# DIODE CIRCUITS LABORATORY. Fig. 8.1a Fig 8.1b

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 DIODE CIRCUITS LABORATORY A solid state diode consists of a junction of either dissimilar semiconductors (pn junction diode) or a metal and a semiconductor (Schottky barrier diode). Regardless of the type, the circuit symbol for a diode is as shown in Fig. 8.1a, and the corresponding device in Fig 8.1b Fig. 8.1a Fig 8.1b If V is positive, the diode is forward-biased. Then, the diode can conduct a significant positive current I even though V is a small voltage of typically 0.7 V for the most common diode (silicon diode). If V is negative, the diode is reverse-biased. This negative current is so small that it is often considered to be zero. Thus, the usual function of a diode is to allow current to flow in the direction of the arrow (the forward direction) for positive V s, but not allow any current to flow in the reverse direction for negative V s. Only a small forward bias (positive V) is required to cause a diode to conduct a significant current I, and the less this voltage, the better. Ideally, this voltage would be zero volts. Also, ideally, a diode can conduct any value of current I in the forward direction, with this value being determined not by the diode, but by other components in the circuit in which the diode is connected. Also, ideally, a diode conducts zero amperes for a negative V, regardless of the voltage magnitude. Put another way, an ideal diode is a short circuit for a voltage V that tends to be positive (but it cannot be more than 0 V). Also, an ideal diode is an open circuit for a negative V. Thus, an ideal diode acts like a switch that is closed for current flow in the direction of the arrow in the diode circuit symbol, and open otherwise. Essentially, it is an electronically operated switch. This ideal approximation is satisfactory for analyzing many circuits that contain diodes, provided that the voltage levels are much greater than 0.7 V. Fig. 8.2 shows the I-V characteristic for an ideal diode. Fig. 8.2

2 Fig. 8.3 shows the I-V characteristic of an actual, physical diode. The part of the curve in the first quadrant is the forward characteristic, and the part in the third quadrant is the reverse characteristic. The current I s is called the reverse saturation current. For a reverse voltage V B, the diode breaks down and draws a large reverse current. Fig. 8.3 The diode forward characteristic is shown on an expanded scale in Fig Observe the turn-on voltage V T. For forward voltages less than V T, a diode conducts very little current. Also, in the normal forward operating range, the diode voltage is approximately V T, almost irrespective of the current value. For the common silicon diode, V T is approximately 0.7 V. Fig. 8.4 Except for the reverse-breakdown region, the I-V characteristic of a diode may be expressed analytically as I = I s (e 40V - 1) at room temperature (20 C). For a silicon diode, the saturation current I s is of the order of 1 na. Although the forward characteristic is exponential, because of the large factor 40 in the exponential exponent, the characteristic appears to be almost vertical for a forward voltage slightly greater than V T, as can be seen in Fig Usually, a stripe on the diode casing designates the cathode (-) end. If there is any doubt, a DMM ohmmeter can be used to measure the diode resistance in both directions. A diode has a small resistance in the forward direction, which is for current flow from anode to cathode. It has almost an infinite resistance in the reverse direction, for current flow from cathode to anode. Measurement of Diode I-V Characteristics

3 An oscilloscope display of the diode I-V characteristic can be obtained using the circuit of Fig. 8.5 where the device is a diode. However, this circuit configuration can be used to displace the I-V characteristic of any two-terminal device. It is important to note this method but in this lab, we will use one of the built-in panels available in VI ELVIS. Fig. 8.5 Procedure: The Two-Wire Current-Voltage Analyzer panel is a stand-alone instrument that is a basic two-wire I-V curve tracer. It is capable of measuring four quadrant IV signals within ±10V and ±40mA. The procedure for obtaining an I-V graph is as follows: 1. Select a diode and place it on the DMM readout of the ELVIS protoboard. Connect one end of the device to DUT + and the other end to DUT - as shown in Fig Set the current limits to ±10 ma and the voltage sweep range from 0V (start) to1.2v (stop) with increments of 0.10V. 3. Run the tool. 4 Comment on how the characteristic obtained in Step 1 compares to that of an ideal diode. DUT + DUT - Fig. 8.6

4 Diode Circuits Diodes are used in many types of circuits. For example, they are used in rectifier circuits to convert AC to DC. Also, they are used in clipper circuits to select for transmission that part of a waveform that is either greater or less than some reference value. The Half-Wave Rectifier Consider the circuit of Figure 8.7. Assume that v i represents a DC voltage source V i in series with the diode and the resistor. We monitor the voltage V 0 across the resistor. If we consider the diode to be ideal (V T = 0) then current will flow in the diode only if V s is positive, the diode will act as a short circuit and V 0 = V i. For V i < 0, the diode will be reverse biased, allowing no current flow and V 0 will be zero. If the diode is not ideal, then for the current to flow, V i must be equal to or greater than V T. When the current flows in the diode, there is a voltage drop V T across it and the voltage across the resistor is given by V 0 = V i V T. Again, for V i < 0, V 0 = 0. Now reconsider the circuit of Figure 8.7, where we have an AC voltage source v i (t) of angular frequency (Period T = 2 / ) and amplitude V p. v i (t) = V p sin( t) During the time 0 t T/2, v i (t) is positive and the diode, if ideal, will act as a short circuit, resulting in v 0 (t) = v i (t). However, in the second half of the period, v i (t) is negative and the diode will remain open during this time, resulting in v 0 (t) = 0. If the diode is not ideal, then the diode current will remain zero during the time v i remains less than V T. However, when v i > V T, v 0 (t) = v i (t) V T. Prelab: 1. Consider the circuit of Figure 8.7. Let v i (t) = 5.0sin(377t) V and V T = 0.7 V. Sketch the waveform v 0 (t) and show the times when v 0 is zero. Does your answer depend on the value of the resistor? 2. Consider the circuit shown in Figure 8.8. Let v i (t) = 5.0sin(377t), V T = 0, V r =2.0V. Sketch the output waveform v 0 (t) and show the maximum and minimum values of the output voltage. 3. Consider the circuit shown in Figure 8.9. Let v i (t) = 5.0sin(377t), V T = 0 and V r1 = 3.0 V and V r2 = 2.0 V. Sketch the output waveform v 0 (t) and show the maximum and minimum values of the output voltage. Procedure:

5 1. Construct the half-wave rectifier circuit shown in Fig Use a 10V peak to peak, 1-kHz sinusoidal voltage for V i. 2. Observe the output voltage V o on an oscilloscope and sketch it. Be sure that the AC-GND-DC switch (input coupling) for CH-0 and CH-1 are both set to DC to avoid shifting of the waveforms in a vertical direction. Can the diode turn-on voltage be determined by looking at the output voltage waveform? If so, what is it? Fig. 8.7 The Diode Clipper Circuits 1. A clipping circuit is shown in Fig Let V R = 2 V and the input voltage V i be a 5-peak, 1 khz sinusoidal voltage. Observe and sketch the output voltage V o. This circuit transmits that part of the v i waveform that is more negative than V R + V T. Fig Reverse the direction of the diode in the circuit of Fig Then, observe and sketch the output voltage v o. How does this output voltage compare to that in step 2?

6 3. Diode clippers may be used in pairs to perform double-ended limiting at two independent levels. Fig. 8.9 shows a double-diode clipper that limits at two independent levels. Set V R1 = 3 V and V R2 = 2 V. Test this clipping circuit with a sinusoidal input that has a peak amplitude of 5 V and a frequency of 1 khz. Observe the output voltage V o and sketch it. Please note that this will require the use of both the positive and negative variable DC supplies. These outputs are labeled SUPPLY+ and SUPPLYon the protoboard. CHECK YOUR CONNECTIONS BEFORE POWERING THE CIRCUIT. 4. Comment on the diode circuits studied in this experiment. Where might they be used in? Full-wave Rectification: Fig. 8.9 For many electronic circuits, DC supply voltages are required but only AC voltages are available. Then, the required DC voltages are obtained from the AC voltages by rectification and filtering. In the rectification process, an AC current is converted to a time-varying current that flows in a single direction, and so it is a time-varying DC current. Subsequent filtering smoothes out the variations to produce an almost constant dc current and voltage.

7 The diode bridge rectifier circuit is shown in Fig The operation can be understood by considering the polarity of the applied voltage V i at the top node a, with respect to the bottom node b. When this voltage is positive, diodes D 1 and D 2 are forward biased and therefore conduct, thereby causing the output voltage V o to be equal to the input voltage V i. (For simplicity, the small voltage drops across the conducting diodes are neglected.) When, however, V i is negative, node b is positive with respect to node a and thus diodes D 3 and D 4 conduct, making V o = -V i. Since, however, V i is negative, V o is positive. Thus, V o is always positive and is equal to the magnitude of V i. That is, V o = V i. Fig. 8.10: Diode Bridge Full-Wave Rectifier Suppose that the input voltage is V i = 10 sin t V. Then, if V T = 0, the input and output voltage waveforms will be as shown in Fig by the dotted curve. Actually, though, for a real bridge rectifier, the output waveform will be shifted down by 2V T because of the diode voltage drops. This is shown by the solid curve in the bottom figure Also, because of this shift, the output waveform will be zero for a short time between the rectified half cycles. This type of rectification is called full-wave rectification because both half cycles of a cycle of the input contribute to the output.

8 Fig Now, suppose that in addition to a sinusoid, the input voltage contains a DC component, as can be obtained from the sources shown in Fig What then is the output voltage V o? Fig Again, the key to understanding the circuit operation is the polarity of the voltage drop from node a to b, which is V ab = 10 sin t + 3 V. When V ab is positive, diodes D 1 and D 2 conduct. When this voltage is negative, only diodes D 3 and D 4 conduct. Thus, the input and output voltage waveforms are as shown in Fig

9 Fig Finally, suppose in the circuit of Fig. 8.10, that a capacitor is placed across the load resistor. What would the V o waveform be then? The answer is that when V i increases for the first time to its positive peak, the capacitor would charge to this peak value minus 2V T. Then, when V i started to decrease, the capacitor could not discharge through the diodes because that would require reverse diode currents. The capacitor would, however, start discharging through the load resistor R L. Then, if the R L C time constant was much greater than the duration of a half cycle of the sinusoidal input voltage, the capacitor voltage would not decrease as fast as the sinusoidal voltage, and thus would reverse bias the diodes. The diodes would remain reverse biased until the input sinusoidal voltage (minus 2V T ) exceeded the capacitor voltage. In the meantime, though, the load voltage would be the slow exponentially decaying capacitor voltage as is shown in Fig Clearly, the resulting load voltage is smoother than a full-wave rectified sinusoid. Procedure: Fig Construct the circuit shown in Fig Be careful to connect the diodes so that they conduct in the directions indicated. Diode casings usually have a stripe at one end to designate the end corresponding to the bar in the diode circuit symbol (the cathode end). The 2.2-k resistor is included to limit the current to a safe value. Apply a 2-V peak, 60-Hz sine wave and, using an oscilloscope, observe the voltage across the a-b terminals. Examine the waveform, including amplitude and time values.

