# Chapter 7 Stability and Cloud Development. Atmospheric Stability

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Chapter 7 Stability and Cloud Development Atmospheric Stability 1

2 Cloud Development - stable environment Stable air (parcel) - vertical motion is inhibited if clouds form, they will be shallow, layered clouds like stratus Cloud Development - unstable environment Unstable air (parcel) - vertical motion occurs commonly produces cumulus, cumulonimbus clouds How to determine atmospheric Stability? A ball in water: When does it rise? When does it sink? An air parcel: Density Lighter than environment, it will rise. Heavier than environment, it will sink. What determine air density at a given pressure: Temperature 2

3 Determining Air Parcel Temperature: Rising air parcels and adiabatic cooling consider a rising parcel of air -->> As the parcel rises, it will adiabatically expand and cool adiabatic - a process where the parcel temperature changes due to an expansion or compression, no heat is added or taken away from the parcel Consider a sinking parcel of air -->> Adiabatic lapse rate As a parcel of air rises, it cools, but at what rate? Lapse rate rate of temperature change with height units of lapse rate are C km -1 Dry-adiabatic lapse rate unsaturated parcels cool at a rate of 10 C km -1 - this is called the dry-adiabatic lapse rate Moist Adiabatic Lapse Rate For a saturated parcel of air, i.e., when its T=Td, then it cools at the moist adiabatic lapse rate = 6 C km -1 Q: Why does the parcel cool at a slower rate (6 C km -1 ) when it is saturated than at 10 C km -1 when it is unsaturated? 3

4 Dry versus Moist-Adiabatic Process the moist adiabatic lapse rate is less than the dry adiabatic lapse rate because as vapor condenses into water (or water freezes into ice) for a saturated parcel, latent heat is released into the parcel, mitigating the adiabatic cooling Moist adiabatic lapse rate: vary with temperature and pressure 4

5 Assessing Atmospheric Stability The bottom line - To determine whether or not a parcel will rise or sink in the atmosphere, one must compare the parcels temperature (T p ) with that of the environment (T e ) at some altitude: if T p > T e what will the parcel do? if T p = T e what will the parcel do? if T p < T e what will the parcel do? So, to assess stability, what two pieces of information do we need? Absolute Stability Generally, notice that T e is always larger than T sp and T up at any level Hence, an unsaturated or saturated parcel will always be cooler than the environment and will sink back down to the ground The condition for absolute stability is: Γ d > Γ m > Γ e Γ d is the dry adiabatic lapse rate (10 C km -1 ) Γ m is the moist adiabatic lapse rate (6 C km -1 ) Γ e is the environmental lapse rate T up : the temperature of an unsaturated parcel T sp : temperature of a saturated parcel T e : environmental temperature 5

6 Stability of Inversion Layers Q: How would you characterize the stability of an inversion layer? They are absolutely stable Note that the absolute stability criteria: Γ e < Γ m < Γ d Q: How do you form stable layers in the atmosphere? Radiational Cooling - radiation inversion cold air moving in at low levels warm air moving over cold ground Cold surface air, on this morning, produces a stable atmosphere that inhibits vertical air motions and allows the fog and haze to linger close to the ground. 6

7 Formation of Subsidence Inversions How does the stability change for a descending layer of air? The top of the layer warms more than the bottom Natural Stability The environmental lapse rate is equal to the dry adiabatic rate. Or when parcel is saturate: 7

8 Absolute Instability The condition for absolute instability is: Γ e > Γ d > Γ m Hence, an unsaturated or saturated parcel will always be warmer than the environment and will continue to ascend Conditional Instability The condition for conditional instability is: Γ d > Γ e > Γ m The unsaturated parcel will be cooler than then environment and will sink back to the ground The saturated parcel will be warmer than the environment and will continue to ascend 8

9 Stability of the environment To determine the environmental stability, one must calculate the lapse rate for a sounding lapse rate = -DT/DZ = (T2-T1)/(Z2-Z1) Since the environment is often composed of layers with different stabilities, it is useful to first identify these layers and then calculate their respective lapse rates recall the stability criteria: Γ e < Γ m - Absolutely stable Γ m < Γ e < Γ d - Conditional Instability Γ m < Γ d < Γ e - Absolutely unstable Processes that destabilize the atmosphere 1. By cooling of the air aloft and Warming of the surface air Cooling of the air aloft Cold air moving is aloft this often occurs when an extra tropical cyclone passes overhead Clouds or air emitting IR radiation to space Warming of the surface air Surface Heating - suggests that the atmosphere will be most unstable. When? Warm air moving in at low levels this often occurs ahead of a cold front Cold air moving over a warm surface: Such as lake effect snow 9

