amplifier Theory Basically an op amp is a differential voltage amplifier; it amplifies the difference between the two input voltages (V IN and V IN ). Referring to Figure 20, the output is given by: = A O V IN ; Where A O is the gain without feedback and called the openloop voltage gain. And V IN = (V IN ) ( V IN ); consequently there are three cases: Casea: V IN > V IN is positive. Caseb: V IN < V IN is negative. Casec: V IN = V IN is zero. Practically Casec is not true, because when V IN = V IN = 0, there is a slight V IN V IN V S V S Common Ground Figure 20 Differential Amplifier amount of voltage at the output is known as offset voltage as shown in Figure 21. V IN = 0 For (V IN = V IN = 0); 0 Figure 21 Offset Voltage Then offset voltage can be defined as the slight amount of voltage that appears at the output when the voltage differential ( V IN ) between the input pins is 0 V. Offset null adjustments differ with the application (i.e. Inverting or NonInverting Amplifier). Offsetnull potentiometers are not placed on design schematics as they would detract from a design. Procedure: 1) Figure 22 shows how µa741 is connected for Offset Null Adjustment. 2) Connect the supply voltage (12V & 12V) to pins 7 & 4 respectively. 3) Make sure that the power is same as the design application. 4) Adjust the 10K potentiometer to its center position. 5) Connect the potentiometer outside leads between pins 1 and 5 of the opamp. INSTITUTE OF APPLIED TECHNOLOGY 12

13 6) Connect the wiper of the potentiometer to the negative supply voltage. 7) Ensure that input signals are zero by connecting pins 2 and 3 to the ground. 8) Measure the output between pin6 and ground with a dc voltmeter. 9) Adjust the potentiometer until the output voltage read 0. This is the zero null state. V S V N/C µa V S V IN = 0 Figure 22 Offset Null adjustment Note: This is a recommended null procedure for the ua741 type opamp. Always look for, and follow the particular procedure as specified by that chip manufacturer. Procedures may become obsolete or updated and changed when improved opamp versions come on the market. INSTITUTE OF APPLIED TECHNOLOGY 13

14 8.3 Addition of Signals (Summing Amplifier) Theory Suppose that two inputs v1 and v2 are applied to the circuit of Figure 23, and if all resistors have the same resistance value then = (v1 v2), This gives the (negative) sum of the inputs. Additional inputs can be applied and the same rule applies. Procedure 1) Arrange the circuit as shown in Figure 23 and in the Patching Diagram. 2) With the DC inputs V 1 and V 2 derived from potentiometers on the OAT343 deck and V 3 from an external signal generator. 3) Use the table shown in Figure 24 to note down your observations. Figure 23 Summing Amplifier 4) Set V 3 to zero and adjust V 1, V 2 to the pairs of values set out in the table of Figure 24 and take measurements to complete the table. 5) Apply 8 V to V 1 and V 2 and measure the output voltage. It is possible to avoid the amplifier limiting addition result for any combination of values V1, V2 within the range ±10V by choosing either: R1 = R2 = 200 kω, R0 = 100 kω R1 = R2 = 100 kω, R0 = 50 kω In both cases the gain for signals V1 and V2 will be reduced to (1/2) Results Table V 1 V 2 V 1 V 2 Output ( ) 10V 8V 2V 10V 2V 8V 2V 8V 10V 8V 8V 0 Figure 24 Result Table INSTITUTE OF APPLIED TECHNOLOGY 14

DC Circuits: Operational Amplifiers Hasan Demirel

DC Circuits: Operational Amplifiers Hasan Demirel DC Circuits: Operational Amplifiers Hasan Demirel Op Amps: Introduction Op Amp is short form of operational amplifier. An op amp is an electronic unit that behaves like a voltage controlled voltage source.

More information

Material and Equipment NI ELVIS 741 Op Amp, 5k pot, Assorted Resistors (10k, 100k, 220k (2), 100 (2), 560 )

Material and Equipment NI ELVIS 741 Op Amp, 5k pot, Assorted Resistors (10k, 100k, 220k (2), 100 (2), 560 ) Lab 8 Operational Amplifier Characteristics Purpose The purpose of this lab is to study the non-ideal characteristics of the operational amplifier. The characteristics that will be investigated include

More information

Operational Amplifier - IC 741

Operational Amplifier - IC 741 Operational Amplifier - IC 741 Tabish December 2005 Aim: To study the working of an 741 operational amplifier by conducting the following experiments: (a) Input bias current measurement (b) Input offset

