Key Idea 1: Weather and Climate

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Key Idea 1: Weather and Climate"

Transcription

1 Key Idea 1: Weather and Climate 1.1 What physical factors lead to variations in climate in different regions of the world Weather Climate The day to day changes in the atmosphere. It is constantly changing. The overall pattern of weather, usually based on an average over 30 years. Weather includes: sunshine hours, wind speed / direction, precipitation, temperature etc Measures average temperature and average precipitation each month What affects weather and climate around the world? Latitude This is distance north or south of the equator. As the Earth is curved it affects how much surface area the sun has to heat this makes it cooler further from the equator. It has more land to heat closer to the poles so the amount of heat will be less at these points. Altitude This is the height of land above sea level. Temperatures are colder the higher up you go. They decrease by 1 c for every 100m in height. As air rises it cools; the higher you are the more it has cooled. As altitude increases the temperature will therefore decrease, giving different climatic and weather conditions. Oceans The distance from the sea and the temperature of the sea closest to land. The seas warm up more slowly and cool down more quickly and this moderates the climate of the land next to it. Oceans currents are warm or cold and these change the temperature of the prevailing wind, affecting the climate. Ocean Currents Explained Wind blows over the ocean and the temperature is alerted. If there is a warm current the wind will be warmer and therefore make temperatures on land warmer. This is why Britain has a milder climate than expected for its latitude as the Gulf Stream flows up past the west coast, warming the country Distance From Oceans Explained Oceans heat up and cool down much more slowly than land. This means that coastal locations tend to be cooler in summer and warmer in winter than places inland at the same latitude and altitude. Glasgow, for example, is at a similar latitude to Moscow, but is much milder in winter because it is nearer to the coast than Moscow.

2 Key Skill: Describing a Climate Graph: A climate graph gives you the average monthly rainfall and average monthly temperature for a particular location. The bars show you rainfall (precipitation) and the line shows you temperature. Describing the pattern means saying what is happening over the course of the year for both temperature and rainfall. You must use data from the graph for full marks. Eg The rainfall in this location varies through the year. It is wettest between October and May and drier between June and September. The wettest month is December when 70mm of rain falls and the driest month is June when 7mm of rain falls. Temperature also varies and is highest between May and September, when it is also driest. The coldest months are between November and May. The hottest months are July and August when it is 29 c and the coldest month is January which is 9 c. This gives temperature range of 20 c over the year. Characteristics of Different Climates: Mediterranean Climate: Location: - Found between the 30o and 45 degree latitudes. - Often found on the western sides of continents. - Gets its name from the climate found around the Mediterranean Sea. General Features: Temperature / Precipitation: Plants and Animals Found: - Very mild (few extreme temperatures) - 2 seasons: summer and winter. Summers are longer than winter, and the winter is very mild. - Few places experience snow in a Mediterranean climate. - The seasonal changes are due to changes in ocean currents and water temperature. - Warm to hot, dry summers and mild to cool, wet winters. - Cause of this climate is directly related to large bodies of water such as the Mediterranean Sea and ocean currents. - During the summer, cold currents keep the climate mild and dry. - Ocean currents shift as the seasons change. During the winter the water that was warmed up all summer moves in and keeps the land warm and often brings rain. - Plants must be able to survive long dry summers. - Evergreens such as Pine and Cypress trees are mixed with deciduous trees such as some Oaks. - Fruit trees and vines such as grapes, figs, olives, and citrus fruits grow well here. - Other plants include what are called "scrub", which include small shrubs, grasses, and herbs. - Animals must be able to live in rugged land and not depend too much on large areas of grass to graze. - Natural wildlife found here include goats and sheep.

3 Impact of the Mediterranean Climate on People s Lives: There is often a drought in summer - So farmers must conserve water and grow crops that can survive without large amounts of irrigation. - There may be shortages of water and people may not be able to water gardens / fill swimming pools The sun can be very strong during the summer There can be heavy thunderstorms and rain storms - Care must be taken when out in the sun as skin cancer / sunburn could be an issue - It is often too hot in the middle of the day to be outside so the working day may need to be adjusted to allow for this - This can cause flash floods and endanger lives as the ground will be baked hard by the sun and mean there is little infiltration - Flash floods are hard to predict and prepare for meaning the damage / impact is greater Tropical Climate: Location: - Found along the equator, usually within 25 degrees of the equator - Large areas of Tropical Wet are found in Brazil, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Indonesia, and the Philippines. General Features: Temperature / Precipitation: Plants and Animals Found: - Seasons don't change in a tropical climate it is hot and wet all year round - The region always gets direct sunlight / warmth - Temperatures stay the same throughout most of the year, average of 27 c - Temperatures feel hotter because the humidity is usually very high (amount of water in the air). - Tropical climates are very wet all year round - There is heavy rainfall every day 9usually in the afternoon) - The regular rainfall is caused by the regular warm temperatures - Tropical climates receive over 750mm of rain a year - The constant rain and direct sunlight at the equator allow tropical rainforests to develop. - Since the main vegetation is forests, monkeys are common as well as snakes, frogs, birds, and small mammals - The largest group of animals are insects. Impact of the Tropical Climate on People s Lives: There is a large presence of many tropical diseases eg malaria which have no vaccination Poor soils and climatic conditions make large scale crop growing difficult - So people need to avoid being bitten and often fall ill / die as a result (higher death rates, lower QoL) - costs to the country s economy - Farming needs to be carefully managed so as not to ruin soils and make it so nothing can grow - Can be food shortages if large populations living in an area

4 The length of day and night is equal - Less time to complete chores / work makes it harder especially as much of the climate is found in LEDCs where there may be a lack of electricity and therefore light 1.2 Why does it rain? warm air causes water in the sea and lakes to evaporate warm air and water are forced to rise rising air cools air is cooled to dew point further cooling gives condensation further cooling causes precipitation In simple terms, rain happens because air rises and cools. As it cools it can hold less moisture (air has moisture in it because of evaporation from water bodies like lakes, rivers, seas) and vegetation (transpiration) and so the moisture condenses and forms clouds which if they grow heavy enough will lead to rain (precipitation) as the cloud can no longer hold all the moisture. What causes air to rise / cool (and therefore leads to cooling and rainfall)? Relief Rainfall: Relief rainfall happens over hills. Air is forced to rise over hills / mountains and therefore cools. It brings rain at the top of the hills and as the air sinks again on the other side, it warms meaning it can hold more water and so there is no rain. This area is called the rain shadow.

