1 LESSON PLAN UNIT: THE EARTH S CLIMATES SESSIONS: 6 Ana Fructuoso Sánchez teacher. Bilingual group. 1º ESO IES El Palmar. Murcia. INTRODUCTION: In this unit we are going to analyze the layers of the atmosphere and some of its features. We will study the differences between climate and weather, as well as the main climate and landscapes on our planet. We will also discover the atmospheric phenomena which can be harmful to people and the environment and the measures we can take against them. OBJECTIVES: 1. Identify the structure and composition of the atmosphere. 2. Differentiate weather from climate. 3. Distinguish the elements of climate and the factors which determine them. 4. Describe the main characteristics of the Earth s different climates. 5. Explain the interaction between climate, relief, water, soil and living things. 6. Draw and /or interpret maps, images and climate charts. 7. Carry out simple research on different aspects related to the Unit contents. 8. Assess the influence of weather and climate on people s daily lives. 9. Identify the atmospheric phenomena which can cause natural disasters and learn about their environmental and human consequences. 10. Respect the natural environment and support measures to protect it. CONTENTS: Concepts The atmosphere. Weather and climate. Elements of climate. The Earth s climates. The natural environment. Atmospheric phenomena and natural hazards. Procedures Interpret and summarize geographical information from images, texts and maps. Plan and carry out simple research to expand on the aspects dealt with in the unit. Apply the Unit contents to the reality of one s own environment. 1
2 Attitudes Show a positive attitude towards scientific rigour, as the basis for developing knowledge of the Earth s climates. Show interest in learning about the interactions existing between the different elements of the natural environment. Participate in the search for solutions to environmental problems. ASSESSMENT CRITERIA 1. Distinguish the different layers of the atmosphere and recognize the characteristics of each one. 2. Explain the difference between weather and climate. 3. Differentiate the elements and factors which influence climate. 4. Distinguish the temperature and precipitation of the Earth s different climates. 5. Describe the influence of climate on relief, soil, water, vegetation and fauna. 6. Explain the causes of the main natural disasters and their consequences. 7. Summarize the basic contents of the unit by completing a chart. 8. Interpret correctly maps, diagrams and simple texts related to the unit contents. 9. Give examples of the impact of weather and climate on daily life, economic activities, etc. 10. Adopt a positive attitude to measures which help to protect natural areas and reject any action which could cause damage to them. KEY COMPETENCES COMPETENCES ASSESMENT CRITERIA ACTIVITIES 1.LINGUISTIC COMPETENCE 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10. 1,2,3,4,6,7,11,12,13 2.MATHEMATIC COMPETENCE 5,8 4 3.COMPETENCE IN KNOWLEDGE AND INTERACTION WITH THE PHYSICAL WORD 4.TREATMENT OF INFORMATION AND DIGITAL COMPETENCE 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10 2,4,5,7,8,12,13 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9. 2,3,4,6,8 7.COMPETENCE LEARNING TO LEARN 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10 7,12 8.AUTONOMY AND PERSONAL INITIATIVE 2,3,7,10 1,13 VOCABULARY NOUNS: Atmosphere, element, climate, layer, oxygen, nitrogen, factor, altitude, latitude, phenomena, pressure, wind, centigrade, current, hail, water vapour, droplet, humidity, isobar, torrent and hibernation, jaw, storm, organism, soil, damage, drought, environment, flooding, forest fire, hurricane. VERBS: drop, occur, rise, surround, affect, exert, vary, increase, adapt, combat, migrate, protect, provide, survive, destroy. 2
3 ADJECTIVES: harmful, atmospheric, average, climatic, calm, close, high, humid, low, mild, opposite, (un)stable, alpine, abundant, annual, continental, dry, equatorial, hot, maritime, moderate, polar, rare, scarce, temperate, torrential, wet, organic, physical, rich, poor, intense. LANGUAGE STRUCTURES: Present Simple, Present passive, Imperative. THE EARTH S CLIMATES SESSION 1 PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE 1- Discuss the questions in pairs. Then compare your answers with the group. What s the weather like today? Is it typical of the climate in your region? What are the characteristic features of the climate where you live? Do any of your normal activities depend on the weather? Why? Which people are especially interested in the weather forecast? Why? 1-THE ATMOSPHERE The atmosphere is the layer of gases that surrounds the Earth. It is composed of nitrogen (78%), oxygen (21%) and other gases (1%). The atmosphere is divided into layers according to the temperature variations. - Troposphere is up to 10 km altitude. It is where rain, snow and other weather phenomena occur. - Stratosphere is at an altitude of km. It contains the ozone layer, which prevents harmful ultraviolet radiation from the Sun from reaching the Earth s surface. - Mesosphere is at an altitude of km. - Thermosphere is km altitude. In this layer, temperatures can rise C. - Exosphere is the outer limit of the atmosphere. 3