More information

Operational Amplifiers

Operational Amplifiers perational Amplifiers. perational Amplifiers perational amplifiers (commonly known as opamps) are integrated circuits designed to amplify small voltages (or currents) to usable levels. The physical packaging

More information

Basic Op Amp Circuits

Basic Op Amp Circuits Basic Op Amp ircuits Manuel Toledo INEL 5205 Instrumentation August 3, 2008 Introduction The operational amplifier (op amp or OA for short) is perhaps the most important building block for the design of

More information

MAS.836 HOW TO BIAS AN OP-AMP

MAS.836 HOW TO BIAS AN OP-AMP MAS.836 HOW TO BIAS AN OP-AMP Op-Amp Circuits: Bias, in an electronic circuit, describes the steady state operating characteristics with no signal being applied. In an op-amp circuit, the operating characteristic

More information

EAC215 Homework 4. Page 1 of 6

EAC215 Homework 4. Page 1 of 6 EAC215 Homework 4 Name: 1. An integrated circuit (IC) op-amp has (a) two inputs and two outputs (b) one input and one output (c) two inputs and one output 2. Which of the following characteristics does

More information

Chapter 12: The Operational Amplifier

Chapter 12: The Operational Amplifier Chapter 12: The Operational Amplifier 12.1: Introduction to Operational Amplifier (Op-Amp) Operational amplifiers (op-amps) are very high gain dc coupled amplifiers with differential inputs; they are used

More information

The OP AMP -, Figure 1

The OP AMP -, Figure 1 The OP AMP Amplifiers, in general, taking as input, one or more electrical signals, and produce as output, one or more variations of these signals. The most common use of an amplifier is to accept a small

More information

Operational amplifiers

Operational amplifiers Operational amplifiers Types of operational amplifiers (bioelectric amplifiers have different gain values) Low-gain amplifiers (x1 to x10) Used for buffering and impedance transformation between signal

More information

OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS. o/p

OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS. o/p OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS 1. If the input to the circuit of figure is a sine wave the output will be i/p o/p a. A half wave rectified sine wave b. A fullwave rectified sine wave c. A triangular wave d. A

More information

Part 2: Operational Amplifiers

Part 2: Operational Amplifiers Part 2: Operational Amplifiers An operational amplifier is a very high gain amplifier. Op amps can be used in many different ways. Two of the most common uses are a) as comparators b) as amplifiers (either

More information

PIN CONFIGURATION FEATURES ORDERING INFORMATION ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS. D, F, N Packages

PIN CONFIGURATION FEATURES ORDERING INFORMATION ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS. D, F, N Packages DESCRIPTION The µa71 is a high performance operational amplifier with high open-loop gain, internal compensation, high common mode range and exceptional temperature stability. The µa71 is short-circuit-protected

More information

Building the AMP Amplifier

Building the AMP Amplifier Building the AMP Amplifier Introduction For about 80 years it has been possible to amplify voltage differences and to increase the associated power, first with vacuum tubes using electrons from a hot filament;

More information

Lab 7: Operational Amplifiers Part I

Lab 7: Operational Amplifiers Part I Lab 7: Operational Amplifiers Part I Objectives The objective of this lab is to study operational amplifier (op amp) and its applications. We will be simulating and building some basic op amp circuits,

More information

EXERCISES in ELECTRONICS and SEMICONDUCTOR ENGINEERING

EXERCISES in ELECTRONICS and SEMICONDUCTOR ENGINEERING Department of Electrical Drives and Power Electronics EXERCISES in ELECTRONICS and SEMICONDUCTOR ENGINEERING Valery Vodovozov and Zoja Raud http://learnelectronics.narod.ru Tallinn 2012 2 Contents Introduction...

More information

EXPERIMENT 1.2 CHARACTERIZATION OF OP-AMP

EXPERIMENT 1.2 CHARACTERIZATION OF OP-AMP 1.17 EXPERIMENT 1.2 CHARACTERIZATION OF OPAMP 1.2.1 OBJECTIVE 1. To sketch and briefly explain an operational amplifier circuit symbol and identify all terminals 2. To list the amplifier stages in a typical

More information

Frequency Response of Filters

Frequency Response of Filters School of Engineering Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 332:224 Principles of Electrical Engineering II Laboratory Experiment 2 Frequency Response of Filters 1 Introduction Objectives To

More information

High Common-Mode Rejection. Differential Line Receiver SSM2141. Fax: 781/461-3113 FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM FEATURES. High Common-Mode Rejection