10 Fig Place a 0.1- F capacitor across (in parallel with) R L, and reexamine the voltage waveform across the a,b nodes. 3. Add a 1.0 V offset voltage to the function generator. This has the same effect as the configuration in Fig Using the oscilloscope, again observe the voltage waveform across the a,b nodes. 4. Repeat step 2. Fig Time Averages and RMS Values In electrical circuits, one frequently encounters periodically varying current and voltage waveforms. If the waveform x(t) repeats itself every T seconds, then x(t) = x(t + NT)

11 where N is an integer and T is called the period. Figures 8.17 (a)-(d) show several periodic waveforms Figure 8.17 (a) sinusoid, (b) triangular, (c) square, (d) half-wave rectified waveforms The average value of a periodic waveform is defined mathematically as X ave = x(t) = { 0 T x(t) dt}/t. The integration represents the area under the curve during one period. Thus, it can be seen that the average of a sinusoid is zero. Prelab Question: 1. Determine the time averages of waveforms in Figures 8.17(b), (c), (d). The Root-Mean Square of a Periodic Waveform: We saw earlier that the time average of one of the most important periodic waveforms, the sinusoid, is zero. However, the average itself is of little importance. Since power absorbed or provided by any element in a circuit depends on the square of the current or voltage, average power can be computed by knowing the time average (mean) of the square of the periodic waveform. x 2 (t) = 0 T x 2 (t) dt/t. The root-mean square (RMS) value is simply the square root of the mean of the square. X rms = x 2 (t)

12 Note: AC voltmeters and ammeters measure the RMS value, not the peak value. The RMS value is sometimes also referred to as the effective value. Prelab Questions: 2. Show that the RMS value of the sinusoid x(t) = A cos( t + ) is A 2. Hint: Use trigonometric identity: 2(cos ) 2 = 1 + cos2 in evaluating the integral. 3. Determine the RMS value of the waveform shown in Figure 8.17(d). 4. What would be the RMS value of a full-wave rectified waveform? Give your answer in terms of the amplitude of the input sinusoid. Ripple Filtering: The full-wave rectified waveform shown in the bottom curve of Figure 8.11 presents two problems: 1. The time-average value (the DC value) of the output is much lower than the amplitude of the input sinusoid. 2. The output oscillates around the DC value, an undesirable feature for most applications (Imagine it running the DC motor in a portable shaver). The full-wave rectified waveform can be considered as made up of two parts: the DC part and the oscillating part. The oscillating part is called the ripple. where V DC = < v o (t) > v 0 (t) = V DC + v ripple (t). The ripple can be reduced (filtered) by using an appropriate capacitor connected across the load resistor R L (refer to Figure 8.15 for the load resistor). This is explained in the text preceding Figure The filtered waveform is shown in Figure 8.14, along with the unfiltered waveform in Figure The filtered waveform is much smoother. DC Value of the Filtered Waveform and Ripple Factor: At t = T/4, the capacitor is fully charged (to the peak voltage of the input sinusoid, V p ). Then, it discharges via the load resistor with a time constant = R L C. Since the capacitor is chosen to ensure that >> T, the exponential decay of the capacitor voltage continues almost until t = 3T/4. Therefore, in the interval T/4 t 3T/4, the waveform is given by

13 v 0 (t) = V p exp{ (t T/4)/ }. The minimum occurs at t = 3T/4 and is given by V min V p exp( T/2 ) V p (1 T/2 ) The ripple factor (rf) and the DC voltage are given by the following equations: rf = (V p V min )/V DC V DC = (V p + V min )/2 = V p (1 T/4 ) = V p (1 1/4fR L C) Prelab Question: 5. Determine the ripple factor for f = 60 Hz, R L = 1 M, and C = 0.1 F. Procedure: For the circuit in Fig 8.15 with a capacitor added in parallel to the load resistor: 1. Measure the peak value and the minimum value in the rectified output. 2. Measure the average voltage (V DC ) of the rectified output using the Oscilloscope. 3. Determine the ripple factor. 4. Compare the DC voltage and ripple factor with the respective theoretical values.

### Basic Op Amp Circuits

Basic Op Amp ircuits Manuel Toledo INEL 5205 Instrumentation August 3, 2008 Introduction The operational amplifier (op amp or OA for short) is perhaps the most important building block for the design of

### David L. Senasack June, 2006 Dale Jackson Career Center, Lewisville Texas. The PN Junction

David L. Senasack June, 2006 Dale Jackson Career Center, Lewisville Texas The PN Junction Objectives: Upon the completion of this unit, the student will be able to; name the two categories of integrated

### Fundamentals of Microelectronics

Fundamentals of Microelectronics CH1 Why Microelectronics? CH2 Basic Physics of Semiconductors CH3 Diode Circuits CH4 Physics of Bipolar Transistors CH5 Bipolar Amplifiers CH6 Physics of MOS Transistors

### Yrd. Doç. Dr. Aytaç Gören

H2 - AC to DC Yrd. Doç. Dr. Aytaç Gören ELK 2018 - Contents W01 Basic Concepts in Electronics W02 AC to DC Conversion W03 Analysis of DC Circuits W04 Transistors and Applications (H-Bridge) W05 Op Amps

