CGC1D1: Interactions in the Physical Environment Factors that Affect Climate

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1 Name: Date: Day/Period: CGC1D1: Interactions in the Physical Environment Factors that Affect Climate Chapter 12 in the Making Connections textbook deals with Climate Connections. Use pages to fill out this package. PART A: Weather and Climate 1. Explain the difference between weather and climate. NOTE: the words are often incorrectly used interchangeably. Weather is Climate is 2. Categorize the following statements as weather or climate statements. In July, it is often hot and humid in Toronto. Yesterday, it was very warm and sunny. A good time to go to Banff to ski is in the winter. A typhoon hit Japan s coast yesterday. 3. Give an example of a weather statement. 4. Give an example of a climate statement.

2 Name: Date: Day/Period: PART B: Factors that Affect Climate There are six basic factors that influence the climate in Canada. The phrase, LOWER, Near Water? formed by the order of the factors below may help you to study and remember the details of each factor. Complete the questions on the pages that follow. L O W E R Near Water? C M

3 Latitude 1. Using page 129, place a symbol, name label, latitude and the average annual temperature for: (1) the most southerly place in Canada, (2) the most northerly place in Canada and (3) the place about halfway between them. As distance from the equator (latitude) increases, the suns rays travel farther and hit the earth surface at an angle which spreads the suns energy over a greater area. The general rule for latitude is that the farther away from the equator you are the less energy that is reaching the ground at any point in time. Therefore, polar regions are much cooler than tropical and equatorial regions. 2. As the latitude increases in Canada, what temperature changes occur? 3. The further north you are from the equator, generally the the temperature becomes.

4 Ocean Currents Climate is affected by ocean currents. The temperature of an ocean current affects the temperature of air that passes over it. Wind blows over ocean currents onto land Warm currents heat the air above the water causing a milder wetter climate even at higher latitudes Cold currents lead to cold dry climates, due to the fact that cold air cannot evaporate as much water as warm air There is a moderating effect on coastal climates. These currents drive weather patterns, especially precipitation levels. Refer to the diagram of the ocean currents that affect Canada on page 131. Draw the arrows, label them, and colour the warm currents red and the cool currents blue. Do not draw the air masses. 4. The meeting of the cold Labrador Current and the warm Gulf Stream create special weather conditions. What are these conditions and how do they affect ships? 1. The temperature of an ocean current affects the temperature of: 2. How does the North Pacific Current affect Canada s weather? 3. How does the Labrador Current affect Canada s weather?

5 Winds and Air Masses An air mass is a large volume of air with the climate conditions of the area where it is formed. An air mass originating over an ocean contains moisture. As the air passes over land, the moisture is released in some form of precipitations. Refer to the diagram of the air masses that affect Canada on page 131. Create the six air masses and their direction arrow, label the air masses, and colour the warm air masses red and the cool air masses blue. Create a legend for the air mass symbols. 1. Why would a maritime area (close to water) be more likely to receive more precipitation than a continental area (inland)? 2. Air masses that originate over land are often. Give two examples from the map on page 131: (1) (2)

6 Winds and Pressure Systems Use the box below to make a diagram that shows how differences in air pressure create winds (see Fig on page 133). The weight of air is called air pressure. Differences in air pressure are created when the earth is heated to different temperatures. Warmed air rising above the hearted ground creates. When the rising air has cooled, it falls toward the earth and creates an area of. 1. How do high pressure and low pressure areas cause wind? 2. What are prevailing winds? 3. What is the name of the prevailing winds in Canada? 5. How does the Jet Stream, as it passes over Canada, change in the winter? How does it changed in the summer? 4. What is the jet stream?

7 Elevation Elevation refers to height or altitude. As altitude increases, the corresponding temperature of air decreases. As warm moist air rises, its temperature cools causing condensation (clouds). At higher altitudes, you will see more precipitation in the form of rain or snow. Relief Mountains form a natural barrier that cause air masses to rise. As air is forced to rise it expands as gravity decreases, it becomes less dense and cools, leading to condensation. This happens on the windward side of the mountain. As air descends on the other side of the mountain (leeward side), it will become unsaturated (dry) and the temperature will increase.

8 Near Water? Continental/Maritime Water bodies provide a source of moisture for the land masses of the world. Water bodies also have a moderating affect on the climates of the land masses near to them. In the summer the water acts like an air conditioner to keep the air temperatures cool. In the winter water acts like a heater to keep the temperatures from getting too cold. This affect is most noticeable in the midlatitudes where there is a constant onshore wind. 1. Areas far away from oceans and bodies of water that are inland have a climate. The temperature range is great because there is no water to the hot summer temperatures and cold winter temperatures. 2. Coastal areas (or areas beside water) have a climate. The temperature range is and the level of precipitation is. 3. Maritime locations near a large body of water have summers and winters.

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