10 The warmth from the forest fire heats the air, causing instability near the surface. Warm, less-dense air (and smoke) bubbles upward, expanding and cooling as it rises. Eventually the rising air cools to its dew point, condensation begins, and a cumulus cloud forms. 2. Destabilize the atmosphere by mixing Cooling the top layer Warming the bottom layer 10

11 3. Destabilize the atmosphere by lifting The vertical stretch of the unsaturated layer cools the top of the layer more than the bottom conditionally unstable. 3. Destabilize the atmosphere by lifting The vertical stretch of a bottom saturated and top unsaturated layer cools the top of the layer more than the bottom absolutely unstable. Convective instability 11

12 Atmospheric Instability and Cloud Development 1. How are vertical parcel motions that create clouds generated naturally in the atmosphere? Surface heating and free convection Topography Widespread ascent due to convergence of surface air Uplift along weather fronts Atmospheric Instability and Cloud Development - lifting mechanisms 2. What kind (if any) clouds will you visually observe in different stable environments? In an absolutely stable environment, no clouds will likely form. In a shallow conditionally unstable or absolutely unstable environment, one may expect clouds to develop, but their vertical growth will be limited, and may observe: cumulus humilis (shallow cumulus) stratocumulus In a deep conditionally unstable or absolutely unstable environment, one may expect clouds to develop with significant vertical development, and may observe: cumulus congestus cumulonimbus 12

13 Cloud Development - Convection Convection usually occurs when the surface is heated and a surface parcel becomes warmer than the environment --> the vertical extent of the cloud is largely determined by the stability of the environment... Cumulus clouds form as hot, invisible air bubbles detach themselves from the surface, then rise and cool to the condensation level. Below and within the cumulus clouds, the air is rising. Around the cloud, the air is sinking. The development of a cumulus cloud Layer A: Absolutely unstable Layer B or C: Absolutely stable Layer A and B on average: conditional unstable top Cloud base Height 13

14 Cumulus clouds building on a warm summer afternoon. Each cloud represents a region where thermals are rising from the surface. The clear areas between the clouds are regions where the air is sinking. The air s stability greatly influences the growth of cumulus clouds cumulonimbus Cumulus clouds developing into thunderstorms in a conditionally unstable atmosphere over the Great Plains. Notice that, in the distance, the cumulonimbus with the anvil top has reached the stable part of the atmosphere. Cumulus Congestus 14

15 What determines cumulus cloud bases height? Cloud Development - Topographic Lifting Simply, air is forced up and over a topographical barrier - such as a hill or mountain The windward side will be cloudy and wet as air ascends The leeward side will be warmer and drier as the air descends - often called a rain shadow 15

16 Topographic Lifting - Wave Clouds If air being forced over a topographical barrier is stable, then wave clouds often form Lenticular clouds are an example Wave clouds are often aligned in "waves" and are often visible in satellite imagery.. Satellite view of wave clouds forming many kilometers downwind of the mountains in Scotland and Ireland. 16

17 The mixing of a moist layer of air near the surface can produce a deck of stratocumulus clouds Cold air move over warm surface Stratocumulus clouds forming in rows over the Atlantic ocean as cold, dry arctic air sweeps over Canada Cloud Development - Convergence if air converges to a given location near the surface: it can't "pile up" at that point it can't go downward, the ground is there it must go up! common at the center of an extra-tropical cyclone 17

18 Cloud Development - Frontal Lifting If air is lifted into a stable layer: stratus or nimbostratus clouds are often the result (common along warm fronts) if air is lifted into a conditionally unstable layer: cumulus or cumulonimbus are often the result (common along cold fronts) Billow clouds forming in a region of rapidly changing wind speed, called wind shear. Wind shear 18

### This chapter discusses: 1. Definitions and causes of stable and unstable atmospheric air. 2. Processes that cause instability and cloud development

Stability & Cloud Development This chapter discusses: 1. Definitions and causes of stable and unstable atmospheric air 2. Processes that cause instability and cloud development Stability & Movement A rock,

### Stability and Cloud Development. Stability in the atmosphere AT350. Why did this cloud form, whereas the sky was clear 4 hours ago?