### Unit/Standard Number. High School Graduation Years 2010, 2011 and 2012

1 Secondary Task List 100 SAFETY 101 Demonstrate an understanding of State and School safety regulations. 102 Practice safety techniques for electronics work. 103 Demonstrate an understanding of proper

### Reading: HH Sections 4.11 4.13, 4.19 4.20 (pgs. 189-212, 222 224)

6 OP AMPS II 6 Op Amps II In the previous lab, you explored several applications of op amps. In this exercise, you will look at some of their limitations. You will also examine the op amp integrator and

### SERIES-PARALLEL DC CIRCUITS

Name: Date: Course and Section: Instructor: EXPERIMENT 1 SERIES-PARALLEL DC CIRCUITS OBJECTIVES 1. Test the theoretical analysis of series-parallel networks through direct measurements. 2. Improve skills

### MATERIALS. Multisim screen shots sent to TA.

Page 1/8 Revision 0 9-Jun-10 OBJECTIVES Learn new Multisim components and instruments. Conduct a Multisim transient analysis. Gain proficiency in the function generator and oscilloscope. MATERIALS Multisim

### Laboratory 4: Feedback and Compensation

Laboratory 4: Feedback and Compensation To be performed during Week 9 (Oct. 20-24) and Week 10 (Oct. 27-31) Due Week 11 (Nov. 3-7) 1 Pre-Lab This Pre-Lab should be completed before attending your regular

### Objectives. Electric Current

Objectives Define electrical current as a rate. Describe what is measured by ammeters and voltmeters. Explain how to connect an ammeter and a voltmeter in an electrical circuit. Explain why electrons travel

### EE101 Labs and ECEbot Assembly/Testing Instructions

EE101 Labs and ECEbot Assembly/Testing Instructions by Montana State University Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering A Montana Space Grant Consortium Project December 3, 2008 Beginning in

### Amplifier Teaching Aid

Amplifier Teaching Aid Table of Contents Amplifier Teaching Aid...1 Preface...1 Introduction...1 Lesson 1 Semiconductor Review...2 Lesson Plan...2 Worksheet No. 1...7 Experiment No. 1...7 Lesson 2 Bipolar

### Lab #9: AC Steady State Analysis

Theory & Introduction Lab #9: AC Steady State Analysis Goals for Lab #9 The main goal for lab 9 is to make the students familar with AC steady state analysis, db scale and the NI ELVIS frequency analyzer.

### ECE 212 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY II

ECE 212 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY II For use in ECE 212 Electrical Engineering Laboratory II a companion laboratory for ECE 262, Electric Circuits II January 2010 Dr. J. E. Harriss Revision History

### AP-1 Application Note on Remote Control of UltraVolt HVPS

Basics Of UltraVolt HVPS Output Voltage Control Application Note on Remote Control of UltraVolt HVPS By varying the voltage at the Remote Adjust Input terminal (pin 6) between 0 and +5V, the UV highvoltage

### Study Guide for the Electronics Technician Pre-Employment Examination

Bay Area Rapid Transit District Study Guide for the Electronics Technician Pre-Employment Examination INTRODUCTION The Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) District makes extensive use of electronics technology

### Troubleshooting accelerometer installations

Troubleshooting accelerometer installations Accelerometer based monitoring systems can be tested to verify proper installation and operation. Testing ensures data integrity and can identify most problems.

### Power Electronics. Prof. K. Gopakumar. Centre for Electronics Design and Technology. Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore.

Power Electronics Prof. K. Gopakumar Centre for Electronics Design and Technology Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore Lecture - 1 Electric Drive Today, we will start with the topic on industrial drive

### Electronics. Discrete assembly of an operational amplifier as a transistor circuit. LD Physics Leaflets P4.2.1.1

Electronics Operational Amplifier Internal design of an operational amplifier LD Physics Leaflets Discrete assembly of an operational amplifier as a transistor circuit P4.2.1.1 Objects of the experiment

### Fundamentals of Signature Analysis

Fundamentals of Signature Analysis An In-depth Overview of Power-off Testing Using Analog Signature Analysis www.huntron.com 1 www.huntron.com 2 Table of Contents SECTION 1. INTRODUCTION... 7 PURPOSE...

### GT Sensors Precision Gear Tooth and Encoder Sensors

GT Sensors Precision Gear Tooth and Encoder Sensors NVE s GT Sensor products are based on a Low Hysteresis GMR sensor material and are designed for use in industrial speed applications where magnetic detection

### Charger Output AC Ripple Voltage and the affect on VRLA batteries

TECHNICAL BULLETIN 41-2131 Charger Output AC Ripple Voltage and the affect on VRLA batteries Please Note: The information in this technical bulletin was developed for C&D Dynasty 12 Volt VRLA products.