5 Frontal Rainfall: This rain happens when warm and cold air meets. Cold air sinks under the warm air mass forcing the warm air upwards which cools it. This causes condensation, clouds and rainfall. Convectional rainfall (caused by intense heat so common in the tropics): Convectional rainfall is caused by the sun heating the ground. The heated ground will warm the air above it which makes it lighter and therefore causes it to rise, evaporating surface water with it. As the air rises it cools and condenses and often gives short and intense rainfall. It usually occurs near the equator where the sun is most intense. 1.3 What are the causes of weather hazards associated with both high and low atmospheric pressure? 1.4 How do extreme weather hazards affect different groups of people? Air Pressure = How much the air is pushing down on us. It has a big influence on the weather that is experienced globally.

6 Air pressure globally varies depending on whether it has high or low amounts of solar energy. The UK has changeable weather as it sits in an area where high and low pressure meets. High and low pressure areas bring different weather at different times of the year. Low Pressure: Low pressure means the air is rising which causes it to cool. This forms clouds and leads to rain. The lower the pressure the worse the weather will be. Depressions develop when warm air meets cold air. This is called a front and will usually bring cloud and rain. Depressions are areas of low atmospheric pressure which produce cloudy, rainy and windy weather. These low pressure systems often begin in the Atlantic, moving eastwards towards the UK. They are responsible for the very changeable weather which is common across the British Isles. The diagram shows a depression with a leading warm front and a trailing cold front moving from West to East across Britain. At the warm front, lighter, warmer air from the south (tropical maritime air) meets cooler air from the north (polar maritime air) and rises gradually over it... As the warm air slowly rises it cools, its water content condenses, and clouds form (nimbostratus then altostratus). The result is steady rain, later giving way to drizzle, and finally clearer skies with high cirrus clouds. Behind the warm front is an area of warm, rising air and low pressure - the centre of the low pressure system. As this part of the depression passes over, there may be a short period of clear, dry weather. But not for long... At the trailing cold front, heavier, cooler air meets the warm air at the centre of the depression, undercutting it and forcing it steeply upwards. Quickly moving air masses produce high winds and cooler temperatures... As the rapidly rising warm air cools, its water condenses, and clouds form (cumulonimbus, then cumulus). The result is heavy rain or thunderstorms, giving way to showers, and finally to clear skies as the cold front moves away eastwards.

7 Low Pressure Weather Hazards: Hurricanes / Tropical Cyclones: A hurricane is a large rotating storm with high speed winds that forms over warm waters in tropical areas. Hurricanes have sustained winds of at least 74 miles per hour and an area of low air pressure in the centre called the eye. Formation: Hurricanes form over the warm ocean water of the tropics. When warm moist air over the water rises, it is replaced by cooler air. The cooler air will then warm and start to rise. This cycle causes huge storm clouds to form. These storm clouds will begin to rotate with the spin of the Earth forming an organized system. If there is enough warm water, the cycle will continue and the storm clouds and wind speeds will grow causing a hurricane to form. Location: Hurricanes / tropical cyclones occur over the ocean in areas near the equator. This is because there is plenty of warm water in these areas to allow the storms to form. There are seven major areas in the world that tend to produce tropical cyclones. See the map below. Effects / Response / Impact on Different People: SEE CASE STUDY: CYCLONE NARGIS

8 High Pressure (Anti-cyclones): Anticyclones are areas of high pressure which form where cool air sinks. They usually cover large areas and give long periods of settled weather. Weather Conditions: - As the air is sinking, not rising, no clouds or rain are formed. This is because as the air sinks it warms, meaning it can hold more water. - The absence of fronts means winds may be very light. - Consequently, high-pressure areas are often associated with settled, dry and bright conditions. - In summer, anticyclones bring dry, hot weather. In winter, clear skies may bring cold nights and frost. - In cold conditions, anticyclones may also bring fog and mist. This is because the cold forces moisture in the air to condense at low altitudes. British Summer anti-cyclone - Can cause heat waves during the day - At night as there are no clouds, heat will be quickly lost so it gets much cooler - The ground will cool sufficiently to cause condensation of water vapour in the descending warm air and mist or heavy dew may form in the morning - After a few days, a layer of hot air builds up at ground level, which eventually will give rise to thunderstorms, ending the anticyclone. - Summer anticyclones can result in Heat wave conditions with temperatures significantly above average. British Winter anti-cyclone - The longer nights combined with clear skies leads to intense cooling of the land. - There is an increased risk of dew, frost and thicker, more extensive fog patches which may be slow to clear or even persist. - Under very calm conditions, both frost and fog may persist for several days. - An anticyclone's very stable conditions and little air movement means that pollution is trapped at low levels, resulting in very poor air quality such as smogs. Anti-cyclones in summer can lead to extended periods with no rainfall and consequently cause drought conditions which are hazardous to different groups of people in many parts of the world. Effects / Response / Impact on Different People: SEE CASE STUDY: BARCELONA DROUGHT

CGC1D1: Interactions in the Physical Environment Factors that Affect Climate

CGC1D1: Interactions in the Physical Environment Factors that Affect Climate Name: Date: Day/Period: CGC1D1: Interactions in the Physical Environment Factors that Affect Climate Chapter 12 in the Making Connections textbook deals with Climate Connections. Use pages 127-144 to fill

More information

Section 3 What Is Climate?