High Common-Mode Rejection. Differential Line Receiver SSM2141. Fax: 781/461-3113 FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM FEATURES. High Common-Mode Rejection a FEATURES High Common-Mode Rejection DC: 00 db typ 60 Hz: 00 db typ 20 khz: 70 db typ 40 khz: 62 db typ Low Distortion: 0.00% typ Fast Slew Rate: 9.5 V/ s typ Wide Bandwidth: 3 MHz typ Low Cost Complements

More information

Operational Amplifiers

Operational Amplifiers Operational Amplifiers Introduction The operational amplifier (op-amp) is a voltage controlled voltage source with very high gain. It is a five terminal four port active element. The symbol of the op-amp

More information

Generating Common Waveforms Using the LM555, Operational Amplifiers, and Transistors

Generating Common Waveforms Using the LM555, Operational Amplifiers, and Transistors Generating Common Waveforms Using the LM555, Operational Amplifiers, and Transistors Kenneth Young November 16, 2012 I. Abstract The generation of precise waveforms may be needed within any circuit design.

More information

Chapter 19 Operational Amplifiers

Chapter 19 Operational Amplifiers Chapter 19 Operational Amplifiers The operational amplifier, or op-amp, is a basic building block of modern electronics. Op-amps date back to the early days of vacuum tubes, but they only became common

More information

School of Engineering Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

School of Engineering Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 1 School of Engineering Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 332:223 Principles of Electrical Engineering I Laboratory Experiment #4 Title: Operational Amplifiers 1 Introduction Objectives

More information

The output signal may be of the same form as the input signal, i.e. V in produces V out

The output signal may be of the same form as the input signal, i.e. V in produces V out What is an amplifier? Operational Amplifiers A device that takes an input (current, voltage, etc.) and produces a correlated output Input Signal Output Signal Usually the output is a multiple of the input

More information

Chapter: Operational Amplifiers / Operationsverstärker. Michael E. Auer

Chapter: Operational Amplifiers / Operationsverstärker. Michael E. Auer Electrical Engineering Chapter: Operational Amplifiers / Operationsverstärker Michael E. Auer Source of figures: Alexander/Sadiku: Fundamentals of Electric Circuits, McGraw-Hill Chapter Content Basics

More information

Peggy Alavi Application Engineer September 3, 2003

Peggy Alavi Application Engineer September 3, 2003 Op-Amp Basics Peggy Alavi Application Engineer September 3, 2003 Op-Amp Basics Part 1 Op-Amp Basics Why op-amps Op-amp block diagram Input modes of Op-Amps Loop Configurations Negative Feedback Gain Bandwidth

More information

Operational Amplifiers

Operational Amplifiers 662 25 Principles of Electronics Operational Amplifiers 25.1 Operational Amplifier 25.3 Basic Circuit of Differential Amplifier 25.5 Common-mode and Differentialmode signals 25.7 Voltage Gains of DA 25.9

More information

Designing a Poor Man s Square Wave Signal Generator. EE-100 Lab: Designing a Poor Man s Square Wave Signal Generator - Theory

Designing a Poor Man s Square Wave Signal Generator. EE-100 Lab: Designing a Poor Man s Square Wave Signal Generator - Theory EE-100 Lab: - Theory 1. Objective The purpose of this laboratory is to introduce nonlinear circuit measurement and analysis. Your measurements will focus mainly on limiters and clamping amplifiers. During

More information

LM 358 Op Amp. If you have small signals and need a more useful reading we could amplify it using the op amp, this is commonly used in sensors.

LM 358 Op Amp. If you have small signals and need a more useful reading we could amplify it using the op amp, this is commonly used in sensors. LM 358 Op Amp S k i l l L e v e l : I n t e r m e d i a t e OVERVIEW The LM 358 is a duel single supply operational amplifier. As it is a single supply it eliminates the need for a duel power supply, thus

More information

Chapter 7: AC Transistor Amplifiers

Chapter 7: AC Transistor Amplifiers Chapter 7: AC Transistor Amplifiers The transistor amplifiers that we studied in the last chapter have some serious problems for use in AC signals. Their most serious shortcoming is that there is a dead

More information

Operational Amplifiers: Part 2. Non-ideal Behavior of Feedback Amplifiers DC Errors and Large-Signal Operation

Operational Amplifiers: Part 2. Non-ideal Behavior of Feedback Amplifiers DC Errors and Large-Signal Operation Operational Amplifiers: Part 2 Non-ideal Behavior of Feedback Amplifiers DC Errors and Large-Signal Operation by Tim J. Sobering Analog Design Engineer & Op Amp Addict Summary of Ideal Op Amp Assumptions