### 7-41 POWER FACTOR CORRECTION

POWER FTOR CORRECTION INTRODUCTION Modern electronic equipment can create noise that will cause problems with other equipment on the same supply system. To reduce system disturbances it is therefore essential

### Regulated D.C. Power Supply

442 17 Principles of Electronics Regulated D.C. Power Supply 17.1 Ordinary D.C. Power Supply 17.2 Important Terms 17.3 Regulated Power Supply 17.4 Types of Voltage Regulators 17.5 Zener Diode Voltage Regulator

### EET272 Worksheet Week 9

EET272 Worksheet Week 9 answer questions 1-5 in preparation for discussion for the quiz on Monday. Finish the rest of the questions for discussion in class on Wednesday. Question 1 Questions AC s are becoming

### Oscilloscope, Function Generator, and Voltage Division

1. Introduction Oscilloscope, Function Generator, and Voltage Division In this lab the student will learn to use the oscilloscope and function generator. The student will also verify the concept of voltage

### Three phase circuits

Three phase circuits THREE PHASE CIRCUITS THREE-PHASE ADVANTAGES 1. The horsepower rating of three-phase motors and the kva rating of three-phase transformers are 150% greater than single-phase motors

### Making Accurate Voltage Noise and Current Noise Measurements on Operational Amplifiers Down to 0.1Hz

Author: Don LaFontaine Making Accurate Voltage Noise and Current Noise Measurements on Operational Amplifiers Down to 0.1Hz Abstract Making accurate voltage and current noise measurements on op amps in

### RC NETWORKS SALES GUIDE

SALES GUIDE INTRODUCTION TO Recent developments in electronic equipment have shown the following trends: Increasing demands for numerical control machines, robotics and technically advanced appliances

### Impedance Matching and Matching Networks. Valentin Todorow, December, 2009

Impedance Matching and Matching Networks Valentin Todorow, December, 2009 RF for Plasma Processing - Definition of RF What is RF? The IEEE Standard Dictionary of Electrical and Electronics Terms defines

### Considerations When Specifying a DC Power Supply

Programming Circuit White Paper Considerations When Specifying a DC Power Supply By Bill Martin, Sales/Applications Engineer Every automated test system that tests electronic circuit boards, modules or

### Improvements of Reliability of Micro Hydro Power Plants in Sri Lanka

Improvements of Reliability of Micro Hydro Power Plants in Sri Lanka S S B Udugampala, V Vijayarajah, N T L W Vithanawasam, W M S C Weerasinghe, Supervised by: Eng J Karunanayake, Dr. K T M U Hemapala

### FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF AN AUDIO AMPLIFIER

2014 Amplifier - 1 FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF AN AUDIO AMPLIFIER The objectives of this experiment are: To understand the concept of HI-FI audio equipment To generate a frequency response curve for an audio

### SECTION 13. Multipliers. Outline of Multiplier Design Process:

SECTION 13 Multipliers VMI manufactures many high voltage multipliers, most of which are custom designed for specific requirements. The following information provides general information and basic guidance

### AND8480/D. CrM Buck LED Driver Evaluation Board APPLICATION NOTE

CrM Buck LED Driver Evaluation Board Prepared by: Fabien Franc ON Semiconductor Introduction This document describes the CrM Buck LED driver evaluation board. This board provides a step down converter

### Efficient and reliable operation of LED lighting is dependent on the right choice of current-limiting resistor

Efficient and reliable operation of LED lighting is dependent on the right choice of current-limiting resistor Phil Ebbert, VP of Engineering, Riedon Inc. Introduction Not all resistors are the same and

### Neutral Currents in Three Phase Wye Systems

POWER SYSTEMS ENGINEERING DATA PUBLISHED BY SQUARE D, OSHKOSH, WISCONSIN Subject: Neutral Currents in Three Phase Wye Systems by Robert Arthur Square D Company Oshkosh, Wisconsin (414) 46-80 and R. A.

### THE BREADBOARD; DC POWER SUPPLY; RESISTANCE OF METERS; NODE VOLTAGES AND EQUIVALENT RESISTANCE; THÉVENIN EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT

THE BREADBOARD; DC POWER SUPPLY; RESISTANCE OF METERS; NODE VOLTAGES AND EQUIVALENT RESISTANCE; THÉVENIN EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT YOUR NAME LAB MEETING TIME Reference: C.W. Alexander and M.N.O Sadiku, Fundamentals

### SCHOTTKY BARRIER RECTIFIERS 1.0 AMPERE 20, 30 and 40 VOLTS

1N5817 and 1N5819 are Preferred Devices... employing the Schottky Barrier principle in a large area metal to silicon power diode. State of the art geometry features chrome barrier metal, epitaxial construction

### Chip Diode Application Note

Chip Diode Application Note Introduction The markets of portable communications, computing and video equipment are challenging the semiconductor industry to develop increasingly smaller electronic components.

### EMC STANDARDS STANDARDS AND STANDARD MAKING BODIES. International. International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) http://www.iec.

EMC STANDARDS The EMC standards that a particular electronic product must meet depend on the product application (commercial or military) and the country in which the product is to be used. These EMC regulatory

### TEA1024/ TEA1124. Zero Voltage Switch with Fixed Ramp. Description. Features. Block Diagram

Zero Voltage Switch with Fixed Ramp TEA04/ TEA4 Description The monolithic integrated bipolar circuit, TEA04/ TEA4 is a zero voltage switch for triac control in domestic equipments. It offers not only

### ULRASONIC GENERATOR POWER CIRCUITRY. Will it fit on PC board

ULRASONIC GENERATOR POWER CIRCUITRY Will it fit on PC board MAJOR COMPONENTS HIGH POWER FACTOR RECTIFIER RECTIFIES POWER LINE RAIL SUPPLY SETS VOLTAGE AMPLITUDE INVERTER INVERTS RAIL VOLTAGE FILTER FILTERS

### Lecture Notes: ECS 203 Basic Electrical Engineering Semester 1/2010. Dr.Prapun Suksompong 1 June 16, 2010

Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology Thammasat University School of Information, Computer and Communication Technology Lecture Notes: ECS 203 Basic Electrical Engineering Semester 1/2010 Dr.Prapun