Section 3 What Is Climate? Section 3 What Is Climate? Key Concept Earth s climate zones are caused by the distribution of heat around Earth s surface by wind and ocean currents. What You Will Learn Climate is the average weather

More information

Geography affects climate.

Geography affects climate. KEY CONCEPT Climate is a long-term weather pattern. BEFORE, you learned The Sun s energy heats Earth s surface unevenly The atmosphere s temperature changes with altitude Oceans affect wind flow NOW, you

More information

2. The map below shows high-pressure and low-pressure weather systems in the United States.

2. The map below shows high-pressure and low-pressure weather systems in the United States. 1. Which weather instrument has most improved the accuracy of weather forecasts over the past 40 years? 1) thermometer 3) weather satellite 2) sling psychrometer 4) weather balloon 6. Wind velocity is

More information

WEATHER AND CLIMATE practice test

WEATHER AND CLIMATE practice test WEATHER AND CLIMATE practice test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. What role does runoff play in the water cycle? a. It is the process in

More information

FOURTH GRADE WEATHER

FOURTH GRADE WEATHER FOURTH GRADE WEATHER 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES WATER CYCLE OVERVIEW OF FOURTH GRADE WATER WEEK 1. PRE: Comparing different reservoirs of water. LAB: Experimenting with surface tension and capillary

More information

Name: OBJECTIVES Correctly define: WEATHER BASICS: STATION MODELS: MOISTURE: PRESSURE AND WIND: Weather

Name: OBJECTIVES Correctly define: WEATHER BASICS: STATION MODELS: MOISTURE: PRESSURE AND WIND: Weather Name: OBJECTIVES Correctly define: air mass, air pressure, anemometer, barometer, cyclone, dew point, front, isobar, isotherm, meteorology, precipitation, psychrometer, relative humidity, saturated, transpiration

More information

But, could we force these clouds to create rain in the desert?

But, could we force these clouds to create rain in the desert? Clouds Exploration Phase How do clouds form? Above are fair weather cumulus (heaped/cotton ball) clouds. They do not form a single layer, as stratus clouds. They do not resemble wisps of hair, as cirrus.

More information

Name Period 4 th Six Weeks Notes 2015 Weather

Name Period 4 th Six Weeks Notes 2015 Weather Name Period 4 th Six Weeks Notes 2015 Weather Radiation Convection Currents Winds Jet Streams Energy from the Sun reaches Earth as electromagnetic waves This energy fuels all life on Earth including the

More information

8.5 Comparing Canadian Climates (Lab)

8.5 Comparing Canadian Climates (Lab) These 3 climate graphs and tables of data show average temperatures and precipitation for each month in Victoria, Winnipeg and Whitehorse: Figure 1.1 Month J F M A M J J A S O N D Year Precipitation 139

More information

3 Temperate and Polar Zones

3 Temperate and Polar Zones Name CHAPTER 17 Class Date Climate SECTION 3 Temperate and Polar Zones BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What biomes are found in the temperate

More information

Study Guide: Water Cycle & Humidity

Study Guide: Water Cycle & Humidity Earth Science Name Date Per. Study Guide: Water Cycle & Humidity 1. Explain the difference between Specific Humidity and Relative Humidity. Specific humidity refers to the actual amount of water vapor

More information

What Causes Climate? Use Target Reading Skills

What Causes Climate? Use Target Reading Skills Climate and Climate Change Name Date Class Climate and Climate Change Guided Reading and Study What Causes Climate? This section describes factors that determine climate, or the average weather conditions

More information

Holt Ch. 6 Biomes. Section 6.1 pg # 1-6

Holt Ch. 6 Biomes. Section 6.1 pg # 1-6 Holt Ch. 6 Biomes Section 6.1 pg 153-155 # 1-6 1. Describe how plants determine the name of a biome. Scientists name biomes after their vegetation because the plants that grow in an area determine what

More information

Chapter 6. Atmospheric Moisture and Precipitation

Chapter 6. Atmospheric Moisture and Precipitation Chapter 6 Atmospheric Moisture and Precipitation The Hydrosphere Hydrosphere water in the earth-atmosphere atmosphere system Oceans and Salt Lakes 97.6% Ice Caps and Glaciers 1.9% (Not available for humans)

More information

6 th Grade Science Assessment: Weather & Water Select the best answer on the answer sheet. Please do not make any marks on this test.

6 th Grade Science Assessment: Weather & Water Select the best answer on the answer sheet. Please do not make any marks on this test. Select the be answer on the answer sheet. Please do not make any marks on this te. 1. Weather is be defined as the A. changes that occur in cloud formations from day to day. B. amount of rain or snow that

More information

Storms Short Study Guide

Storms Short Study Guide Name: Class: Date: Storms Short Study Guide Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. A(n) thunderstorm forms because of unequal heating

More information

Water & Climate Review

Water & Climate Review Water & Climate Review 1. The cross section below shows the direction of air flowing over a mountain. Points A and B are at the same elevation on opposite sides of the mountain. 4. The graph below shows

More information

The Sun and Water Cycle

The Sun and Water Cycle reflect Have you ever jumped in a puddle or played in the rain? If so, you know you can get very wet. What you may not know is that a dinosaur could have walked through that same water millions of years

More information

Humidity, Condensation, Clouds, and Fog. Water in the Atmosphere

Humidity, Condensation, Clouds, and Fog. Water in the Atmosphere Humidity, Condensation, Clouds, and Fog or Water in the Atmosphere The Hydrologic Cycle Where the Water Exists on Earth Evaporation From the Oceans and Land The Source of Water Vapor for the Atmosphere

More information

1. The map below shows high-pressure and low-pressure weather systems in the United States.

1. The map below shows high-pressure and low-pressure weather systems in the United States. 1. The map below shows high-pressure and low-pressure weather systems in the United States. 6. Which map correctly shows the wind directions of the highpressure and low-pressure systems? 1) 2) Which two

More information

6. Base your answer to the following question on the graph below, which shows the average monthly temperature of two cities A and B.