4 2-WEATHER AND CLIMATE Weather is the atmospheric conditions in a certain place at a specific moment. Climate is the average atmospheric conditions in a certain place over a long period of time. For example, if we say it is hot or raining on a particular place always has hot summers or rainy winters, we are talking about its climate. ACTIVITIES 2- Read and listen to the text. Then write the answers in your exercise book. Observing the weather Meteorological observatories measure temperature, humidity, etc. These measurements are combined with information and images obtained from artificial satellites such as the Meteosat, which provides information on cloud cover, wind speed, temperature, etc. This data is then processed in order to forecast the weather over the coming days. 3- All these sentences contain mistakes. Write the correct sentences in your exercise book. - The atmosphere is composed mainly of nitrogen and hydrogen. - Climate is the state of the atmosphere in a particular place at a specific time. - The troposphere starts at an altitude of 500 km. It is the outer limit of the atmosphere. - Climat consists of temperature, precipitation, atmospheric pressure and wind. SESSION 2 3-THE ELEMENTS OF CLIMATE. Temperature. Temperature is the amount of heat in the air. We measure it with a thermometer. Temperature varies across the planet depending on altitude, latitude, proximity to the sea and ocean currents. Altitude: for every m of altitude the temperature drops by 6 C. Latitude: temperatures decrease from the Equator towards the poles. Proximity to the sea: the sea heats up and cools down more slowly than the land. 4
5 Ocean currents: warm ocean currents produce higher temperatures in nearby coastal regions. Cool ocean currents have the opposite effect. Our planet is divided into different climate zones. Tropical zone situated between the two tropics. The insolation is maximum. Temperate zones, one in each hemisphere, located between the tropics and the polar circles. Cold zones, one in each hemisphere, located in the polar circles. Precipitation. Precipitation is water from the atmosphere that falls onto the Earth s surface in the form of rain, snow, sleet (a mixture of water and snow) or hail. The atmosphere contains water vapour. The amount of water vapour in the air is called humidity. When humid air rises, it cools and produces condensation, forming small droplets of water, which form clouds. When the droplets become bigger and heavier fall onto the Earth s surface. Pressure. Air has weight. Atmospheric pressure is the pressure that the atmosphere s weight exerts on the Earth s surface. We measure pressure with a barometer in millibars (mbar).we show pressure on maps using lines called isobars. Normal pressure at sea level (0 m altitude) is mbar. High pressure areas or anticyclones are areas where pressure is more than 1013mbar. Anticyclones produce stable weather conditions. The air is also dry, so there is no precipitation. 5
6 Low pressure areas or depressions are areas where pressure is below mbar. Depressions produce unstable weather conditions, with a lot of cloud and precipitation. Wind. Wind is air that moves from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure to balance differences in atmospheric pressure across the planet. ACTIVITIES 4- Find the cities of Vigo and Guadalajara on a map of the Iberian Peninsula. Then answer the following questions in your exercise book. - Which city is located on the coast and which inland? - Explain why the mean temperature for the coldest month in winter (January) was 10.2ºC in Vigo, but only 4.6ºC in Guadalajara. 5- Complete the explanation of how precipitation is produced, with these words: droplets, surface, rises, heavier, clouds, vapour. Humid air, it cools and changes from to liquid, forming small..of water, which form..the droplets become bigger and., and fall onto the Earth s 6
7 SESSION 3 4- THE EARTH S CLIMATES. The Earth has different climates: tropical or hot, temperate and cold. Tropical or hot climates. Equatorial climate: high temperatures (over 23 ºC) and abundant precipitation. Humid tropical climate: high temperatures (over 20ºC) and abundant precipitation. There s a dry season in winter and a wet season in summer. Dry tropical climate: mild temperatures in winter and hot in summer (over 18ºC) Precipitation is scarce. Hot desert climate: high temperatures (over 20ºC). Precipitation is very rare. Temperate climates. Mediterranean climate: mild temperatures in winter and hot in summer. Precipitation varies. The summer is very dry. Humid sub-tropical climate: similar temperatures to the Mediterranean climate. Abundant precipitation, especially in summer. Maritime climate: mild temperatures in winter and cool in summer. Abundant precipitation throughout the year. Continental climate: temperatures are very cold in winter and hot in summer. It rains mainly in summer. 7
8 Temperatures Precipitation Unit 3: THE EARTH S CLIMATES. Málaga (Spain) J F M A MY JN JL AG S O N D Months of the year precipitation temperatures Cold climates. Polar climate: very low temperature (not over 0ºC). Precipitation is very rare. Alpine climate: temperatures fall with altitude. Winters are cold and summers cool. Precipitation increases with altitude. ACTIVITIES 6- Answer the question in your exercise book. 8