More information

Chapter No. 3 Differential Amplifiers

Chapter No. 3 Differential Amplifiers Chapter No. 3 Differential Amplifiers Operational Amplifiers: The operational amplifier is a direct-coupled high gain amplifier usable from 0 to over 1MH Z to which feedback is added to control its overall

More information

Operational Amplifiers

Operational Amplifiers Operational Amplifiers Aims: To know: Basic Op Amp properties eal & Ideal Basic ideas of feedback. inv input noninv input output gnd To be able to do basic circuit analysis of op amps: using KCL, KL with

More information

PH 210 Electronics Laboratory I Instruction Manual

PH 210 Electronics Laboratory I Instruction Manual PH 210 Electronics Laboratory I Instruction Manual Index Page No General Instructions 2 Experiment 1 Common Emitter (CE) Amplifier 4 Experiment 2 Multistage amplifier: Cascade of two CE stages 7 Experiment

More information

Reading: HH Sections 4.11 4.13, 4.19 4.20 (pgs. 189-212, 222 224)

Reading: HH Sections 4.11 4.13, 4.19 4.20 (pgs. 189-212, 222 224) 6 OP AMPS II 6 Op Amps II In the previous lab, you explored several applications of op amps. In this exercise, you will look at some of their limitations. You will also examine the op amp integrator and

More information

Fully Differential Op Amps Made Easy

Fully Differential Op Amps Made Easy Application Report SLOA099 - May 2002 Fully Differential Op Amps Made Easy Bruce Carter High Performance Linear ABSTRACT Fully differential op amps may be unfamiliar to some designers. This application

More information

Lab 5 Operational Amplifiers

Lab 5 Operational Amplifiers Lab 5 Operational Amplifiers By: Gary A. Ybarra Christopher E. Cramer Duke University Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Durham, NC. Purpose The purpose of this lab is to examine the properties

More information

Op Amp Circuit Collection

Op Amp Circuit Collection Op Amp Circuit Collection Note: National Semiconductor recommends replacing 2N2920 and 2N3728 matched pairs with LM394 in all application circuits. Section 1 Basic Circuits Inverting Amplifier Difference

More information

EE 1202 Experiment #7 Signal Amplification

EE 1202 Experiment #7 Signal Amplification EE 1202 Experiment #7 Signal Amplification 1. Introduction and Goal: s increase the power (amplitude) of an electrical signal. They are used in audio and video systems and appliances. s are designed to

More information

Single Supply Op Amp Circuits Dr. Lynn Fuller

Single Supply Op Amp Circuits Dr. Lynn Fuller ROCHESTER INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY MICROELECTRONIC ENGINEERING Single Supply Op Amp Circuits Dr. Lynn Fuller Webpage: http://people.rit.edu/lffeee 82 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester, NY 146235604 Tel (585)

More information

Cornerstone Electronics Technology and Robotics I Week 15 Voltage Comparators Tutorial

Cornerstone Electronics Technology and Robotics I Week 15 Voltage Comparators Tutorial Cornerstone Electronics Technology and Robotics I Week 15 Voltage Comparators Tutorial Administration: o Prayer Robot Building for Beginners, Chapter 15, Voltage Comparators: o Review of Sandwich s Circuit:

More information

Use and Application of Output Limiting Amplifiers (HFA1115, HFA1130, HFA1135)

Use and Application of Output Limiting Amplifiers (HFA1115, HFA1130, HFA1135) Use and Application of Output Limiting Amplifiers (HFA111, HFA110, HFA11) Application Note November 1996 AN96 Introduction Amplifiers with internal voltage clamps, also known as limiting amplifiers, have

More information

PHYS 210 Electronic Circuits and Feedback

PHYS 210 Electronic Circuits and Feedback PHYS 210 Electronic Circuits and Feedback These notes give a short introduction to analog circuits. If you like to learn more about electronics (a good idea if you are thinking of becoming an experimental

More information

Notes. Astable and Monostable Multivibrator Trainer NV6507. Operating Manual Ver 1.1

Notes. Astable and Monostable Multivibrator Trainer NV6507. Operating Manual Ver 1.1 Notes Astable and Monostable Multivibrator Trainer Operating Manual Ver 1.1 Nvis Technologies 20 141-B, Electronic Complex, Pardeshipura, Indore- 452 010 India Tel.: 91-731- 4211500 Email: info@nvistech.com

More information

This representation is compared to a binary representation of a number with N bits.

This representation is compared to a binary representation of a number with N bits. Chapter 11 Analog-Digital Conversion One of the common functions that are performed on signals is to convert the voltage into a digital representation. The converse function, digital-analog is also common.