6. Base your answer to the following question on the graph below, which shows the average monthly temperature of two cities A and B. 1. Which single factor generally has the greatest effect on the climate of an area on the Earth's surface? 1) the distance from the Equator 2) the extent of vegetative cover 3) the degrees of longitude

More information

CLIMATE, WATER & LIVING PATTERNS THINGS

CLIMATE, WATER & LIVING PATTERNS THINGS CLIMATE, WATER & LIVING PATTERNS NAME THE SIX MAJOR CLIMATE REGIONS DESCRIBE EACH CLIMATE REGION TELL THE FIVE FACTORS THAT AFFECT CLIMATE EXPLAIN HOW THOSE FACTORS AFFECT CLIMATE DESCRIBE HOW CLIMATES

More information

defined largely by regional variations in climate

defined largely by regional variations in climate 1 Physical Environment: Climate and Biomes EVPP 110 Lecture Instructor: Dr. Largen Fall 2003 2 Climate and Biomes Ecosystem concept physical and biological components of environment are considered as single,

More information

Weather: is the short term, day-to-day condition of the atmosphere

Weather: is the short term, day-to-day condition of the atmosphere Weather Weather: is the short term, day-to-day condition of the atmosphere Meteorology the scientific study of the atmosphere They focus on physical characteristics and motion and how it relates to chemical,

More information

Read and study the following information. After reading complete the review questions. Clouds

Read and study the following information. After reading complete the review questions. Clouds Name: Pd: Read and study the following information. After reading complete the review questions. Clouds What are clouds? A cloud is a large collection of very tiny droplets of water or ice crystals. The

More information

FOR SUBSCRIBERS ONLY! - TRIAL PASSWORD USERS MAY NOT REPRODUCE AND DISTRIBUTE PRINTABLE MATERIALS OFF THE SOLPASS WEBSITE!

FOR SUBSCRIBERS ONLY! - TRIAL PASSWORD USERS MAY NOT REPRODUCE AND DISTRIBUTE PRINTABLE MATERIALS OFF THE SOLPASS WEBSITE! FOR SUBSCRIBERS ONLY! - TRIAL PASSWORD USERS MAY NOT REPRODUCE AND DISTRIBUTE PRINTABLE MATERIALS OFF THE SOLPASS WEBSITE! 1 NAME DATE GRADE 5 SCIENCE SOL REVIEW WEATHER LABEL the 3 stages of the water

More information

FOURTH GRADE WORKBOOK

FOURTH GRADE WORKBOOK FOURTH GRADE WORKBOOK student Math/Science Nucleus 1990,2001 WATER CYCLE - WATER (4) TRY AND LOCATE THE PARTS OF THE WATER CYCLE ON THE ABOVE CARTOON. USE THE NUMBERS. DRAW IN ITEMS THAT MIGHT NOT BE DRAWN.

More information

Climates are described by the same conditions used to describe

Climates are described by the same conditions used to describe 58 The Causes of Climate R E A D I N G Climates are described by the same conditions used to describe weather, such as temperature, precipitation, and wind. You now know that oceans have an important effect

More information

7613-1 - Page 1. Weather Unit Exam Pre-Test Questions

7613-1 - Page 1. Weather Unit Exam Pre-Test Questions Weather Unit Exam Pre-Test Questions 7613-1 - Page 1 Name: 1) Equal quantities of water are placed in four uncovered containers with different shapes and left on a table at room temperature. From which

More information

Southern AER Atmospheric Education Resource

Southern AER Atmospheric Education Resource Southern AER Atmospheric Education Resource Vol. 9 No. 5 Spring 2003 Editor: Lauren Bell In this issue: g Climate Creations exploring mother nature s remote control for weather and Climate. g Crazy Climate

More information

JIM WITT LONG RANGE CALENDAR

JIM WITT LONG RANGE CALENDAR January 2016 1 2 Partly Cloudy Breezy & Cooler 3 4 5 6 7 8 Partly Cloudy & Cool Increasing Clouds Then A few Rain or Snow, Cooler & Freezing Rain or Snow 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Generally Increasing Clouds

More information

Chapter 3: Climate and Climate Change Answers

Chapter 3: Climate and Climate Change Answers Chapter 3: Climate and Climate Change Answers Section A: Climate 1. (a) Explain what each of the following means: (4 x 1 mark) (i) climate the average weather of an area over a 25 30 year period (ii) maritime

More information

THIRD GRADE WEATHER 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

THIRD GRADE WEATHER 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES THIRD GRADE WEATHER 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES WATER CYCLE OVERVIEW OF THIRD GRADE WATER WEEK 1. PRE: Comparing the different components of the water cycle. LAB: Contrasting water with hydrogen

More information

Interactions Between the Atmosphere & Hydrosphere. Weather & Climate

Interactions Between the Atmosphere & Hydrosphere. Weather & Climate Interactions Between the Atmosphere & Hydrosphere Weather & Climate ~occur every 3-7 years ~can last weeks or years! ~cooler/wetter conditions in SE US ~dry weather in southern Africa, Southeast Asia,

More information

HUMIDITY AND PRECIPITATION

HUMIDITY AND PRECIPITATION 12 HUMIDITY AND PRECIPITATION In our previous lesson while discussing the composition of the atmosphere, we noted that water vapour, though a minor component, is a very important constituent of the atmosphere.

