THE ECOSYSTEM - Biomes

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "THE ECOSYSTEM - Biomes"

Transcription

1 Biomes

2 The Ecosystem - Biomes Side 2 THE ECOSYSTEM - Biomes By the end of this topic you should be able to:- SYLLABUS STATEMENT ASSESSMENT STATEMENT CHECK NOTES 2.4 BIOMES Define the term biome Explain the distribution and relative productivity of tropical rainforests, deserts, tundra and any other biome.

3 The Ecosystem - Biomes Side 3 BIOMES BIOME a collection of ecosystems sharing similar climatic conditions, e.g. tundra, tropical rainforest, desert. The parts of the Earth which are able to support life, collectively termed the biosphere, contain four major habitats:- Terrestrial Marine Freshwater Estuarine Large areas of land with similar conditions and characteristic types of plants adapted to those conditions are called BIOMES. The distribution of these biomes is the result of an interaction between the communities inhabiting them and their physical environment. TEMPERATURE and RAINFALL are important in determining the distribution of biomes. In spite of the vast areas involved, and the complicating effects of mountain ranges, there is a global pattern to these biomes. i.e.

4 The Ecosystem - Biomes Side 4 The relationship between the major terrestrial biomes and climate is shown below. Q1. What other important factors would have a large influence on the distribution of vegetation?

5 The Ecosystem - Biomes Side 5 Due to the global differences in climate and limiting factors, the relative productivity of biomes i.e. the rate of energy production, can vary a great deal. ECOSYSTEM TYPE MEAN NPP (kg m -2 yr -1 ) MEAN BIOMASS (kg m-2 ) *Tropical rainforest Tropical deciduous forest Tropical scrub * Tropical grassland (savanna) *Desert Temperate grassland *Temperate forest Boreal forest (coniferous) *Tundra and alpine Open ocean Continental shelf Estuaries NET PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY (NPP) the amount of energy made available by plants to animals at the herbivore level. NPP depends on the amount of heat, moisture, nutrient availability, competition, the number of sunlight hours, the age of plants and the health of plants. In geographic terms NPP increases towards the equator, water permitting, and declines towards the poles. BIOMASS the dry mass of organic material in organisms or ecosystems, usually per unit area.. The four biomes which we shall study in greater depth are:- Tropical rainforests Tropical grassland (savanna) Deserts Tundra The distribution and relative productivity of each biome must be explained with reference to the prevailing climate and limiting factors (various factors which limit the distribution or numbers of an organism).

6 The Ecosystem - Biomes Side 6 Tropical rainforests DISTRIBUTION OF TROPICAL RAINFORESTS AND OTHER TROPICAL ECOSYSTEMS CLIMATE Some features of climates in rainforest areas: Annual temperatures are high (26-27ºC), owing to the equatorial location of rainforest areas. Seasonal temperature ranges are low, 1-2ºC, and diurnal (daily) ranges are greater, 10-15ºC. Rainfall is high (>2000 mm per year), intense, convectional, and occurs on about 250 days each year. Humidity levels on the ground are high, often 100%. The growing season is year-round. VEGETATION The vegetation is evergreen, enabling photosynthesis to take place year-round. It is layered, and the shape of the crowns vary with the layer, in order to receive light. Rainforests are a very productive ecosystem: NPP is about 2200 g/m 2 /yr, and there is a large amount of stored energy (biomass 45 kg/m). The ecosystem is diverse there can be as many as 200 species of tree per hectare (an area the size of a rugby pitch), including figs, teak, mahogany, and yellow-woods. SOILS: TROPICAL LATOSOLS

7 The Ecosystem - Biomes Side 7 Savannas CLIMATE There is no such thing as a typical savanna climate. Rainfall in savanna areas ranges from mm per year with a drought lasting between one and eight months. Annual temperature are high (>25ºC). Summers are hot and wet, winters hot and dry. Convectional rain occurs in summer. High temperatures year-round lead to high evapotranspiration losses. SOILS: FERRUGINOUS Savanna soils are influenced by distinct seasonal changes in processes. Moreover, they vary with topography. Frequently, sandy and/or leached soils predominate on the upper slopes, clay-based soils on lower slopes. This catena is reflected by changes in vegetation. In places laterite, a hardened layer of iron/aluminium, may limit further soil development and agricultural practices. VEGETATION Savanna vegetation is xerophytic (adapted to drought) and pyrophytic (adapted to fire). Grasses predominate on sandy, leached soils, while trees may be found in moister areas, such as valleys. Growth is rapid in summer (NPP 900g/m 2 /yr). Fire (natural and as a result of human activity) reduces the biomass store (4 kg/m). Grasses are well adapted because the bulk of their biomass is beneath ground level and they regenerate quite quick burning. NUTRIENT CYCLE The biomass store less than that of the tropical rainforest due to a shorter growing season. The litter store is small due to fire. This means that the soil store is relatively large. The savanna nutrient cycle differs from the tropical rainforest nutrient cycle due to the combined effects of the seasonal drought and the occurrence of fire. Consequently there is: (i) a lower nutrient availability (ii) a reduced biomass store (iii) a small litter store (iv) a relatively soil store

8 The Ecosystem - Biomes Side 8 Distribution of arid and semi-arid environments In desert areas a shortage of rainfall and high temperatures lead to a soil water deficit. Aridity is defined using the water balance. In arid regions there is a deficit in water balance over the year. In semi-arid areas the water balance fluctuates between the positive and negative.