### STPS40L15CW. 2 x 20 Amps SCHOTTKY RECTIFIER. Case Styles. I F(AV) = 40Amp V R = 15V. Bulletin PD-20622 rev. B 10/06. Description/ Features

Bulletin PD-20622 rev. B 0/06 STPS40L5CW SCHOTTKY RECTIFIER 2 x 20 Amps I F(AV) = 40Amp V R = 5V Major Ratings and Characteristics Characteristics Values Units I F(AV) Rectangular 40 A waveform V RRM 5

### Lab 1: Introduction to PSpice

Lab 1: Introduction to PSpice Objectives A primary purpose of this lab is for you to become familiar with the use of PSpice and to learn to use it to assist you in the analysis of circuits. The software

### DEGREE: Bachelor in Biomedical Engineering YEAR: 2 TERM: 2 WEEKLY PLANNING

SESSION WEEK COURSE: Electronic Technology in Biomedicine DEGREE: Bachelor in Biomedical Engineering YEAR: 2 TERM: 2 WEEKLY PLANNING DESCRIPTION GROUPS (mark X) SPECIAL ROOM FOR SESSION (Computer class

### Introduction. Harmonics and IEEE 519 Page 1 of 19

Introduction In an ideal power system, the voltage supplied to customer equipment, and the resulting load current are perfect sine waves. In practice, however, conditions are never ideal, so these waveforms

### The Basics of Digital Multimeters

IDEAL INDUSTRIES INC. The Basics of Digital Multimeters A guide to help you understand the basic Features and Functions of a Digital Multimeter. Author: Patrick C Elliott Field Sales Engineer IDEAL Industries,

### STPS20L15DPbF SCHOTTKY RECTIFIER. Case Styles. I F(AV) = 20Amp V R = 15V. Bulletin PD-20873 rev. A 02/07. Major Ratings and Characteristics

STPS20L5DPbF SCHOTTKY RECTIFIER 20 Amps I F(AV) = 20Amp V R = 5V Major Ratings and Characteristics Characteristics Values Units I F(AV) Rectangular 20 A waveform V RRM 5 V I FSM @ tp = 5 μs sine 700 A

### Annex: VISIR Remote Laboratory

Open Learning Approach with Remote Experiments 518987-LLP-1-2011-1-ES-KA3-KA3MP Multilateral Projects UNIVERSITY OF DEUSTO Annex: VISIR Remote Laboratory OLAREX project report Olga Dziabenko, Unai Hernandez

### Lab 3: Introduction to Data Acquisition Cards

Lab 3: Introduction to Data Acquisition Cards INTRODUCTION: In this lab, you will be building a VI to display the input measured on a channel. However, within your own VI you will use LabVIEW supplied

### SPI-8001TW. Switching Regulators. Dual 1.5 A, DC/DC Step-Down Converter. SANKEN ELECTRIC CO., LTD. http://www.sanken-ele.co.jp/en/

Data Sheet 27469.301.1 Designed to meet high-current requirements at high efficiency in industrial and consumer applications; embedded core, memory, or logic supplies; TVs, VCRs, and office equipment,

### Electronics. Basic Concepts. Yrd. Doç. Dr. Aytaç GÖREN Yrd. Doç. Dr. Levent ÇETİN

Electronics Basic Concepts Electric charge Ordinary matter is made up of atoms which have positively charged nuclei and negatively charged electrons surrounding them. Charge is quantized as the subtraction

### AND8433/D. Using ON Semiconductor Constant Current Regulator (CCR) Devices in AC Applications APPLICATION NOTE

Using ON Semiconductor Constant Current Regulator (CCR) Devices in AC Applications Introduction This update includes additional information on 220 V ac lighting circuits with the addition of ON Semiconductors

### DRAFT. University of Pennsylvania Moore School of Electrical Engineering ESE319 Electronic Circuits - Modeling and Measurement Techniques

University of Pennsylvania Moore School of Electrical Engineering ESE319 Electronic Circuits - Modeling and Measurement Techniques 1. Introduction. Students are often frustrated in their attempts to execute

### Amplified High Speed Fiber Photodetectors

Amplified High Speed Fiber Photodetectors User Guide (800)697-6782 sales@eotech.com www.eotech.com Page 1 of 7 EOT AMPLIFIED HIGH SPEED FIBER PHOTODETECTOR USER S GUIDE Thank you for purchasing your Amplified

### Power supplies. EE328 Power Electronics Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mutlu BOZTEPE Ege University, Dept. of E&E

Power supplies EE328 Power Electronics Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mutlu BOZTEPE Ege University, Dept. of E&E EE328 POWER ELECTRONICS Outline of lecture Introduction to power supplies Modelling a power transformer

### Content Map For Career & Technology

Content Strand: Applied Academics CT-ET1-1 analysis of electronic A. Fractions and decimals B. Powers of 10 and engineering notation C. Formula based problem solutions D. Powers and roots E. Linear equations

### DCMS DC MOTOR SYSTEM User Manual

DCMS DC MOTOR SYSTEM User Manual release 1.3 March 3, 2011 Disclaimer The developers of the DC Motor System (hardware and software) have used their best efforts in the development. The developers make

### REPORT ON CANDIDATES WORK IN THE CARIBBEAN ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION MAY/JUNE 2008 ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY (TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO)

CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL REPORT ON CANDIDATES WORK IN THE CARIBBEAN ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION MAY/JUNE 2008 ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY (TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO) Copyright 2008 Caribbean