More information

Part I: Operational Amplifiers & Their Applications

Part I: Operational Amplifiers & Their Applications Part I: Operational Amplifiers & Their Applications Contents Opamps fundamentals Opamp Circuits Inverting & Non-inverting Amplifiers Summing & Difference Amplifiers Integrators & Differentiators Opamp

More information

The Electronic Scale

The Electronic Scale The Electronic Scale Learning Objectives By the end of this laboratory experiment, the experimenter should be able to: Explain what an operational amplifier is and how it can be used in amplifying signal

More information

Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) LED Dimmer Circuit. Using a 555 Timer Chip

Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) LED Dimmer Circuit. Using a 555 Timer Chip Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) LED Dimmer Circuit Using a 555 Timer Chip Goals of Experiment Demonstrate the operation of a simple PWM circuit that can be used to adjust the intensity of a green LED by varying

More information

CHAPTER 16 OSCILLATORS

CHAPTER 16 OSCILLATORS CHAPTER 16 OSCILLATORS 16-1 THE OSCILLATOR - are electronic circuits that generate an output signal without the necessity of an input signal. - It produces a periodic waveform on its output with only the

More information

Conversion Between Analog and Digital Signals

Conversion Between Analog and Digital Signals ELET 3156 DL - Laboratory #6 Conversion Between Analog and Digital Signals There is no pre-lab work required for this experiment. However, be sure to read through the assignment completely prior to starting

More information

The Operational Amplfier Lab Guide

The Operational Amplfier Lab Guide EECS 100 Lab Guide Bharathwaj Muthuswamy The Operational Amplfier Lab Guide 1. Introduction COMPONENTS REQUIRED FOR THIS LAB : 1. LM741 op-amp integrated circuit (IC) 2. 1k resistors 3. 10k resistor 4.

More information

Department of Electronics &Communication Engineering Third Semester Electronic Circuits-I PART A 1.Why do we choose q point at the center of the

Department of Electronics &Communication Engineering Third Semester Electronic Circuits-I PART A 1.Why do we choose q point at the center of the Department of Electronics &Communication Engineering Third Semester Electronic Circuits-I PART A 1.Why do we choose q point at the center of the loadline? The operating point of a transistor is kept fixed

More information

Analog Signal Conditioning

Analog Signal Conditioning Analog Signal Conditioning Analog and Digital Electronics Electronics Digital Electronics Analog Electronics 2 Analog Electronics Analog Electronics Operational Amplifiers Transistors TRIAC 741 LF351 TL084

More information

LED level meter driver, 12-point, power scale, dot or bar display

LED level meter driver, 12-point, power scale, dot or bar display LED level meter driver, 12-point, power scale, dot or bar display The is a monolithic IC for LED power meter applications. The display level range is 9mVrms to 380mVrms (Typ.) divided into 12 points with

More information

ELECTRONICS. EE 42/100 Lecture 8: Op-Amps. Rev C 2/8/2012 (9:54 AM) Prof. Ali M. Niknejad

ELECTRONICS. EE 42/100 Lecture 8: Op-Amps. Rev C 2/8/2012 (9:54 AM) Prof. Ali M. Niknejad A. M. Niknejad University of California, Berkeley EE 100 / 42 Lecture 8 p. 1/23 EE 42/100 Lecture 8: Op-Amps ELECTRONICS Rev C 2/8/2012 (9:54 AM) Prof. Ali M. Niknejad University of California, Berkeley

More information

Op-Amp Simulation EE/CS 5720/6720. Read Chapter 5 in Johns & Martin before you begin this assignment.

Op-Amp Simulation EE/CS 5720/6720. Read Chapter 5 in Johns & Martin before you begin this assignment. Op-Amp Simulation EE/CS 5720/6720 Read Chapter 5 in Johns & Martin before you begin this assignment. This assignment will take you through the simulation and basic characterization of a simple operational

More information

Lab 9: Op Amps Lab Assignment

Lab 9: Op Amps Lab Assignment 3 class days 1. Differential Amplifier Source: Hands-On chapter 8 (~HH 6.1) Lab 9: Op Amps Lab Assignment Difference amplifier. The parts of the pot on either side of the slider serve as R3 and R4. The

More information

LABORATORY 2 THE DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER

LABORATORY 2 THE DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER LABORATORY 2 THE DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER OBJECTIVES 1. To understand how to amplify weak (small) signals in the presence of noise. 1. To understand how a differential amplifier rejects noise and common

More information

Smart Lighting Controller!!