9 The Ecosystem - Biomes Side 9 Distribution Example Relative Productivity Average temperature (ºC) Average rainfall (mm) Isolation Structure Examples of dominant species COMPARISON OF THE BIOMES STUDIED Tropical rainforest Tropical grassland (savanna) Desert Tundra

10 The Ecosystem - Biomes Side 10 Example questions 1. The tundra contains many shallow lakes and bogs because:- A. there is heavy snowfall in winter B. weathering of rocks occurs unevenly C. there is a lot of water from melting glaciers D. the ground is mostly impermeable 2. For most desert areas, which of the following is correct? Gross Primary Productivity Net Primary Productivity Biomass A Low Low Low B High High High C Low Low High D High High Low 3. The main deserts of the world are found at A. latitudes between the tundra and temperate forests B. lower latitudes than temperate and tropical forests C. latitudes between the temperate and tropical forests D. higher latitudes than the tundra

11 The Ecosystem - Biomes Side Which one of the following is most likely to have the highest gross primary productivity? A. An area of tundra in Norway B. A area of tropical rainforest in Malaysia C. A temperate forest in northern Canada D. An area of desert in Australia 5. Describe the global distribution of tropical rainforest and tundra, explaining how abiotic factors influence the vegetation. (10 marks) 6.

12 The Ecosystem - Biomes Side 12

13 The Ecosystem - Biomes Side 13

14 The Ecosystem - Biomes Side 14 KEY WORDS TERM ABIOTIC FACTOR BIODIVERSITY BIOMASS BIOME BIOSPHERE BIOTIC FACTOR DEFINITION A non-living, physical factor that may influence an organism or ecosystem, e.g. temperature, sunlight, ph, salinity, precipitation etc. The amount of biological or living diversity per unit area. It includes the concepts of species diversity, habitat diversity and genetic diversity. The mass of organic material in organisms or ecosystems, usually per unit area. Sometimes the term dry weight biomass is used where mass is measured after the removal of water. Water is not organic material and inorganic material is usually relatively insignificant in terms of mass. A collection of ecosystems sharing similar climatic conditions, e.g. tundra, tropical rainforest, desert. That part of the Earth inhabited by organisms, i.e. the narrow zone (a few kilometres I thickness) in which plants and animals exist. It extends from the upper part of the atmosphere (where birds, insects and windblown pollen may be found) down to the deepest part of the Earth s crust to which living organisms venture. A living, biological factor that may influence an organism or ecosystem, e.g. predation, parasitism, disease, competition. COMMUNITY A group of populations living and interacting with each other in a common habitat. ECOSYSTEM A community of interdependent organisms and the physical environment they inhabit.

15 The Ecosystem - Biomes Side 15 ENVIRONMENT FOOD WEB HABITAT LATITUDE An organism s physical and biological surroundings. The interconnection of organisms within several food chains. The environment in which a species normally lives. The angular distance from the equator (i.e. north or south of it) as measured from the centre of the Earth (usually in degrees). INSOLATION The amount and duration of incoming solar radiation. PHOTOSYNTHESIS PRODUCTIVITY, GROSS PRIMARY (GPP) PRODUCTIVITY, NET PRIMARY (NPP) PRODUCITIVTY, SECONDARY RESPIRATION The process by which autotrophs (plants) make their own food by converting light energy into chemical energy. The quantity of organic matter produced, or solar energy fixed, by photosynthesis in green plants per unit area per unit time. Gross primary productivity less the biomass or energy lost by plants through respiration (R): NPP = GPP R. The quantity of biomass potentially available to consumers in an ecosystem is indicated by NPP. It is measured in units of mass or energy per unit area per unit time. The biomass gained by heterotrophic organisms, through feeding and absorption, measured in units of mass or energy per unit area per unit time. The breakdown of food to release energy.

Chapter 3 Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems

Chapter 3 Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems Section 1: Community Ecology Section 2: Terrestrial Biomes Section 3: Aquatic Ecosystems Click on a lesson name to select. 3.1 Community Ecology Communities A biological

More information

Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems

Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems Before You Read Before you read the chapter, respond to these statements. 1. Write an A if you agree with the statement. 2. Write a D if you disagree with the statement.

More information

Key Idea 2: Ecosystems

Key Idea 2: Ecosystems Key Idea 2: Ecosystems Ecosystems An ecosystem is a living community of plants and animals sharing an environment with non-living elements such as climate and soil. An example of a small scale ecosystem

More information

Ecosystems and Communities practice test

Ecosystems and Communities practice test Name: answers Score: 0 / 37 (0%) [14 subjective questions not graded] Ecosystems and Communities practice test Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers

More information

Tropical Dry Forest. Tropical Rain Forest. What I Discovered at the Zoo Name of animal that lives in this biome:

Tropical Dry Forest. Tropical Rain Forest. What I Discovered at the Zoo Name of animal that lives in this biome: Tropical Rain Forest Tropical rain forests are home to more species than all other land biomes combined. The leafy tops of tall trees extending up to 70 meters above the forest floor form a dense covering

More information

The Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens

The Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens The Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens Zoo and Botanical Gardens Biome Contract Overview Students will investigate biotic and abiotic factors of different biomes by preparing a

More information

Ecosystems. Chapter 55. Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece. PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for

Ecosystems. Chapter 55. Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece. PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Chapter 55 Ecosystems PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions from Joan Sharp Overview:

More information

6.1 Climates and Biomes

6.1 Climates and Biomes CHAPTER 6 BIOMES 6.1 Climates and Biomes Imagine someone gave you an airplane ticket to travel to Africa to see Serengeti National Park in Tanzania. If you like adventures, you might say Great! When do

More information

The Biosphere Study Guide

The Biosphere Study Guide ANSWER KEY Name The Biosphere Study Guide Period Directions: Read pg. 572-588 in Science Explorer. Answer the following questions. Land Biomes 1. What is a biome? a group of ecosystems with similar organisms

More information

3 Temperate and Polar Zones

3 Temperate and Polar Zones Name CHAPTER 17 Class Date Climate SECTION 3 Temperate and Polar Zones BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What biomes are found in the temperate

More information

Ecosystems. The two main ecosystem processes: Energy flow and Chemical cycling

Ecosystems. The two main ecosystem processes: Energy flow and Chemical cycling Ecosystems THE REALM OF ECOLOGY Biosphere An island ecosystem A desert spring ecosystem Biosphere Ecosystem Ecology: Interactions between the species in a given habitat and their physical environment.

More information

4. Which choice below lists the biomes in order from lowest precipitation amounts to highest precipitation amounts?

4. Which choice below lists the biomes in order from lowest precipitation amounts to highest precipitation amounts? Ecosystems and Biomes 1. All of the living organisms in a forest plus their environment is an example of A. a biome. B. a community. C. a population. D. an ecosystem. 2. Which of the following best describes

More information

Climate Change and Biomes

Climate Change and Biomes Climate Change and Biomes Key Concepts: Greenhouse Gas WHAT YOU WILL LEARN Biome Climate zone Greenhouse gases 1. You will learn the difference between weather and climate. 2. You will analyze the effect

More information

Energy flow & Biomes. Pay particular attention to the diagrams

Energy flow & Biomes. Pay particular attention to the diagrams Energy flow & Biomes Pay particular attention to the diagrams Bacteria feed at EVERY trophic level! Energy Movement Remember that organisms store energy to be used Stored energy is then taken by an organism

More information

defined largely by regional variations in climate

defined largely by regional variations in climate 1 Physical Environment: Climate and Biomes EVPP 110 Lecture Instructor: Dr. Largen Fall 2003 2 Climate and Biomes Ecosystem concept physical and biological components of environment are considered as single,

More information

#9978 THE BIOSPHERE DESCRIPTION ACADEMIC STANDARDS INSTRUCTIONAL GOALS SUBJECT AREA: GEOGRAPHY PHYSICAL SYSTEMS SUBJECT AREA: SCIENCE LIFE SCIENCES

#9978 THE BIOSPHERE DESCRIPTION ACADEMIC STANDARDS INSTRUCTIONAL GOALS SUBJECT AREA: GEOGRAPHY PHYSICAL SYSTEMS SUBJECT AREA: SCIENCE LIFE SCIENCES #9978 THE BIOSPHERE DESCRIPTION VISUAL LEARNING COMPANY, 2002 Grade Level: 7-10 20 mins. 2 Instructional Graphics Enclosed The biosphere is a thin zone of land, air, and water that is home to all living

More information

Ecology Module B, Anchor 4

Ecology Module B, Anchor 4 Ecology Module B, Anchor 4 Key Concepts: - The biological influences on organisms are called biotic factors. The physical components of an ecosystem are called abiotic factors. - Primary producers are

More information

Introduction to Ecology. Lab practical next week. 1. Types of Ecology. What is ecology? Organismal ecology. Population ecology

Introduction to Ecology. Lab practical next week. 1. Types of Ecology. What is ecology? Organismal ecology. Population ecology Introduction to Ecology Reading: Chapter 50 Introduction, today Chapter 52 Population ecology, today and W Chapter 54 Ecosystem ecology, W&F Outline of Lecture 1. Branches of ecology 2. Factors affecting

More information

tundra desert coniferous forest deciduous forest rainforest grassland aquatic biome habitat environment ecosystem species

tundra desert coniferous forest deciduous forest rainforest grassland aquatic biome habitat environment ecosystem species Science Unit 6: Vocabulary List One tundra desert coniferous forest deciduous forest rainforest grassland aquatic biome habitat environment ecosystem species The coldest of the biomes, located at the top

More information

Biology Keystone (PA Core) Quiz Ecology - (BIO.B.4.1.1 ) Ecological Organization, (BIO.B.4.1.2 ) Ecosystem Characteristics, (BIO.B.4.2.

Biology Keystone (PA Core) Quiz Ecology - (BIO.B.4.1.1 ) Ecological Organization, (BIO.B.4.1.2 ) Ecosystem Characteristics, (BIO.B.4.2. Biology Keystone (PA Core) Quiz Ecology - (BIO.B.4.1.1 ) Ecological Organization, (BIO.B.4.1.2 ) Ecosystem Characteristics, (BIO.B.4.2.1 ) Energy Flow 1) Student Name: Teacher Name: Jared George Date:

More information

Biomes An Overview of Ecology Biomes Freshwater Biomes

Biomes An Overview of Ecology Biomes Freshwater Biomes Biomes An Overview of Ecology Ecology is the scientific study of the interactions between organisms and their environments. Ecology can be divided into four increasingly comprehensive levels: Organismal

More information

ENERGY WHAT IS AN ECOSYSTEM? PATTERNS OF ENERGY FLOW IN ECOSYSTEMS LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS

ENERGY WHAT IS AN ECOSYSTEM? PATTERNS OF ENERGY FLOW IN ECOSYSTEMS LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS ENERGY PATTERNS OF ENERGY FLOW IN ECOSYSTEMS WHAT IS AN ECOSYSTEM? Biological community plus all abiotic factors affecting the community Ecosystem first proposed by Arthur Tansley Boundaries not fixed

More information

Use the terms in the vocabulary box to fill in the blanks. Use each term only once.