Stability and Cloud Development AT350 Why did this cloud form, whereas the sky was clear 4 hours ago? Stability in the atmosphere An Initial Perturbation Stable Unstable Neutral If an air parcel is displaced

### Chapter 6 - Cloud Development and Forms. Interesting Cloud

Chapter 6 - Cloud Development and Forms Understanding Weather and Climate Aguado and Burt Interesting Cloud 1 Mechanisms that Lift Air Orographic lifting Frontal Lifting Convergence Localized convective

### Weather Journals: a. copying forecast text b. figure captions. d. citing source material e. units

Weather Journals: a. copying forecast text b. figure captions c. linking figures with text d. citing source material e. units In the News: http://www.reuters.com In the News: warmer waters in the Pacific

### Figure 2.1: Warm air rising from SAPREF stacks, October 2002 Source: GroundWork

13 CHAPTER TWO SOME CONCEPTS IN CLIMATOLOGY 2.1 The Adiabatic Process An important principle to remember is that, in the troposphere, the first layer of the atmosphere, temperature decreases with altitude.

### Cloud Development and Forms. LIFTING MECHANISMS 1. Orographic 2. Frontal 3. Convergence 4. Convection. Orographic Cloud. The Orographic Cloud

Introduction to Climatology GEOGRAPHY 300 Cloud Development and Forms Tom Giambelluca University of Hawai i at Mānoa LIFTING MECHANISMS 1. Orographic 2. Frontal 3. Convergence 4. Convection Cloud Development

### Fog and Cloud Development. Bows and Flows of Angel Hair

Fog and Cloud Development Bows and Flows of Angel Hair 1 Ch. 5: Condensation Achieving Saturation Evaporation Cooling of Air Adiabatic and Diabatic Processes Lapse Rates Condensation Condensation Nuclei

### The Importance of Understanding Clouds

NASA Facts National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov The Importance of Understanding Clouds One of the most interesting features of Earth, as seen from space, is the ever-changing distribution

### Atmospheric Stability & Cloud Development

Atmospheric Stability & Cloud Development Stable situations a small change is resisted and the system returns to its previous state Neutral situations a small change is neither resisted nor enlarged Unstable

### Cumulifor m clouds develop as air slowly rises over Lake Powell in Utah.

Cumulifor m clouds develop as air slowly rises over Lake Powell in Utah. Figure 6.1 Dew forms on clear nightswhen objects on the surface cool to a temperature below the dew point. If these beads of water

### Chapter 6. Atmospheric Moisture and Precipitation

Chapter 6 Atmospheric Moisture and Precipitation The Hydrosphere Hydrosphere water in the earth-atmosphere atmosphere system Oceans and Salt Lakes 97.6% Ice Caps and Glaciers 1.9% (Not available for humans)

### Chapter 6: Cloud Development and Forms

Chapter 6: Cloud Development and Forms (from The Blue Planet ) Why Clouds Form Static Stability Cloud Types Why Clouds Form? Clouds form when air rises and becomes saturated in response to adiabatic cooling.

### Analyze Weather in Cold Regions and Mountainous Terrain

Analyze Weather in Cold Regions and Mountainous Terrain Terminal Learning Objective Action: Analyze weather of cold regions and mountainous terrain Condition: Given a training mission that involves a specified

### UNIT VII--ATMOSPHERIC STABILITY AND INSTABILITY

UNIT VII--ATMOSPHERIC STABILITY AND INSTABILITY The stability or instability of the atmosphere is a concern to firefighters. This unit discusses how changes in the atmosphere affect fire behavior, and

### Convective Clouds. Convective clouds 1

Convective clouds 1 Convective Clouds Introduction Convective clouds are formed in vertical motions that result from the instability of the atmosphere. This instability can be caused by: a. heating at

### Satellites, Weather and Climate Module 2b: Cloud identification & classification. SSEC MODIS Today

Satellites, Weather and Climate Module 2b: Cloud identification & classification SSEC MODIS Today Our Cloud Watching and Identification Goals describe cloud classification system used by meteorologists

### Quick Review: Rising Air and Clouds

Quick Review: Rising Air and Clouds Remember that clouds form when air rises. Specifically - As air rises, it expands and cools... - And as it cools, its RH increases... - And once its RH hits 100% (saturation),

### Recall that condensation occurs when water vapor changes to a

Section 18.2 18.2 Cloud Formation 1 FOCUS Section Objectives 18.6 Describe what happens to air when it is compressed or allowed to expand. 18.7 List four mechanisms that cause air to rise. 18.8 Compare