Smart Lighting Controller!! Smart Lighting Controller!! 1! Smart lighting! No need to spend energy lighting the room if!» It s already bright enough from natural light!» There s nobody in the room! Idea is to detect these things,

More information

Operational Amplifier as mono stable multi vibrator

Operational Amplifier as mono stable multi vibrator Page 1 of 5 Operational Amplifier as mono stable multi vibrator Aim :- To construct a monostable multivibrator using operational amplifier 741 and to determine the duration of the output pulse generated

More information

Fully Differential CMOS Amplifier

Fully Differential CMOS Amplifier ECE 511 Analog Electronics Term Project Fully Differential CMOS Amplifier Saket Vora 6 December 2006 Dr. Kevin Gard NC State University 1 Introduction In this project, a fully differential CMOS operational

More information

Op-Amps Experiment Theory

Op-Amps Experiment Theory EE 4/00 Operational mplifiers Op-mps Experiment Theory. Objective The purpose of these experiments is to introduce the most important of all analog building blocks, the operational amplifier ( op-amp for

More information

SINGLE-SUPPLY OPERATION OF OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS

SINGLE-SUPPLY OPERATION OF OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS SINGLE-SUPPLY OPERATION OF OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS One of the most common applications questions on operational amplifiers concerns operation from a single supply voltage. Can the model OPAxyz be operated

More information

Operational Amplifiers - Configurations and Characteristics

Operational Amplifiers - Configurations and Characteristics Operational Amplifiers - Configurations and Characteristics What is an Op Amp An Op Amp is an integrated circuit that can be used to amplify both DC and AC signals. One of the most common Op Amps available

More information

Operational Amplifiers

Operational Amplifiers Module 6 Amplifiers Operational Amplifiers The Ideal Amplifier What you ll learn in Module 6. Section 6.0. Introduction to Operational Amplifiers. Understand Concept of the Ideal Amplifier and the Need

More information

AP331A XX G - 7. Lead Free G : Green. Packaging (Note 2)

AP331A XX G - 7. Lead Free G : Green. Packaging (Note 2) Features General Description Wide supply Voltage range: 2.0V to 36V Single or dual supplies: ±1.0V to ±18V Very low supply current drain (0.4mA) independent of supply voltage Low input biasing current:

More information

Op Amp and Comparators Don t Confuse Them!

Op Amp and Comparators Don t Confuse Them! Application Report SLOA067 September 200 Op Amp and Comparators Don t Confuse Them! Bruce Carter High Performance Linear ABSTRACT Operational amplifiers (op amps) and comparators look similar; they even

More information

Multipurpose Analog PID Controller

Multipurpose Analog PID Controller Multipurpose Analog PID Controller Todd P. Meyrath Atom Optics Laboratory Center for Nonlinear Dynamics University of Texas at Austin c 00 March 4, 00 revised December 0, 00 See disclaimer This analog

More information

Comparators, positive feedback, and relaxation oscillators

Comparators, positive feedback, and relaxation oscillators Experiment 4 Introductory Electronics Laboratory Comparators, positive feedback, and relaxation oscillators THE SCHMITT TIGGE AND POSITIVE FEEDBACK 4-2 The op-amp as a comparator... 4-2 Using positive

More information

OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS

OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS INTRODUCTION OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS The student will be introduced to the application and analysis of operational amplifiers in this laboratory experiment. The student will apply circuit analysis techniques

More information

INTEGRATED CIRCUITS DATA SHEET. TDA8340 TDA8341 Television IF amplifier and demodulator. Product specification File under Integrated Circuits, IC02

INTEGRATED CIRCUITS DATA SHEET. TDA8340 TDA8341 Television IF amplifier and demodulator. Product specification File under Integrated Circuits, IC02 INTEGRATED CIRCUITS DATA SHEET Television IF amplifier and demodulator File under Integrated Circuits, IC02 November 1987 DESCRIPTION The ;Q and ;Q are integrated IF amplifier and demodulator circuits

More information

TS321 Low Power Single Operational Amplifier

TS321 Low Power Single Operational Amplifier SOT-25 Pin Definition: 1. Input + 2. Ground 3. Input - 4. Output 5. Vcc General Description The TS321 brings performance and economy to low power systems. With high unity gain frequency and a guaranteed

More information

Generation of Square and Rectangular Waveforms Using Astable Multivibrators

Generation of Square and Rectangular Waveforms Using Astable Multivibrators Generation of Square and Rectangular Waveforms Using Astable Multivibrators A square waveform can be generated by arranging for a bistable multivibrator to switch states periodically. his can be done by