Use the terms in the vocabulary box to fill in the blanks. Use each term only once. Use with textbook pages 8 28. Biomes and ecosystems Vocabulary abiotic adaptations behavioural biome biotic climatograph elevation latitude ocean currents physiological precipitation structural temperature

More information

A Biotic and Abiotic Factors

A Biotic and Abiotic Factors Ecology Project Earth s Biomes Biomes 1. Savanna 2. Temperate Grasslands 3. Desert 4. Tropical Rain Forest 5. Taiga /Boreal Forest 6. Tundra 7. Temperate Forest 8. Temperate Shrubland/Scrublands 9. Nothwestern

More information

Ecosystem Ecology. Ecosystems as machines. Simple laws of physics. Energy Ability to do work

Ecosystem Ecology. Ecosystems as machines. Simple laws of physics. Energy Ability to do work Ecosystem Ecology Read Chps 18-19 (know N, P, C cycles) Ecosystem: A community of organisms plus its nonlinving (=abiotic) environment At the individual level, the abiotic environment affects organisms

More information

Chapter 3 Ecosystems and Energy

Chapter 3 Ecosystems and Energy Chapter 3 Ecosystems and Energy A. Ecology I. Ecology 1. eco house & logy study of 2. The study of interactions among and between organisms in their abiotic environment B. Biotic - living environment 1.Includes

More information

Ecosystem ecology emphasizes energy flow and chemical recycling

Ecosystem ecology emphasizes energy flow and chemical recycling AP Biology Chapter 54 notes Ecosystems Ecosystem ecology emphasizes energy flow and chemical recycling An ecosystem consists of all the organisms in a community and all the abiotic factors with which they

More information

Tropical Rain Forests. Tropical Biomes of the World. Tropical Rain Forests: Climate. Tropical Rain Forests: Tropical Biomes in North America

Tropical Rain Forests. Tropical Biomes of the World. Tropical Rain Forests: Climate. Tropical Rain Forests: Tropical Biomes in North America Tropical Biomes of the World Tropical Evergreen Forests (rain forests) Tropical Deciduous Forests (seasonal forests or monsoon forests) Tropical Scrub Forests Tropical Grasslands Tropical Rain Forests

More information

Holt Ch. 6 Biomes. Section 6.1 pg # 1-6

Holt Ch. 6 Biomes. Section 6.1 pg # 1-6 Holt Ch. 6 Biomes Section 6.1 pg 153-155 # 1-6 1. Describe how plants determine the name of a biome. Scientists name biomes after their vegetation because the plants that grow in an area determine what

More information

Ecology - Interactions in Communities

Ecology - Interactions in Communities Ecology - Interactions in Communities Symbiotic Relationships ( living together ) symbiosis - dissimilar organisms living together symbiont lives in /on a second species, host parasitism and mutualism

More information

Name Date Hour. Plants grow in layers. The canopy receives about 95% of the sunlight leaving little sun for the forest floor.

Name Date Hour. Plants grow in layers. The canopy receives about 95% of the sunlight leaving little sun for the forest floor. Name Date Hour Directions: You are to complete the table by using your environmental text book and the example given here. You want to locate all the abiotic (non-living) and biotic (living) factors in

More information

Ecology - Exchange of energy and matter

Ecology - Exchange of energy and matter - Exchange of energy and matter You should be able to: (a) briefly describe the non-cyclical nature of energy flow (b) establish the relationship of the following in food webs: producer, consumer, herbivore,

More information

Ch. 7 - Geographical Ecology, Climate & Biomes

Ch. 7 - Geographical Ecology, Climate & Biomes Ch. 7 - Geographical Ecology, Climate & Biomes Weather - the short term properties of the troposphere at a given place and time. Climate - the average long-term weather of an area. averaged over a long

More information

REVIEW UNIT 10: ECOLOGY SAMPLE QUESTIONS

REVIEW UNIT 10: ECOLOGY SAMPLE QUESTIONS Period Date REVIEW UNIT 10: ECOLOGY SAMPLE QUESTIONS A. Sample Multiple Choice Questions Complete the multiple choice questions to review this unit. 1. All of the following are density-dependent factors

More information

Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems

Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems Chapter Test A CHAPTER 3 Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems Part A: Multiple Choice In the space at the left, write the letter of the term or phrase that best answers each question Part B: Matching 1

More information

Energy Flow Through an Ecosystem. Food Chains, Food Webs, and Ecological Pyramids

Energy Flow Through an Ecosystem. Food Chains, Food Webs, and Ecological Pyramids Energy Flow Through an Ecosystem Food Chains, Food Webs, and Ecological Pyramids What is Ecology? ECOLOGY is a branch of biology that studies ecosystems. Ecological Terminology Environment Ecology Biotic

More information

Characteristics of Terrestrial Ecosystems

Characteristics of Terrestrial Ecosystems Characteristics of Terrestrial Ecosystems Terrestrial ecosystems are land-based ecosystems. Rainforests, deciduous forests, and grasslands are all examples of terrestrial ecosystems. The Earth has many

More information

WEATHER AND CLIMATE, MICRO-CLIMATE. i) A state or condition of the atmosphere at a given place and at a given instant of time.