9 -In what way is the equatorial climate different to the humid tropical climate? 7- Are the following statements true or false? Correct the false ones in your exercise book. -An equatorial climate is always humid and hot. -The tropical climate is a type of temperate climate. -The polar and alpine climates have the lowest temperatures. -The Mediterranean climate has dry summers. -The maritime climate is hot in summer and cold in winter. SESSION 4 5-THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT The natural environment is composed of elements of the physical environment (climate, water, soil and relief) and living organisms (plants and animals). Elements related to the climate modify relief. For example, torrential rain causes erosion, etc. Rich soils (deep with a lot of organic material) favour plant growth, which protects the soil from erosion. Animals and plants provide the soil with organic matter. Species adapt to the conditions of the region they inhabit in order to survive. o o o To combat the cold, some animals have a thick coat (ibex) or a layer of fat (penguin). Others have a period of hibernation (bears) or migrate for the winter to warmer climates (storks). Some animals can only live in areas where water is abundant (frogs); others have adapted to survive with very little water (camels). Other examples of adaptation include the elephant s trunk; the jaws of carnivores, which are adapted to eating meat; the snail s shell and de hedgehog s (erizo) spines, which are defence mechanisms. ACTIVITIES Where would the soil be richer in a polar or humid tropical climate? Explain why in your exercise book. 8- Using the climate map and an atlas, say in which climate zone the following countries are located: Norway, Angola, the Sudan, Australia, Cuba, Colombia, Argentina, Iceland, the Republic of South Africa. 9
10 9- Find out the answers to the following questions and write them in your exercise book. - Why does the ibex have to protect itself from the cold? - How does it do this? 10- Answer these questions about penguins with a partner. - Where do penguins live? - What is the climate like in this region? - How have penguins adapted to the climate? - Could a penguin live in the desert? Why/why not? SESSION 5 6- ATMOSPHERIC PHENOMENA AND NATURAL HAZARDS Some atmospheric phenomena cause serious damage to people and the natural environment. Wind can be very intense. Hurricanes are strong winds. Depending on the region where they occur, they are called cyclones, typhoons or hurricanes. Hail falls heavily as small, hard balls of ice, which can have a disastrous effect on crops. Torrential rain can cause flooding. It is associated with storms. 10
11 Drought is a long period without rain. High temperatures increase the risk of forest fires. ACTIVITIES 11- Match each natural hazard to the correct meaning. Then, with a partner, talk about the damage each one can do. 11
12 Hail Storm Drought Cyclone High temperatures Very strong wind Small, hard balls of ice Period of very hot weather Long period without rain Heavy rain, thunder and lightning 12- Write the actions below in the correct columns. What to do in a drought What to do in a flood What to do in a storm What to do in a forest fire a) Put bottles of water in the toilet cistern to reduce its capacity and save water. b) As a preventative measure, do no light fires. c) In the countryside, don t go near rivers, torrents or flooded areas. d) At home, shut doors and windows to stop air currents because these attract lightning. e) Turn off the tap when you brush your teeth. f) As a preventative measure, don t leave glass objects in forests. g) Don t park or camp near a river in case the water level rises. h) Only use the washing machine and dishwasher when they re full. REVISION ACTIVITIES 1- In your exercise book, draw the layers of the atmosphere and label each layer. 2- Name five cities in each climate zone, from the northern and southern hemispheres. 3- What is the connection between glass objects in a forest and the risk of fire? 12
13 4- Does your autonomous community suffer from drought, flooding, forest fires or any other natural hazard? SESSION 6 ASSESSMENT 1) Match the definitions to the following words: precipitation, climatology, atmosphere. The study of climate. The layer of gases around the Earth. Water falling from the atmosphere. 2) All these sentences contain mistakes. Write the correct sentences in your exercise book. a) The atmosphere is composed mainly of nitrogen and hydrogen. b) Climate is the state of the atmosphere in a particular place at a specific time. c) The troposphere starts at an altitude of 500 km. It is the outer limit of the atmosphere. d) Climate consists of temperature, precipitation, atmospheric pressure and wind. 3) Complete the explanation of how precipitation is produced, with these words: droplets, surface, rises, heavier, clouds, vapour. Humid air, it cools and changes from.. to liquid, forming small..of water, which form... The droplets become bigger and.., and fall Onto the Earth s.. 4) Are the following statements true of false? Correct the false ones. a) Meteorological phenomena occur in the atmosphere. b) Climate is the same all over the planet. 13
14 c) The equatorial climate has very little precipitation and strong contrasts in temperature between winter and summer. d) Cyclones can cause great disasters. 5) Imagine you present the weather forecast on the television. Write a short weather forecast for your country and act it out to a partner. 14
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