### Schottky Rectifier, 100 A

Schottky Rectifier, A VS-BGQ Cathode Anode PowerTab PRODUCT SUMMARY Package PowerTab I F(AV) A V R V V F at I F 0.82 V I RM 180 ma at 125 C T J max. 175 C Diode variation Single die E AS 9 mj FEATURES

### AMPLIFIED HIGH SPEED FIBER PHOTODETECTOR USER S GUIDE

AMPLIFIED HIGH SPEED FIBER PHOTODETECTOR USER S GUIDE Thank you for purchasing your Amplified High Speed Fiber Photodetector. This user s guide will help answer any questions you may have regarding the

### Computer Networks and Internets, 5e Chapter 6 Information Sources and Signals. Introduction

Computer Networks and Internets, 5e Chapter 6 Information Sources and Signals Modified from the lecture slides of Lami Kaya (LKaya@ieee.org) for use CECS 474, Fall 2008. 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper

### Keywords: input noise, output noise, step down converters, buck converters, MAX1653EVKit

Maxim > Design Support > Technical Documents > Tutorials > Power-Supply Circuits > APP 986 Keywords: input noise, output noise, step down converters, buck converters, MAX1653EVKit TUTORIAL 986 Input and

### VOLTAGE REGULATOR AND PARALLEL OPERATION

VOLTAGE REGULATOR AND PARALLEL OPERATION Generator sets are operated in parallel to improve fuel economy and reliability of the power supply. Economy is improved with multiple paralleled generators by

### Laboratory Manual and Supplementary Notes. CoE 494: Communication Laboratory. Version 1.2

Laboratory Manual and Supplementary Notes CoE 494: Communication Laboratory Version 1.2 Dr. Joseph Frank Dr. Sol Rosenstark Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering New Jersey Institute of Technology

### Current Loop Tuning Procedure. Servo Drive Current Loop Tuning Procedure (intended for Analog input PWM output servo drives) General Procedure AN-015

Servo Drive Current Loop Tuning Procedure (intended for Analog input PWM output servo drives) The standard tuning values used in ADVANCED Motion Controls drives are conservative and work well in over 90%

### ABCs of DMMs Multimeter features and functions explained Application Note

ABCs of DMMs Multimeter features and functions explained Application Note Digital multimeters offer a wide selection of features. Choosing the right meter for the job can be challenging unless you know

### Plots, Curve-Fitting, and Data Modeling in Microsoft Excel

Plots, Curve-Fitting, and Data Modeling in Microsoft Excel This handout offers some tips on making nice plots of data collected in your lab experiments, as well as instruction on how to use the built-in

### Harmonics and Noise in Photovoltaic (PV) Inverter and the Mitigation Strategies

Soonwook Hong, Ph. D. Michael Zuercher Martinson Harmonics and Noise in Photovoltaic (PV) Inverter and the Mitigation Strategies 1. Introduction PV inverters use semiconductor devices to transform the

### Solar Energy Discovery Lab

Solar Energy Discovery Lab Objective Set up circuits with solar cells in series and parallel and analyze the resulting characteristics. Introduction A photovoltaic solar cell converts radiant (solar) energy

### Design and Applications of HCPL-3020 and HCPL-0302 Gate Drive Optocouplers

Design and Applications of HCPL-00 and HCPL-00 Gate Drive Optocouplers Application Note 00 Introduction The HCPL-00 (DIP-) and HCPL-00 (SO-) consist of GaAsP LED optically coupled to an integrated circuit

### Homework #11 203-1-1721 Physics 2 for Students of Mechanical Engineering

Homework #11 203-1-1721 Physics 2 for Students of Mechanical Engineering 2. A circular coil has a 10.3 cm radius and consists of 34 closely wound turns of wire. An externally produced magnetic field of

### Simulation and Analysis of PWM Inverter Fed Induction Motor Drive

Simulation and Analysis of PWM Inverter Fed Induction Motor Drive C.S.Sharma, Tali Nagwani Abstract Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation variable speed drives are increasingly applied in many new industrial

### Clock Jitter Definitions and Measurement Methods

January 2014 Clock Jitter Definitions and Measurement Methods 1 Introduction Jitter is the timing variations of a set of signal edges from their ideal values. Jitters in clock signals are typically caused

### LDS8720. 184 WLED Matrix Driver with Boost Converter FEATURES APPLICATION DESCRIPTION TYPICAL APPLICATION CIRCUIT

184 WLED Matrix Driver with Boost Converter FEATURES High efficiency boost converter with the input voltage range from 2.7 to 5.5 V No external Schottky Required (Internal synchronous rectifier) 250 mv

### HIGH FREQUENCY TRANSFORMER WITH TRANSFORMER SWITCHOVER

OPTIMUM EFFICIENCY AND FLEXIBLE USE HIGH FREQUENCY TRANSFORMER WITH TRANSFORMER SWITCHOVER One of the many requirements of the modern inverter is a broad, coordinated input and MPP voltage range with a

### LM566C Voltage Controlled Oscillator

LM566C Voltage Controlled Oscillator General Description The LM566CN is a general purpose voltage controlled oscillator which may be used to generate square and triangular waves the frequency of which

### Hello and welcome to this training module for the STM32L4 Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) controller. This controller can be used in a wide range of

Hello and welcome to this training module for the STM32L4 Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) controller. This controller can be used in a wide range of applications such as home appliances, medical, automotive,