More information

Temperature affects water in the air.

Temperature affects water in the air. KEY CONCEPT Most clouds form as air rises and cools. BEFORE, you learned Water vapor circulates from Earth to the atmosphere Warm air is less dense than cool air and tends to rise NOW, you will learn How

More information

SECOND GRADE WEATHER

SECOND GRADE WEATHER SECOND GRADE WEATHER 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES WATER CYCLE OVERVIEW OF SECOND GRADE WATER WEEK 1. PRE: Exploring the properties of water. LAB: Experimenting with different soap mixtures. POST:

More information

Climate of Illinois Narrative Jim Angel, state climatologist. Introduction. Climatic controls

Climate of Illinois Narrative Jim Angel, state climatologist. Introduction. Climatic controls Climate of Illinois Narrative Jim Angel, state climatologist Introduction Illinois lies midway between the Continental Divide and the Atlantic Ocean, and the state's southern tip is 500 miles north of

More information

2.3 Mapping Earth s Physical Features A world physical features map shows information about. Physical Features. canyon. Word Bank

2.3 Mapping Earth s Physical Features A world physical features map shows information about. Physical Features. canyon. Word Bank Read Section 2.3. Write one or two sentences describing the type of thematic map you read about. Then match the physical features in the Word Bank to their correct locations on the illustration. An example

More information

How Do Oceans Affect Weather and Climate?

How Do Oceans Affect Weather and Climate? How Do Oceans Affect Weather and Climate? In Learning Set 2, you explored how water heats up more slowly than land and also cools off more slowly than land. Weather is caused by events in the atmosphere.

More information

Exemplar for Internal Achievement Standard Geography Level 1. Describe aspects of a geographic topic at a global scale

Exemplar for Internal Achievement Standard Geography Level 1. Describe aspects of a geographic topic at a global scale Exemplar for internal assessment resource Geography for Achievement Standard 91013 Exemplar for Internal Achievement Standard Geography Level 1 This exemplar supports assessment against: Achievement Standard

More information

Chapter 7 Stability and Cloud Development. Atmospheric Stability

Chapter 7 Stability and Cloud Development. Atmospheric Stability Chapter 7 Stability and Cloud Development Atmospheric Stability 1 Cloud Development - stable environment Stable air (parcel) - vertical motion is inhibited if clouds form, they will be shallow, layered

More information

WEATHER, CLIMATE AND ADAPTATIONS OF ANIMALS TO CLIMATE

WEATHER, CLIMATE AND ADAPTATIONS OF ANIMALS TO CLIMATE 7 WEATHER, CLIMATE AND ADAPTATIONS OF ANIMALS TO CLIMATE TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS Q.1. Why weather changes so frequently? Ans. All changes in the weather are caused by the sun. The movement of the

More information

First Grade Science Vocabulary

First Grade Science Vocabulary data conclusion predict describe observe record identify investigate evidence recycle dispose reuse goggles air cloud precipitation temperature weather wind precipitation property season temperature weather

More information

Chapter 8 Global Weather Systems

Chapter 8 Global Weather Systems Chapter 8 Global Weather Systems Global Weather Systems Low-latitudes Hadley Cell Circulation Wet near the equator Dry near 20-30 N and 20-30 S Periods of wet and dry in between Easterly Winds (NE & SE

More information

YEAR 1: Seasons and Weather

YEAR 1: Seasons and Weather YEAR 1: Seasons and Weather Contents Include: The four seasons Tools to record the weather Making graphs Clouds Weather forecasts Weather around the world Please Note: The activities included in this pack

More information

Partnerships Implementing Engineering Education Worcester Polytechnic Institute Worcester Public Schools

Partnerships Implementing Engineering Education Worcester Polytechnic Institute Worcester Public Schools Partnerships Implementing Engineering Education Worcester Polytechnic Institute Worcester Public Schools Supported by: National Science Foundation Weather: 4.H.3 Weather and Classical Instruments Grade

More information

Earth Science Lecture Summary Notes Chapter 7 - Water and Atmospheric Moisture

Earth Science Lecture Summary Notes Chapter 7 - Water and Atmospheric Moisture Earth Science Lecture Summary Notes Chapter 7 - Water and Atmospheric Moisture (based on Christopherson, Geosystems, 6th Ed., 2006) Prof. V.J. DiVenere - Dept. Earth & Environmental Science - LIU Post

More information

CLIMATE OF RWANDA. Overview. Linked to other lessons

CLIMATE OF RWANDA. Overview. Linked to other lessons Geography S6 GENERAL PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF RWANDA Lesson 75 Developed by (Niwagaba Innocent) Subtopic Climate and factors influencing it in Rwanda Specific Objectives The learners must be able to: Describe

More information

Key Idea 2: Ecosystems

Key Idea 2: Ecosystems Key Idea 2: Ecosystems Ecosystems An ecosystem is a living community of plants and animals sharing an environment with non-living elements such as climate and soil. An example of a small scale ecosystem

More information

Anticyclones, depressions, hot & drought, cold & snow

Anticyclones, depressions, hot & drought, cold & snow AS/A2-Level Geography Anticyclones, depressions, hot & drought, cold & snow Learning Objectives: To describe and explain the weather associated with high and low pressure systems and their links to extreme

More information

Name Class Date STUDY GUIDE FOR CONTENT MASTERY

Name Class Date STUDY GUIDE FOR CONTENT MASTERY Atmosphere SECTION 11.1 Atmospheric Basics In your textbook, read about the composition of the atmosphere. Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement. 1. Most of Earth s atmosphere

More information

CHAPTER 5 Lectures 10 & 11 Air Temperature and Air Temperature Cycles

CHAPTER 5 Lectures 10 & 11 Air Temperature and Air Temperature Cycles CHAPTER 5 Lectures 10 & 11 Air Temperature and Air Temperature Cycles I. Air Temperature: Five important factors influence air temperature: A. Insolation B. Latitude C. Surface types D. Coastal vs. interior

More information

Let s Make a Cloud. Objective Demonstrate the combination of three natural elements, to form a cloud: water vapor, smoke and air pressure.