WEATHER AND CLIMATE, MICRO-CLIMATE. i) A state or condition of the atmosphere at a given place and at a given instant of time. WEATHER AND CLIMATE, MICRO-CLIMATE Weather i) A state or condition of the atmosphere at a given place and at a given instant of time. ii) The daily or short term variations of different conditions of lower

More information

Ecology the study of the distribution and abundance of organisms:

Ecology the study of the distribution and abundance of organisms: Ecology the study of the distribution and abundance of organisms: Who is where, when and why! Different spins on ecology: Organismal (& physiological) Population Community Ecosystem/global Organismal ecology

More information

Grasslands. Environmental Science Chapters 8

Grasslands. Environmental Science Chapters 8 Grasslands Environmental Science Chapters 8 Grassland Biome A grassland ecosystem is an area that receives more rainfall than a desert, but not enough to support the trees of a forest. These usually exist

More information

STUDY GUIDE ECOLOGY. CHAPTER 21: Populations 1. An overview of ecology. Ecology is the study of interactions between organisms and their environment.

STUDY GUIDE ECOLOGY. CHAPTER 21: Populations 1. An overview of ecology. Ecology is the study of interactions between organisms and their environment. STUDY GUIDE ECOLOGY CHAPTER 21: Populations 1. An overview of ecology. Ecology is the study of interactions between organisms and their environment. 2. A Hierarchy of interactions: cells tissues organs

More information

Tropical Rainforest. Abiotic Factors Amount of Water, Sunlight, Soil, Precipitation

Tropical Rainforest. Abiotic Factors Amount of Water, Sunlight, Soil, Precipitation World Biomes A biome is an area of land that shares similar temperatures and precipitation. The observation of the temperature and precipitation over a period time make up a biome s climate. Each biome

More information

Climate, Vegetation, and Landforms

Climate, Vegetation, and Landforms Climate, Vegetation, and Landforms Definitions Climate is the average weather of a place over many years Geographers discuss five broad types of climates Moderate, dry, tropical, continental, polar Vegetation:

More information

Westerville City Schools Science Power Standards Safety Net Skills * Grade 7

Westerville City Schools Science Power Standards Safety Net Skills * Grade 7 Westerville City Schools Science Power Standards Safety Net Skills * Grade 7 Standard 1 Earth and Space Sciences Students will be able to describe the positions of matter and energy throughout the lithosphere,

More information

Chapter 3 Ecosystems and Energy

Chapter 3 Ecosystems and Energy Chapter 3 Ecosystems and Energy Overview of Chapter 3 What is Ecology? The Energy of Life Laws of Thermodynamics Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Flow of Energy Through Ecosystems Producers, Consumers

More information

2.3 Mapping Earth s Physical Features A world physical features map shows information about. Physical Features. canyon. Word Bank

2.3 Mapping Earth s Physical Features A world physical features map shows information about. Physical Features. canyon. Word Bank Read Section 2.3. Write one or two sentences describing the type of thematic map you read about. Then match the physical features in the Word Bank to their correct locations on the illustration. An example

More information

Oikos: House and Ology: to Study Scientific discipline in which the relationships among living organisms and the interaction the organisms have with

Oikos: House and Ology: to Study Scientific discipline in which the relationships among living organisms and the interaction the organisms have with Oikos: House and Ology: to Study Scientific discipline in which the relationships among living organisms and the interaction the organisms have with their environments are studied. An Ecologist is someone

More information

Ecosystem Ecology. Energy Flows and Nutrient Cycles

Ecosystem Ecology. Energy Flows and Nutrient Cycles Ecosystem Ecology Energy Flows and Nutrient Cycles Introduction to Ecosystems Some reflected Some converted to heat Some absorbed PSN Some absorbed by organisms, soils, water Introduction to Ecosystems

More information

Chapter 3: Climate and Climate Change Answers

Chapter 3: Climate and Climate Change Answers Chapter 3: Climate and Climate Change Answers Section A: Climate 1. (a) Explain what each of the following means: (4 x 1 mark) (i) climate the average weather of an area over a 25 30 year period (ii) maritime

More information

Ecosystems and Communities

Ecosystems and Communities Ecosystems and Communities Interdependence in Nature Q: How do abiotic and biotic factors shape ecosystems? 4.1 What factors affect global climate? WHAT I KNOW SAMPLE ANSWER: The global climate is affected

More information

Interactions Between the Atmosphere & Hydrosphere. Weather & Climate

Interactions Between the Atmosphere & Hydrosphere. Weather & Climate Interactions Between the Atmosphere & Hydrosphere Weather & Climate ~occur every 3-7 years ~can last weeks or years! ~cooler/wetter conditions in SE US ~dry weather in southern Africa, Southeast Asia,

More information

Lungs of the Planet. 1. Based on the equations above, describe how the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration relate to each other.