### How do Scientists Forecast Thunderstorms?

How do Scientists Forecast Thunderstorms? Objective In the summer, over the Great Plains, weather predictions often call for afternoon thunderstorms. While most of us use weather forecasts to help pick

### Earth Science Lecture Summary Notes Chapter 7 - Water and Atmospheric Moisture

Earth Science Lecture Summary Notes Chapter 7 - Water and Atmospheric Moisture (based on Christopherson, Geosystems, 6th Ed., 2006) Prof. V.J. DiVenere - Dept. Earth & Environmental Science - LIU Post

### Temperature affects water in the air.

KEY CONCEPT Most clouds form as air rises and cools. BEFORE, you learned Water vapor circulates from Earth to the atmosphere Warm air is less dense than cool air and tends to rise NOW, you will learn How

### Weather: is the short term, day-to-day condition of the atmosphere

Weather Weather: is the short term, day-to-day condition of the atmosphere Meteorology the scientific study of the atmosphere They focus on physical characteristics and motion and how it relates to chemical,

### Clouds for pilots. Ed Williams. http://williams.best.vwh.net/

Clouds for pilots Ed Williams http://williams.best.vwh.net/ Clouds are important to pilots! Many of our weather problems are associated with clouds: Fog Thunderstorms Cloud In flight icing Cloud physics

### CHAPTER 6: WEATHER FOR SOARING

CHAPTER 6: WEATHER FOR SOARING Weather patterns on Earth are complicated and chaotic. Weather is a result of the atmosphere s constant attempt to reach equilibrium. This equilibrium is continually upset

Activity 4 Clouds Over Your Head Level 1 1 Objectives: Students will become familiar with the four main types of clouds: stratus, cirrus, cumulus, and cumulonimbus and their characteristics. Students will

### Formation & Classification

CLOUDS Formation & Classification DR. K. K. CHANDRA Department of forestry, Wildlife & Environmental Sciences, GGV, Bilaspur What is Cloud It is mass of tiny water droplets or ice crystals or both of size

### Earth s Atmosphere. Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere. 3. All the energy from the Sun reaches Earth s surface.

CHAPTER 12 LESSON 2 Earth s Atmosphere Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere Key Concepts How does energy transfer from the Sun to Earth and to the atmosphere? How are air circulation patterns within the atmosphere

### Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere

Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere Essential Questions How does energy transfer from the sun to Earth and the atmosphere? How are air circulation patterns with the atmosphere created? Vocabulary Radiation:

### If wispy, no significant icing or turbulence. If dense or in bands turbulence is likely. Nil icing risk. Cirrocumulus (CC)

Cirrus (CI) Detached clouds in the form of delicate white filaments or white patches or narrow bands. These clouds have a fibrous or hair like appearance, or a silky sheen or both. with frontal lifting

### Not all clouds are easily classified! Cloud Classification schemes. Clouds by level 9/23/15

Cloud Classification schemes 1) classified by where they occur (for example: high, middle, low) 2) classified by amount of water content and vertical extent (thick, thin, shallow, deep) 3) classified by

### Clouds. A simple scientific explanation for the weather-curious. By Kira R. Erickson

Clouds A simple scientific explanation for the weather-curious By Kira R. Erickson Table of Contents 1 3 4 INTRO 2 Page 3 How Clouds Are Formed Types of Clouds Clouds and Weather More Information Page

### Mountain Leader Training. Introduction to mountain weather

Mountain Leader Training Introduction to mountain weather Mountain Weather Why worry about the weather! How is weather created! The atmosphere Weather systems Airmass modification Depressions and fronts

### Unit 2: Synoptic Scale (Regional) Weather & Climate

Unit 2: Synoptic Scale (Regional) Weather & Climate Synoptic scale: Length: ~1000km (~600miles) to ~6000km (~3500miles) ~Length of Alabama to the length of the U.S. Time: Hours to Days (up to 1 week) So

### SUBTROPICAL ANTICYCLONES & ASSOCIATED WEATHER CONDITIONS 20 FEBRUARY 2014

SUBTROPICAL ANTICYCLONES & ASSOCIATED WEATHER CONDITIONS 20 FEBRUARY 2014 In this lesson we: Lesson Description Discuss the THREE high pressure cells that affect South Africa: Location, identification,

### Introduction to Wildland Fire Management. REM 244: Introduction to Wildland Fire Management

Introduction to Wildland Fire Management Fireline Safety 101: Keep informed on fire weather conditions and forecasts REM 244: Introduction to Wildland Fire Management 3. Introduction to Fire Weather Surface

### FOR SUBSCRIBERS ONLY! - TRIAL PASSWORD USERS MAY NOT REPRODUCE AND DISTRIBUTE PRINTABLE MATERIALS OFF THE SOLPASS WEBSITE!