More information

DIGITAL-TO-ANALOGUE AND ANALOGUE-TO-DIGITAL CONVERSION

DIGITAL-TO-ANALOGUE AND ANALOGUE-TO-DIGITAL CONVERSION DIGITAL-TO-ANALOGUE AND ANALOGUE-TO-DIGITAL CONVERSION Introduction The outputs from sensors and communications receivers are analogue signals that have continuously varying amplitudes. In many systems

More information

Simple Op-Amp Circuits

Simple Op-Amp Circuits ECE A Lab #4 Lab 4 Simple OpAmp Circuits Overview In this lab we introduce the operationalamplifier (opamp), an active circuit that is designed for certain characteristics (high input resistance, low output

More information

Digital to Analog Converter. Raghu Tumati

Digital to Analog Converter. Raghu Tumati Digital to Analog Converter Raghu Tumati May 11, 2006 Contents 1) Introduction............................... 3 2) DAC types................................... 4 3) DAC Presented.............................

More information

Differential Op Amp Single-Supply Design Techniques

Differential Op Amp Single-Supply Design Techniques Application Note SLOA07 September 00 Differential Op Amp Single-Supply Design Techniques Bruce Carter High Performance Linear ABSTRACT There is a lot of confusion about how to operate a fully differential

More information

Chapter 6: From Digital-to-Analog and Back Again

Chapter 6: From Digital-to-Analog and Back Again Chapter 6: From Digital-to-Analog and Back Again Overview Often the information you want to capture in an experiment originates in the laboratory as an analog voltage or a current. Sometimes you want to

More information

Laboratory 4: Feedback and Compensation

Laboratory 4: Feedback and Compensation Laboratory 4: Feedback and Compensation To be performed during Week 9 (Oct. 20-24) and Week 10 (Oct. 27-31) Due Week 11 (Nov. 3-7) 1 Pre-Lab This Pre-Lab should be completed before attending your regular

More information

ECG-Amplifier. MB Jass 2009 Daniel Paulus / Thomas Meier. Operation amplifier (op-amp)

ECG-Amplifier. MB Jass 2009 Daniel Paulus / Thomas Meier. Operation amplifier (op-amp) ECG-Amplifier MB Jass 2009 Daniel Paulus / Thomas Meier Operation amplifier (op-amp) Properties DC-coupled High gain electronic ec c voltage amplifier Inverting / non-inverting input and single output

More information

6.101 Final Project Report Class G Audio Amplifier

6.101 Final Project Report Class G Audio Amplifier 6.101 Final Project Report Class G Audio Amplifier Mark Spatz 4/3/2014 1 1 Introduction For my final project, I designed and built a 150 Watt audio amplifier to replace the underpowered and unreliable

More information

ARRL Morse Code Oscillator, How It Works By: Mark Spencer, WA8SME

ARRL Morse Code Oscillator, How It Works By: Mark Spencer, WA8SME The national association for AMATEUR RADIO ARRL Morse Code Oscillator, How It Works By: Mark Spencer, WA8SME This supplement is intended for use with the ARRL Morse Code Oscillator kit, sold separately.

More information

LM741. Single Operational Amplifier. Features. Description. Internal Block Diagram. www.fairchildsemi.com

LM741. Single Operational Amplifier. Features. Description. Internal Block Diagram. www.fairchildsemi.com Single Operational Amplifier www.fairchildsemi.com Features Short circuit protection Excellent temperature stability Internal frequency compensation High Input voltage range Null of offset Description

More information

CIRCUITS LABORATORY EXPERIMENT 9. Operational Amplifiers

CIRCUITS LABORATORY EXPERIMENT 9. Operational Amplifiers CIRCUITS LABORATORY EXPERIMENT 9 Operational Amplifiers 9.1 INTRODUCTION An operational amplifier ("op amp") is a direct-coupled, differential-input, highgain voltage amplifier, usually packaged in the

More information

multivibrators using IC 555 (2turns)

multivibrators using IC 555 (2turns) Advanced Electronics Lab Experiments (P243) 1. Study of basic configuration of OPAMP (IC-741), Simple mathematical operations and its use as comparator and Schmitt trigger(2 turns) 2. Differentiator, Integrator

More information

Op amp DC error characteristics and the effect on high-precision applications

Op amp DC error characteristics and the effect on high-precision applications Op amp DC error characteristics and the effect on high-precision applications Srudeep Patil, Member of Technical Staff, Maxim Integrated - January 01, 2014 This article discusses the DC limitations of

More information

HT9170 DTMF Receiver. Features. General Description. Selection Table

HT9170 DTMF Receiver. Features. General Description. Selection Table DTMF Receiver Features Operating voltage: 2.5V~5.5V Minimal external components No external filter is required Low standby current (on power down mode) General Description The HT9170 series are Dual Tone