Lungs of the Planet. 1. Based on the equations above, describe how the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration relate to each other. Lungs of the Planet Name: Date: Why do people call rain forests the lungs of the planet? Usually it is because people think that the rain forests produce most of the oxygen we breathe. But do they? To

More information

4 Ecology. Chapter summary a reminder of the issues to be revised

4 Ecology. Chapter summary a reminder of the issues to be revised 4 Ecology Chapter summary a reminder of the issues to be revised 1 Ecology is the study of organisms in relation to their environment. An ecosystem, such as a lake or woodland, is a stable and settled

More information

Biodiversity and the Ecosystem (Lexile 910L)

Biodiversity and the Ecosystem (Lexile 910L) iodiversity and the Ecosystem (Lexile 910L) 1 Where is your special habitat? You, like a bird, a lizard, or even an ant, need a healthy habitat to survive. habitat is the place where an animal or plant

More information

Lesson 4.13: Life Science Ecosystems 1

Lesson 4.13: Life Science Ecosystems 1 Weekly Focus: Reading Comprehension Weekly Skill: Finding Evidence from Passage Lesson Summary: This week students will read two different passages with information on ecosystems. The first passage includes

More information

Chapter 3: Climate and Climate Change

Chapter 3: Climate and Climate Change Chapter 3: Climate and Climate Change Section A: Climate 1. (a) Explain what each of the following means: (4 marks) (i) climate (ii) maritime (iii) temperate (iv) tropical (b) Match the description with

More information

a. a population. c. an ecosystem. b. a community. d. a species.

a. a population. c. an ecosystem. b. a community. d. a species. Name: practice test Score: 0 / 35 (0%) [12 subjective questions not graded] The Biosphere Practice Test Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the

More information

4th GRADE MINIMUM CONTENTS UNIT 8: ECOSYSTEMS

4th GRADE MINIMUM CONTENTS UNIT 8: ECOSYSTEMS CEIP Ginés Morata 4th GRADE MINIMUM CONTENTS UNIT 8: ECOSYSTEMS WHAT IS AN ECOSYSTEM? An ecosystem is made up of all the living things and non-living things that function together in one place. All ecosystems

More information

Climate Change: A Local Focus on a Global Issue Newfoundland and Labrador Curriculum Links 2010-2011

Climate Change: A Local Focus on a Global Issue Newfoundland and Labrador Curriculum Links 2010-2011 Climate Change: A Local Focus on a Global Issue Newfoundland and Labrador Curriculum Links 2010-2011 HEALTH Kindergarten: Grade 1: Grade 2: Know that litter can spoil the environment. Grade 3: Grade 4:

More information

EOC ECOLOGY SAMPLE QUESTIONS

EOC ECOLOGY SAMPLE QUESTIONS 1 EOC ECOLOGY SAMPLE QUESTIONS Multiple Choice Write the letter that best answers the question or completes the statement on the line provided. 1. Which of the following descriptions about the organization

More information

Ecology- an ecosystem: a Biome: o They are either terrestrial or aquatic. rainforests, deserts, coral reefs

Ecology- an ecosystem: a Biome: o They are either terrestrial or aquatic. rainforests, deserts, coral reefs Topic 17: Ecology Ecology- The environment is an organism s surroundings o It includes:! biotic factors: Ecosystems! abiotic factors: an ecosystem: In order for an ecosystem to maintain life it must: -

More information

6. Base your answer to the following question on the graph below, which shows the average monthly temperature of two cities A and B.

6. Base your answer to the following question on the graph below, which shows the average monthly temperature of two cities A and B. 1. Which single factor generally has the greatest effect on the climate of an area on the Earth's surface? 1) the distance from the Equator 2) the extent of vegetative cover 3) the degrees of longitude

More information

Plant Adaptations. This cactus displays light-colored hair that helps shade the plant. Copyright

Plant Adaptations. This cactus displays light-colored hair that helps shade the plant. Copyright Plant Adaptations Plants have adaptations to help them survive (live and grow) in different areas. Adaptations are special features that allow a plant or animal to live in a particular place or habitat.

More information

5 th Grade Science Vocabulary Words

5 th Grade Science Vocabulary Words 5 th Grade Science Vocabulary Words abiotic factor A nonliving part of an ecosystem. acceleration Change in velocity with respect to time. action The force one object applies to a second, as in Newton

More information

EXPLORING BIOMES IN GORONGOSA NATIONAL PARK

EXPLORING BIOMES IN GORONGOSA NATIONAL PARK OVERVIEW EXPLORING BIOMES IN GORONGOSA NATIONAL PARK This activity complements the Click and Learn Gorongosa National Park Interactive Map (http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/gorongosa-national-park-interactive-map)

More information

Unit. Terrestrial Biomes and Aquatic Ecosystems

Unit. Terrestrial Biomes and Aquatic Ecosystems Unit 1 Terrestrial Biomes and Aquatic Ecosystems Today s Objective: Describe characteristic biotic and abiotic components of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Fossil evidence suggests that the frozen

More information

The Global Water Cycle

The Global Water Cycle The Global Water Cycle OCN 401 November 18, 2014 1. The Global Water Cycle - Processes - Reservoirs and Fluxes - Composition Lecture Outline 2. Models of the Hydrologic Cycle 3. The History of the Water

More information

6.4 Taigas and Tundras

6.4 Taigas and Tundras 6.4 Taigas and Tundras In this section, you will learn about the largest and coldest biomes on Earth. The taiga is the largest land biome and the tundra is the coldest. The taiga The largest land biome

More information

ENERGY FLOWS IN ECOSYSTEMS, FOOD CHAINS

ENERGY FLOWS IN ECOSYSTEMS, FOOD CHAINS 1 LECTURE 3 & 4: MAY 7, 2014 ENERGY FLOWS AND ECOSYSTEMS ENERGY FLOWS IN ECOSYSTEMS, FOOD CHAINS Text Reference: Dearden and Mitchell (2012), Ch. 2, pp. 49-80 Geography/Environmental Studies 1120 T. Randall,

More information

Matter and Energy in Ecosystems

Matter and Energy in Ecosystems Matter and Energy in Ecosystems The interactions that take place among biotic and abiotic factors lead to transfers of energy and matter. Every species has a particular role, or niche, in an ecosystem.