Let s Make a Cloud. Objective Demonstrate the combination of three natural elements, to form a cloud: water vapor, smoke and air pressure. Let s Make a Cloud Related Subject: Climate and Weather Group Size: 10-15 Length of Activity: 45 minutes Objective Demonstrate the combination of three natural elements, to form a cloud: water vapor, smoke

More information

Chapter 2 Student Reading

Chapter 2 Student Reading Chapter 2 Student Reading Atoms and molecules are in motion We warm things up and cool things down all the time, but we usually don t think much about what s really happening. If you put a room-temperature

More information

ENVIRONMENTAL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION: CLIMATE SYSTEM Vol. II - Low-Latitude Climate Zones and Climate Types - E.I. Khlebnikova

ENVIRONMENTAL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION: CLIMATE SYSTEM Vol. II - Low-Latitude Climate Zones and Climate Types - E.I. Khlebnikova LOW-LATITUDE CLIMATE ZONES AND CLIMATE TYPES E.I. Khlebnikova Main Geophysical Observatory, St. Petersburg, Russia Keywords: equatorial continental climate, ITCZ, subequatorial continental (equatorial

More information

WEATHER THEORY Temperature, Pressure And Moisture

WEATHER THEORY Temperature, Pressure And Moisture WEATHER THEORY Temperature, Pressure And Moisture Air Masses And Fronts Weather Theory- Page 77 Every physical process of weather is a result of a heat exchange. The standard sea level temperature is 59

More information

The weather effects everyday life. On a daily basis it can affect choices we make about whether to walk or take the car, what clothes we wear and

The weather effects everyday life. On a daily basis it can affect choices we make about whether to walk or take the car, what clothes we wear and Weather can have a big impact on our day-to-day lives. On longer timescales, climate influences where and how people live and the lifecycles of plants and animals. Evidence shows us that our climate is

More information

Seasonal Temperature Variations

Seasonal Temperature Variations Seasonal and Daily Temperatures Fig. 3-CO, p. 54 Seasonal Temperature Variations What causes the seasons What governs the seasons is the amount of solar radiation reaching the ground What two primary factors

More information

LESSON PLAN UNIT: THE EARTH S CLIMATES SESSIONS: 6. Ana Fructuoso Sánchez. Social Sciences teacher. Bilingual group. 1º ESO. IES El Palmar. Murcia.

LESSON PLAN UNIT: THE EARTH S CLIMATES SESSIONS: 6. Ana Fructuoso Sánchez. Social Sciences teacher. Bilingual group. 1º ESO. IES El Palmar. Murcia. LESSON PLAN UNIT: THE EARTH S CLIMATES SESSIONS: 6 Ana Fructuoso Sánchez teacher. Bilingual group. 1º ESO IES El Palmar. Murcia. INTRODUCTION: In this unit we are going to analyze the layers of the atmosphere

More information

Severe Weather. www.readinga-z.com. Visit www.readinga-z.com for thousands of books and materials.

Severe Weather. www.readinga-z.com. Visit www.readinga-z.com for thousands of books and materials. Severe Weather A Reading A Z Level T Leveled Reader Word Count: 1,801 LEVELED READER T Written by Bruce D. Cooper Illustrations by Cende Hill Visit www.readinga-z.com for thousands of books and materials.

More information

Hurricane Naming, Track, Structure Tropical Cyclone Development

Hurricane Naming, Track, Structure Tropical Cyclone Development Chapter 24: Tropical Cyclones Hurricane Naming, Track, Structure Tropical Cyclone Development Hurricane Characteristics Definition: Hurricanes have sustained winds of 120 km/hr (74 mph) or greater. Size:

More information

Chapter Overview. Seasons. Earth s Seasons. Distribution of Solar Energy. Solar Energy on Earth. CHAPTER 6 Air-Sea Interaction

Chapter Overview. Seasons. Earth s Seasons. Distribution of Solar Energy. Solar Energy on Earth. CHAPTER 6 Air-Sea Interaction Chapter Overview CHAPTER 6 Air-Sea Interaction The atmosphere and the ocean are one independent system. Earth has seasons because of the tilt on its axis. There are three major wind belts in each hemisphere.