More information

Physics 160. Fun with Op Amps. R. Johnson May 13, 2015

Physics 160. Fun with Op Amps. R. Johnson May 13, 2015 Physics 160 Lecture 14 Fun with Op Amps. Johnson May 13, 015 Ideal Op-Amp Differential gain, of course. Common-mode gain is ideally zero. Such an ideal op-amp of course does not exist, but a first analysis

More information

LAB 12: ACTIVE FILTERS

LAB 12: ACTIVE FILTERS A. INTRODUCTION LAB 12: ACTIVE FILTERS After last week s encounter with op- amps we will use them to build active filters. B. ABOUT FILTERS An electric filter is a frequency-selecting circuit designed

More information

Chapter 12. Common Switching Functional Blocks

Chapter 12. Common Switching Functional Blocks Chapter 12 Common Switching Functional Blocks Voltage Comparators In many applications, it is necessary to cause a digital switching action when an analog voltage rises above or drops below some value.

More information

Comparator and Schmitt Trigger

Comparator and Schmitt Trigger Comparator and Schmitt Trigger Comparator circuits find frequent application in measurement and instrumentation systems. Learning Objectives Understand the Op-Amp Comparator with and without an offset

More information

Description. 5k (10k) - + 5k (10k)

Description. 5k (10k) - + 5k (10k) THAT Corporation Low Noise, High Performance Microphone Preamplifier IC FEATURES Excellent noise performance through the entire gain range Exceptionally low THD+N over the full audio bandwidth Low power

More information

Operational Amplifiers

Operational Amplifiers 1. Introduction Operational Amplifiers The student will be introduced to the application and analysis of operational amplifiers in this laboratory experiment. The student will apply circuit analysis techniques

More information

High Speed, Low Power Monolithic Op Amp AD847

High Speed, Low Power Monolithic Op Amp AD847 a FEATURES Superior Performance High Unity Gain BW: MHz Low Supply Current:.3 ma High Slew Rate: 3 V/ s Excellent Video Specifications.% Differential Gain (NTSC and PAL).9 Differential Phase (NTSC and

More information

ECE 306 Lab 4 Class A, B and Class AB Amplifiers

ECE 306 Lab 4 Class A, B and Class AB Amplifiers ECE 06 Lab 4 Class A, B and Class AB Amplifiers Prelab Assignment Write a short description of the differences between class A and class B amplifiers. Be sure to include at least one advantage and disadvantage

More information

EE105 Fall 2014 Microelectronic Devices and Circuits. Operational Amplifier Error Sources: dc Current and Output Range Limitations

EE105 Fall 2014 Microelectronic Devices and Circuits. Operational Amplifier Error Sources: dc Current and Output Range Limitations EE105 Fall 014 Microelectronic Devices and Circuits Prof. Ming C. Wu wu@eecs.berkeley.edu 511 Sutardja Dai Hall (SDH) 1 Operational Amplifier Error Sources: dc Current and Output Range Limitations dc error

More information

A Single-Supply Op-Amp Circuit Collection

A Single-Supply Op-Amp Circuit Collection Application Report SLOA058 November 2000 A SingleSupply OpAmp Circuit Collection Bruce Carter OpAmp Applications, High Performance Linear Products One of the biggest problems for designers of opamp circuitry

More information

Single-Supply, Rail-to-Rail, Low Power, FET Input Op Amp AD820

Single-Supply, Rail-to-Rail, Low Power, FET Input Op Amp AD820 Single-Supply, Rail-to-Rail, Low Power, FET Input Op Amp AD82 FEATURES True single-supply operation Output swings rail-to-rail Input voltage range extends below ground Single-supply capability from 5 V

More information

Electronics. Discrete assembly of an operational amplifier as a transistor circuit. LD Physics Leaflets P4.2.1.1

Electronics. Discrete assembly of an operational amplifier as a transistor circuit. LD Physics Leaflets P4.2.1.1 Electronics Operational Amplifier Internal design of an operational amplifier LD Physics Leaflets Discrete assembly of an operational amplifier as a transistor circuit P4.2.1.1 Objects of the experiment

More information

AN-937 APPLICATION NOTE

AN-937 APPLICATION NOTE APPLICATION NOTE One Technology Way P.O. Box 906 Norwood, MA 02062-906, U.S.A. Tel: 78.329.4700 Fax: 78.46.33 www.analog.com Designing Amplifier Circuits: How to Avoid Common Problems by Charles Kitchin

More information