More information

Class Food Webs

Class Food Webs Class 39 -- Food Webs MATTER AND ENERGY TRANSFER IN MARINE ECOSYSTEMS Ecosystems (Producers, Consumers, Decomposers) Food chains and food webs Efficiency of energy flow (Trophic( pyramid) FACTORS CONTROLLING

More information

CCR Biology - Chapter 13 Practice Test - Summer 2012

CCR Biology - Chapter 13 Practice Test - Summer 2012 Name: Class: Date: CCR Biology - Chapter 13 Practice Test - Summer 2012 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. A group of organisms of the same

More information

Ecosystem Ecology. Community interacts with abiotic factors. Objectives

Ecosystem Ecology. Community interacts with abiotic factors. Objectives Ecosystem Ecology Community interacts with abiotic factors Objectives Compare the processes of energy flow and chemical cycling as they relate to ecosystem dynamics. Define and list examples of producers,

More information

E: too cold for trees. C: long summer Freezeline A: never freezes. General location of major climate types. GEO 101, April 1, 2014.

E: too cold for trees. C: long summer Freezeline A: never freezes. General location of major climate types. GEO 101, April 1, 2014. GEO 101, April 1, 2014 General location of major climate types Finish climates A: Tropical climates E: too cold for trees Treeline D: long winter H : arid C: long summer Freezeline A: never freezes Hypothetical

More information

- diversity is the results of interactions among the population adapting to each other. - 4 types of interactions are important in shaping community:

- diversity is the results of interactions among the population adapting to each other. - 4 types of interactions are important in shaping community: Biology 1407 Notes Exam 5 - Ecology Ch 34, 37, 38 Ecology - the study of how organisms interact with their environment; interactions occur at several levels and include both living (biotic) and nonliving

More information

1 Everything Is Connected

1 Everything Is Connected CHAPTER 1 1 Everything Is Connected SECTION Interactions of Living Things BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What do organisms in an ecosystem depend

More information

NOTE TO TEACHER: It is appropriate to introduce the mitochondria (where energy is made) as a major structure common to all cells.

NOTE TO TEACHER: It is appropriate to introduce the mitochondria (where energy is made) as a major structure common to all cells. 5.2.1 Recall the cell as the smallest unit of life and identify its major structures (including cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, and vacuole). Taxonomy level: 1.1 and 1.2-A Remember Factual Knowledge

More information

National 5. Unit 3. Life on earth. Ink exercise 1. Biodiversity and the distribution of life.

National 5. Unit 3. Life on earth. Ink exercise 1. Biodiversity and the distribution of life. National 5 Unit 3 Life on earth Ink exercise 1 Biodiversity and the distribution of life. Once completed and marked- Think about and list below the areas I need to work on: Multiple choice Tick one answer

More information

Ecosystems and Energy

Ecosystems and Energy 3 Ecosystems and Energy Overview of Chapter 3 What is Ecology? The Energy of Life Laws of Thermodynamics Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Flow of Energy Through Ecosystems Producers, Consumers &

More information

Ecology. Abiotic Factors: non-living physical and chemical factors which pffect the ability of organisms to survive and reproduce.

Ecology. Abiotic Factors: non-living physical and chemical factors which pffect the ability of organisms to survive and reproduce. Biotic vs. Abiotic Ecology Abiotic Factors: non-living physical and chemical factors which pffect the ability of organisms to survive and reproduce. Some Abiotic Factors light intensity temperature range

More information

Ecosystems. I.1 Soil. I.2 Air. I.3 The sun. I.4 Water. I. What is an ecosystem?

Ecosystems. I.1 Soil. I.2 Air. I.3 The sun. I.4 Water. I. What is an ecosystem? I. What is an ecosystem? Ecosystems An ecosystem is a community of living and non-living things that work together. Ecosystems have no particular size. An ecosystem can be as large as a desert or as small

More information

Geography Fieldwork at Birmingham Botanical Gardens. Key Stages 3 & 4

Geography Fieldwork at Birmingham Botanical Gardens. Key Stages 3 & 4 Geography Fieldwork at Birmingham Botanical Gardens Key Stages 3 & 4 Introduction These worksheets have been designed so that you can select from them in order to create your own booklet, tailored to your

More information

Ecology. Initial Vocab and Practice. Page 1 in notes

Ecology. Initial Vocab and Practice. Page 1 in notes 2015 1 Ecology Initial Vocab and Practice Page 1 in notes 2 The study of the interactions of living organisms with one another and with their environment. 3 Organism/species an individual living thing.

More information

Ecosystem Ecology. Trophic levels energy flow through ecosystems. Productivity and energy. Autotrophs: primary producers Heterotrophs: consumers

Ecosystem Ecology. Trophic levels energy flow through ecosystems. Productivity and energy. Autotrophs: primary producers Heterotrophs: consumers Ecosystem Ecology 1. Overview of material and energy flows in ecosystems 2. Primary production 3. Secondary production and trophic efficiency 4. Ecological Pyramids Trophic levels energy flow through ecosystems

More information

Biome= A large ecosystem (plant and animal community) covering a large amount of the earth s surface.