More information

INTERNATIONAL INDIAN SCHOOL, RIYADH SA I 2016-17

INTERNATIONAL INDIAN SCHOOL, RIYADH SA I 2016-17 INTERNATIONAL INDIAN SCHOOL, RIYADH SA I 2016-17 STD V WORKSHEET Page 1 of 7 SOCIAL STUDIES LESSON - 1. KNOW YOUR PLANET Fill in the blanks: 1. A book containing maps is called an. 2. A Flemish map maker,

More information

Teaching Pack for Key Stage 3

Teaching Pack for Key Stage 3 Atmosphere, Climate & Environment Information Programme, Manchester Metropolitan University Chester Street, Manchester M1 5GD Tel: 0161 247 1590 Fax: 0161 247 6332 E-Mail: @mmu.ac.uk Internet: http://www.ace.mmu.ac.uk/

More information

Water Cycle Webquest

Water Cycle Webquest Grade 7 Science Calamity Day #8 Water Cycle Webquest In early 2014, NASA will launch an important satellite that will enable us to learn more about our home planet. The Global Precipitation Measurement

More information

Seasonal & Daily Temperatures. Seasons & Sun's Distance. Solstice & Equinox. Seasons & Solar Intensity

Seasonal & Daily Temperatures. Seasons & Sun's Distance. Solstice & Equinox. Seasons & Solar Intensity Seasonal & Daily Temperatures Seasons & Sun's Distance The role of Earth's tilt, revolution, & rotation in causing spatial, seasonal, & daily temperature variations Please read Chapter 3 in Ahrens Figure

More information

Air Masses and Fronts

Air Masses and Fronts Air Masses and Fronts Air Masses The weather of the United States east of the Rocky Mountains is dominated by large masses of air that travel south from the wide expanses of land in Canada, and north from

More information

List 10 different words to describe the weather in the box, below.

List 10 different words to describe the weather in the box, below. Weather and Climate Lesson 1 Web Quest: What is the Weather? List 10 different words to describe the weather in the box, below. How do we measure the weather? Use this web link to help you: http://www.bbc.co.uk/weather/weatherwise/activities/weatherstation/

More information

SIXTH GRADE WEATHER 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

SIXTH GRADE WEATHER 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES SIXTH GRADE WEATHER 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES WATER CYCLE OVERVIEW OF SIXTH GRADE WATER WEEK 1. PRE: Evaluating components of the water cycle. LAB: Experimenting with porosity and permeability.

More information

ENVIRONMENTAL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION: CLIMATE SYSTEM Vol. II - Middle-Latitude Climate Zones and Climate Types - E.I. Khlebnikova

ENVIRONMENTAL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION: CLIMATE SYSTEM Vol. II - Middle-Latitude Climate Zones and Climate Types - E.I. Khlebnikova MIDDLE-LATITUDE CLIMATE ZONES AND CLIMATE TYPES E.I. Khlebnikova Main Geophysical Observatory, St. Petersburg, Russia Keywords: continental climate of the temperate belt, east-coast climate of the temperate

More information

Global Wind and Pressure Belts as a Response to the Unequal Heating of the Atmosphere

Global Wind and Pressure Belts as a Response to the Unequal Heating of the Atmosphere LESSON 2: GLOBAL AIR CIRCULATION Key Concepts In this lesson we will focus on summarising what you need to know about: The mechanics present to create global wind and pressure belts as a response to the

More information

Analyze Weather in Cold Regions and Mountainous Terrain

Analyze Weather in Cold Regions and Mountainous Terrain Analyze Weather in Cold Regions and Mountainous Terrain Terminal Learning Objective Action: Analyze weather of cold regions and mountainous terrain Condition: Given a training mission that involves a specified

More information

The Polar Climate Zones

The Polar Climate Zones The Polar Climate Zones How cold is it in the polar climate? Polar areas are the coldest of all the major climate zones The Sun is hardly ever high enough in the sky to cause the plentiful ice to melt,

More information

Perth Academy. Geography Department

Perth Academy. Geography Department Perth Academy Geography Department Natural Hazards Tropical Storms Natural Hazards Natural Hazards affect a large percentage of the world s population. Despite the damage and destruction caused, there

More information

The Sun and Water Cycle

The Sun and Water Cycle reflect Think of the last time it rained in your city. When the rain stopped, you probably saw puddles on the ground. After a few hours, though, the ground was dry again. Where did all that rainwater go?

More information

Habitat Comparison at the Garden

Habitat Comparison at the Garden Habitat Comparison at the Garden Several types of habitats are represented at the Atlanta Botanical Garden: tropical rainforest, desert, temperate deciduous forest and wetlands. During this activity students

More information

UNIT VII--ATMOSPHERIC STABILITY AND INSTABILITY

UNIT VII--ATMOSPHERIC STABILITY AND INSTABILITY UNIT VII--ATMOSPHERIC STABILITY AND INSTABILITY The stability or instability of the atmosphere is a concern to firefighters. This unit discusses how changes in the atmosphere affect fire behavior, and

More information

Chapter 3: Climate and Climate Change

Chapter 3: Climate and Climate Change Chapter 3: Climate and Climate Change Section A: Climate 1. (a) Explain what each of the following means: (4 marks) (i) climate (ii) maritime (iii) temperate (iv) tropical (b) Match the description with

More information

Kindergarten Seasons and Weather Assessment

Kindergarten Seasons and Weather Assessment Kindergarten Seasons and Weather Assessment 1a. Circle the pictures that represent the four seasons: snowman going to a teacher harvest fruits colorful flowers the beach 1b. Write the name of the season

More information

MAST ACADEMY OUTREACH. WOW (Weather on Wheels)

MAST ACADEMY OUTREACH. WOW (Weather on Wheels) MAST ACADEMY OUTREACH MIDDLE SCHOOL PROGRAM Adventures Aboard WOW (Weather on Wheels) Highlights Teacher Instructions / Answer Keys MAST Academy Maritime and Science Technology High School Miami-Dade County

More information

The atmosphere has a number of gases, often in tiny amounts, which trap the heat given out by the Earth.

The atmosphere has a number of gases, often in tiny amounts, which trap the heat given out by the Earth. The Earth is wrapped in a blanket of air called the atmosphere, which is made up of several layers of gases. The sun is much hotter than the Earth and it gives off rays of heat (radiation) that travel

More information

WEATHERING, EROSION, AND DEPOSITION PRACTICE TEST. Which graph best shows the relative stream velocities across the stream from A to B?