FOR SUBSCRIBERS ONLY! - TRIAL PASSWORD USERS MAY NOT REPRODUCE AND DISTRIBUTE PRINTABLE MATERIALS OFF THE SOLPASS WEBSITE! 1 NAME DATE GRADE 5 SCIENCE SOL REVIEW WEATHER LABEL the 3 stages of the water

### WEATHER AND CLIMATE practice test

WEATHER AND CLIMATE practice test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. What role does runoff play in the water cycle? a. It is the process in

### Satellite Weather And Climate (SWAC) Satellite and cloud interpretation

Satellite Weather And Climate (SWAC) Satellite and cloud interpretation Vermont State Climatologist s Office University of Vermont Dr. Lesley-Ann Dupigny-Giroux Vermont State Climatologist ldupigny@uvm.edu

### WEATHER THEORY Temperature, Pressure And Moisture

WEATHER THEORY Temperature, Pressure And Moisture Air Masses And Fronts Weather Theory- Page 77 Every physical process of weather is a result of a heat exchange. The standard sea level temperature is 59

### Read and study the following information. After reading complete the review questions. Clouds

Name: Pd: Read and study the following information. After reading complete the review questions. Clouds What are clouds? A cloud is a large collection of very tiny droplets of water or ice crystals. The

### UNIT IV--TEMPERATURE-MOISTURE RELATIONSHIP

UNIT IV--TEMPERATURE-MOISTURE RELATIONSHIP Weather is the most variable and often the most critical determinant of fire behavior. This is the first of several units that will deal with weather and its

### Water on Earth Unique Properties of Water Humidity Atmospheric Stability Clouds and Fog

GEO 101: PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Chapter 07: Water and Atmospheric Moisture Water on Earth Unique Properties of Water Humidity Atmospheric Stability Clouds and Fog Water on Earth The origin of water A scientific

### Chapter 9: Air Masses and Fronts. Air Masses. Source Regions. Air masses Contain uniform temperature and humidity characteristics.

Chapter 9: Air Masses and Fronts Air masses Contain uniform temperature and humidity characteristics. What Characterize Air Masses? What Define Fronts? Fronts Boundaries between unlike air masses. Air

### The Ideal Gas Law. Gas Constant. Applications of the Gas law. P = ρ R T. Lecture 2: Atmospheric Thermodynamics

Lecture 2: Atmospheric Thermodynamics Ideal Gas Law (Equation of State) Hydrostatic Balance Heat and Temperature Conduction, Convection, Radiation Latent Heating Adiabatic Process Lapse Rate and Stability

### [7] SD3.1 The student demonstrates an understanding of cycles influenced by energy from the

Cloud Types Levels Overview: During this project, students learn about different types of clouds and determine which type of cloud is most commonly overhead in their area over a period of four weeks. Objectives:

### Clouds, Fog, & Precipitation

firecatching.blogspot.com Kids.brittanica.com Clouds and fog are physically the same just location is different Fog is considered a stratus cloud at or near the surface What does one see when looking at

### Lecture 7a: Cloud Development and Forms

Lecture 7a: Cloud Development and Forms Why Clouds Form Cloud Types (from The Blue Planet ) Why Clouds Form? Clouds form when air rises and becomes saturated in response to adiabatic cooling. Four Ways

### 7613-1 - Page 1. Weather Unit Exam Pre-Test Questions

Weather Unit Exam Pre-Test Questions 7613-1 - Page 1 Name: 1) Equal quantities of water are placed in four uncovered containers with different shapes and left on a table at room temperature. From which

### Great Lakes snow belts Large-scale weather pattern. How precipitation organizes within the storms

Chapter 13: Lake-Effect Snowstorms Great Lakes snow belts Large-scale weather pattern How lake-effecteffect snowstorms develop How precipitation organizes within the storms The Great Lakes Snow Belts 80km

### Air Masses and Fronts

Air Masses and Fronts Air Masses The weather of the United States east of the Rocky Mountains is dominated by large masses of air that travel south from the wide expanses of land in Canada, and north from