Biome= A large ecosystem (plant and animal community) covering a large amount of the earth s surface. Topic 3: Battle for the Biosphere What is the value of the biosphere? Define the terms eco-system and biome, and map the distribution of major biomes across the planet. See map above for biome distribution.

More information

Unit 3 Seasonal Cycles

Unit 3 Seasonal Cycles Unit 3 Seasonal Cycles Before discussing seasons, it is necessary to understand how the Earth spins and moves, because the Earth s movement is what determines seasons around the world. The movement of

More information

Primary Production and Energy Flow Chapter 18

Primary Production and Energy Flow Chapter 18 Primary Production and Energy Flow Chapter 18 Sunlight to photosynthesizer to herbivore to carnivore to decomposer!!! 1 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or

More information

Ch. 55 Ecosystems And Restoration Ecology. AP Biology

Ch. 55 Ecosystems And Restoration Ecology. AP Biology Ch. 55 Ecosystems And Restoration Ecology Studying organisms in their environment organism population community ecosystem biosphere Essential questions What limits the production in ecosystems? How do

More information

Chapters 16 Soils Ecosystem Essentials

Chapters 16 Soils Ecosystem Essentials Chapters 16 Soils Ecosystem Essentials I. Soils A. Characteristics B. Properties C. Classification II. Ecosystem Components and Cycles A. Biotic components B. Abiotic components C. Limiting factors D.

More information

Ecology PS 12 PS 13:

Ecology PS 12 PS 13: Ecology PS 12: Matter cycles and energy flows through living and nonliving components in ecosystems. The transfer of matter and energy is important for maintaining the health and sustainability of ecosystems.

More information

BIOLOGY CLASS 9 ECOSYSTEMS

BIOLOGY CLASS 9 ECOSYSTEMS BIOLOGY CLASS 9 ECOSYSTEMS Q1. Define the following terms: a) Biosphere The whole of the region of the earth s surface, the sea, and the air where living organisms are found is termed as Biosphere. It

More information

Geography 1001: Climate & Vegetation. Agenda for Lecture 11: T Oct 2 nd. Hydrologic Cycle Model. Review Lecture 9. Global Water Scarcity

Geography 1001: Climate & Vegetation. Agenda for Lecture 11: T Oct 2 nd. Hydrologic Cycle Model. Review Lecture 9. Global Water Scarcity Geography 1001: Climate & Vegetation Agenda for Lecture 11: T Oct 2 nd Logistics 1 st Exam in 9 days! Take advantage of my office hours Students with documented excuses, please email me this week Review

More information

Ecosystems. Chapter 55. Ecosystem Ecology Ecosystems, Energy, and Matter An ecosystem consists of

Ecosystems. Chapter 55. Ecosystem Ecology Ecosystems, Energy, and Matter An ecosystem consists of Chapter 55 Ecosystems Ecosystem Ecology Ecosystems, Energy, and Matter An ecosystem consists of All the organisms living in a community, and All the abiotic factors with which they interact PowerPoint

More information

Commensalism is a symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other organism is not affected.. What they might ask:

Commensalism is a symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other organism is not affected.. What they might ask: B-6.1 Explain how the interrelationships among organisms (including predation, competition, parasitism, mutualism, and commensalism) generate stability within ecosystems. ecosystem - biotic community (all

More information

A. A biome is a particular physical environment that contains a characteristic group of plants and animals. B. Climate and Microclimate 1.

A. A biome is a particular physical environment that contains a characteristic group of plants and animals. B. Climate and Microclimate 1. Land Biomes A. A biome is a particular physical environment that contains a characteristic group of plants and animals. B. Climate and Microclimate 1. Climate is described by a climatograph. Two of the

More information

FOOD CHAINS, FOOD WEBS AND ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS

FOOD CHAINS, FOOD WEBS AND ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS FOOD CHAINS, FOOD WEBS AND ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS In an ecosystem, plants capture the sun's energy and use it to convert inorganic compounds into energy-rich organic compounds. This process of using the sun's

More information

PLANET EARTH: Seasonal Forests

PLANET EARTH: Seasonal Forests PLANET EARTH: Seasonal Forests Teacher s Guide Grade Level: 6-8 Running Time: 42 minutes Program Description Investigate temperate forests and find some of the most elusive creatures and welladapted plant

More information

Weather and climate. reflect. what do you think? look out!

Weather and climate. reflect. what do you think? look out! reflect You re going on vacation in a week and you have to start thinking about what clothes you re going to pack for your trip. You ve read the weather reports for your vacation spot, but you know that

More information

TROPICAL CLIMATE. It is found near the Tropics. Always dense and green with many different species of animals and

TROPICAL CLIMATE. It is found near the Tropics. Always dense and green with many different species of animals and SM-UNIT2lesson4.Activity3 CLIMATE WORLDWIDE TROPICAL CLIMATE It is found near the Tropics - Temperatures are always hot, between 24ºC-27ºC - Rainfall is abundant all year. - Two seasons; the dry and the

More information

Plants, like all other living organisms have basic needs: a source of nutrition (food),

Plants, like all other living organisms have basic needs: a source of nutrition (food), LEARNING FROM LEAVES: A LOOK AT LEAF SIZE Grades 3 6 I. Introduction Plants, like all other living organisms have basic needs: a source of nutrition (food), water, space in which to live, air, and optimal

More information