### When the Power Fails: Designing for a Smart Meter s Last Gasp

When the Power Fails: Designing for a Smart Meter s Last Gasp Daniel Pruessner 1/10/2012 5:25 PM EST Overview Smart meter designers have an unusual predicament: The meter is powered from the same bus that

### Chapter 2 Application Requirements

Chapter 2 Application Requirements The material presented in this script covers low voltage applications extending from battery operated portable electronics, through POL-converters (Point of Load), internet

### TROUBLESHOOTING PRELIMINARY

TROUBLESHOOTING PRELIMINARY To troubleshoot, one must first have a working knowledge of the individual parts and their relation to one another. Must have adequate hand tools Must have basic instrumentation:

### Equivalent Circuit. Operating Characteristics at Ta = 25 C, V CC = ±34V, R L = 8Ω, VG = 40dB, Rg = 600Ω, R L : non-inductive load STK4181V

Ordering number: 2137B Thick Film Hybrid IC STK4181V AF Power Amplifier (Split Power Supply) (45W + 45W min, THD = 0.08%) Features Pin-compatible with the STK4102II series. The STK4101V series use the

### Solar Cell Bypass Diodes in Silicon Crystalline Photovoltaic Panels

VISHAY GENERAL SEMICONDUCTOR www.vishay.com Rectifiers IMPORTANT CHARACTERISTICS OF BYPASS DIODES FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC SOLAR CELLS 1. Forward Voltage Drop (V F ) at Bypass The basic function of bypass diodes

### Creating a Usable Power Supply from a Solar Panel

Creating a Usable Power Supply from a Solar Panel An exploration in DC- DC converters By Kathleen Ellis Advised by Dr. Derin Sherman Department of Physics, Cornell College November 21, 2012 Introduction

### Relationship between large subject matter areas

H02M APPARATUS FOR CONVERSION BETWEEN AC AND AC, BETWEEN AC AND DC, OR BETWEEN DC AND DC, AND FOR USE WITH MAINS OR SIMILAR POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS; CONVERSION OF DC OR AC INPUT POWER INTO SURGE OUTPUT POWER;

### 1N5820, 1N5821, 1N5822. Axial Lead Rectifiers SCHOTTKY BARRIER RECTIFIERS 3.0 AMPERES 20, 30, 40 VOLTS

1N58, 1N5821, 1N5822 1N58 and 1N5822 are Preferred Devices Rectifiers This series employs the Schottky Barrier principle in a large area metal-to-silicon power diode. State-of-the-art geometry features

### BASIC ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

Questions and Answers for Units III, IV & V I B.Tech I Sem BASIC ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING N. Madhusudhana Rao Department of ECE GRIET Syllabus UNIT I: ELECTRICAL and SINGLE PHASE AC CIRCUITS

### Oscillations and Regenerative Amplification using Negative Resistance Devices

Oscillations and Regenerative Amplification using Negative Resistance Devices Ramon Vargas Patron rvargas@inictel.gob.pe INICTEL The usual procedure for the production of sustained oscillations in tuned

### Iowa State University Electrical and Computer Engineering. E E 452. Electric Machines and Power Electronic Drives. Laboratory #3 Figures of Merit

Electrical and Computer Engineering E E 452. Electric Machines and Power Electronic Drives Laboratory #3 Figures of Merit Summary Simple experiments will be conducted. Experimental waveforms will be measured,

### 19TQ015PbF. 19 Amp SCHOTTKY RECTIFIER. Case Styles. I F(AV) = 19Amp V R = 15V. Bulletin PD-20840 rev. B 04/06. Major Ratings and Characteristics

Bulletin PD-0840 rev. B 04/06 9TQ05PbF SCHOTTKY ECTIFIE 9 Amp I F(A) = 9Amp = 5 Major atings and Characteristics Characteristics alues Units I F(A) ectangular 9 A waveform M 5 I FSM @ tp = 5 μs sine 700

### Ver 3537 E1.1 Analysis of Circuits (2014) E1.1 Circuit Analysis. Problem Sheet 1 (Lectures 1 & 2)

Ver 3537 E. Analysis of Circuits () Key: [A]= easy... [E]=hard E. Circuit Analysis Problem Sheet (Lectures & ). [A] One of the following circuits is a series circuit and the other is a parallel circuit.

### Power Electronics Lab

Power Electronics Lab By: Alex M. Bermel : April 20, 2011 Table of Contents Title page 1 Table of Contents 2 Project Scope 4 Problem Statement 4 Health and Safety 5 Customer Needs 6 Economic Analysis 6

### Fundamentals of Electronic Circuit Design. By Hongshen Ma

Fundamentals of Electronic Circuit Design By Hongshen Ma Preface Why Study Electronics? Purely mechanical problems are often only a subset of larger multidomain problems faced by the designer. Particularly,

Table of Contents (1) Title Overview Unpacking Inspection Safety Information Rules For Safe Operation International Electrical Symbols The Meter structure Functional Buttons LCD Display Measurement Operation

### Programmable Single-/Dual-/Triple- Tone Gong SAE 800

Programmable Single-/Dual-/Triple- Tone Gong Preliminary Data SAE 800 Bipolar IC Features Supply voltage range 2.8 V to 18 V Few external components (no electrolytic capacitor) 1 tone, 2 tones, 3 tones

### Keysight Technologies Understanding the Fundamental Principles of Vector Network Analysis. Application Note

Keysight Technologies Understanding the Fundamental Principles of Vector Network Analysis Application Note Introduction Network analysis is the process by which designers and manufacturers measure the