WEATHERING, EROSION, AND DEPOSITION PRACTICE TEST. Which graph best shows the relative stream velocities across the stream from A to B? NAME DATE WEATHERING, EROSION, AND DEPOSITION PRACTICE TEST 1. The diagram below shows a meandering stream. Measurements of stream velocity were taken along straight line AB. Which graph best shows the

More information

THE ECOSYSTEM - Biomes

THE ECOSYSTEM - Biomes Biomes The Ecosystem - Biomes Side 2 THE ECOSYSTEM - Biomes By the end of this topic you should be able to:- SYLLABUS STATEMENT ASSESSMENT STATEMENT CHECK NOTES 2.4 BIOMES 2.4.1 Define the term biome.

More information

The Weather Merit Badge. A Study Guide By Jay R. Stockton Senior Forecaster, National Weather Service, WFO Medford Oregon

The Weather Merit Badge. A Study Guide By Jay R. Stockton Senior Forecaster, National Weather Service, WFO Medford Oregon The Weather Merit Badge A Study Guide By Jay R. Stockton Senior Forecaster, National Weather Service, WFO Medford Oregon Requirement 1 Define Meteorology. Explain what weather is and what climate is. Discuss

More information

An Online School for Weather. www.srh.noaa.gov/jetstream/atmos/ll_whatacycle_aquifers.pdf

An Online School for Weather. www.srh.noaa.gov/jetstream/atmos/ll_whatacycle_aquifers.pdf JetStream An Online School for Weather Aquifers Aquifers Aquifers 1 3 5 Aquifers Aquifers Aquifers 2 4 6 /atmos/ll_whatacycle_aquifers.pdf There are over 35 lesson plans in the National Weather Service

More information

California s Hydrologic Cycle

California s Hydrologic Cycle Overview In this activity, students will be introduced to the hydrologic cycle, how water collects and gets used in California, and how scientists measure the water cycle. Objectives By the end of this

More information

WEATHER AND CLIMATE WHY DOES IT MATTER?

WEATHER AND CLIMATE WHY DOES IT MATTER? WEATHER AND CLIMATE Rising global average temperature is associated with widespread changes in weather patterns. Scientific studies indicate that extreme weather events such as heat waves and large storms

More information

Earth s Atmosphere: Some Facts.

Earth s Atmosphere: Some Facts. Some terminology Weather is the state of the atmosphere at a given place and time. Temperature, precipitation, cloudiness, humidity, and wind are all components of weather. Climate is a composite of weather

More information

National Meteorological Library and Archive

National Meteorological Library and Archive National Meteorological Library and Archive Introduction Fact sheet No. 14 A microclimate is the distinctive climate of a small-scale area, such as a garden, park, valley or part of a city. The weather

More information

Figure 2.1: Warm air rising from SAPREF stacks, October 2002 Source: GroundWork

Figure 2.1: Warm air rising from SAPREF stacks, October 2002 Source: GroundWork 13 CHAPTER TWO SOME CONCEPTS IN CLIMATOLOGY 2.1 The Adiabatic Process An important principle to remember is that, in the troposphere, the first layer of the atmosphere, temperature decreases with altitude.

More information

Grade 4 Standard 1 Unit Test Water Cycle. Multiple Choice. 1. Where is most water found on Earth? A. in glaciers B. in lakes C. in rivers D.

Grade 4 Standard 1 Unit Test Water Cycle. Multiple Choice. 1. Where is most water found on Earth? A. in glaciers B. in lakes C. in rivers D. Grade 4 Standard 1 Unit Test Water Cycle Multiple Choice 1. Where is most water found on Earth? A. in glaciers B. in lakes C. in rivers D. in oceans 2. What source of energy evaporates the most water from

More information

Understanding weather and climate

Understanding weather and climate Understanding weather and climate Weather can have a big impact on our day-to-day lives. On longer timescales, climate influences where and how people live and the lifecycles of plants and animals. Evidence

More information

Perth Academy. Geography Department

Perth Academy. Geography Department Perth Academy Geography Department Climatic Zones Equatorial Rainforest EQUATORIAL RAINFOREST What is climate? What is a climatic zone? 1 There are 2 main natural or climatic regions studied in National

More information

Climate, Vegetation, and Landforms

Climate, Vegetation, and Landforms Climate, Vegetation, and Landforms Definitions Climate is the average weather of a place over many years Geographers discuss five broad types of climates Moderate, dry, tropical, continental, polar Vegetation:

More information

6.4 Taigas and Tundras

6.4 Taigas and Tundras 6.4 Taigas and Tundras In this section, you will learn about the largest and coldest biomes on Earth. The taiga is the largest land biome and the tundra is the coldest. The taiga The largest land biome

More information

UNIT IV--TEMPERATURE-MOISTURE RELATIONSHIP

UNIT IV--TEMPERATURE-MOISTURE RELATIONSHIP UNIT IV--TEMPERATURE-MOISTURE RELATIONSHIP Weather is the most variable and often the most critical determinant of fire behavior. This is the first of several units that will deal with weather and its

More information

Third Grade Science Vocabulary Investigation Design & Safety

Third Grade Science Vocabulary Investigation Design & Safety recycle dispose reuse goggles data conclusion predict describe observe record identify investigate evidence analyze mass matter float sink attract force magnet magnetic magnetism pole pull push repel Third

More information

WeatherBug Vocabulary Bingo

WeatherBug Vocabulary Bingo Type of Activity: Game: Interactive activity that is competitive, and allows students to learn at the same time. Activity Overview: WeatherBug Bingo is a fun and engaging game for you to play with students!

More information