### Summary Booklet Topic 8 Weather Patterns

Kingdom Schools Science Department Grade 5- Term 2 Name: Date: Section: Summary Booklet Topic 8 Weather Patterns Lesson 1 :How does Air move? Skill 8-1: Understand that air pressure is related to altitude,

### Chapter 6: Atmospheric Moisture

Chapter 6: Atmospheric Moisture I. The Impact of Atmospheric Moisture on the Landscape A. Atmospheric moisture influences landscape both in short term and long term. 1. Short term, with puddles, flooding,

### Education and Outreach Lesson Plan

Education and Outreach Lesson Plan Visit our online activities collection http://education.arm.gov/ Grade levels K 2 Common Covering Clouds Common Covering Clouds Approximate Time 1 1/2 hours, or two 45-minute

### Water, Phase Changes, Clouds

TUESDAY: air & water & clouds Water, Phase Changes, Clouds How can freezing make something warmer? 'warm air can hold more water' why? How do clouds form? The (extraordinary) properties of Water Physical

### Key Idea 1: Weather and Climate

Key Idea 1: Weather and Climate 1.1 What physical factors lead to variations in climate in different regions of the world Weather Climate The day to day changes in the atmosphere. It is constantly changing.

### Chapter 8 Circulation of the Atmosphere

Chapter 8 Circulation of the Atmosphere The Atmosphere Is Composed Mainly of Nitrogen, Oxygen, and Water Vapor What are some properties of the atmosphere? Solar Radiation - initial source of energy to

### The Sun and Water Cycle

reflect Have you ever jumped in a puddle or played in the rain? If so, you know you can get very wet. What you may not know is that a dinosaur could have walked through that same water millions of years

### Name: Date: LAB: Dew Point and Cloud Formation Adapted from Exploration in Earth Science, The Physical Setting, United Publishing Company, Inc.

Name: _ Date: LAB: Dew Point and Cloud Formation Adapted from Exploration in Earth Science, The Physical Setting, United Publishing Company, Inc. Introduction: Cumulus clouds are our puffy fair weather

### Weather Theory. Objective. Outline. Schedule. Equipment. Content. 1. The atmosphere Composition Circulation

Weather Theory Objective To develop basic understanding of weather theory. Outline The atmosphere Pressure Wind and Currents Moisture and Temperature Clouds Fronts Weather hazards Schedule Discussion 2:00

### Common Cloud Names, Shapes, and Altitudes:

Common Cloud Names, Shapes, and Altitudes: Low Clouds Middle Clouds High Clouds Genus Cumulus Cumulonimbus (extend through all 3 levels) Stratus Stratocumulus Altocumulus Altostratus Nimbostratus (extend

### But, could we force these clouds to create rain in the desert?

Clouds Exploration Phase How do clouds form? Above are fair weather cumulus (heaped/cotton ball) clouds. They do not form a single layer, as stratus clouds. They do not resemble wisps of hair, as cirrus.

### Effects of moisture on static stability & convection

Effects of moisture on static stability & convection Dry vs. "moist" air parcel: Lifting of an air parcel leads to adiabatic cooling. If the temperature of the parcel falls below the critical temperature

### Atmospheric Properties Short Study Guide

Name: Class: Date: Atmospheric Properties Short Study Guide Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Earth s atmosphere contains more

### Temperature. PJ Brucat

PJ Brucat Temperature - the measure of average kinetic energy (KE) of a gas, liquid, or solid. KE is energy of motion. KE = ½ mv 2 where m=mass and v=velocity (speed) 1 All molecules have KE whether solid,

### Operational Weather Analysis Chapter 11. Sounding Analysis

Introduction Chapter 11 Sounding Analysis The term sounding is used in meteorology to describe a vertical plot of temperature, dew point temperature, and wind above a specific location. It provides a picture

### Mesoscale Convective Systems. Supercell Thunderstorm

Chapter 18: Thunderstorm Ai Th d t Airmass Thunderstorm Mesoscale Convective Systems Frontal Squall Lines Frontal Squall Lines Supercell Thunderstorm Thunderstorm Thunderstorms, also called cumulonimbus

### 2. What continually moves air around in the atmosphere? 3. Which of the following weather systems is associated with clear, sunny skies?

DIRECTIONS Read the question and choose the best answer. Then circle the letter for the answer you have chosen. 1. Interactions between which set of systems affect weather and climate the most? A. Atmosphere,

### Clouds and What They Mean

Vocabulary and Writing Worksheet 1. Choose the best vocabulary word for each sentence and write it in the blank. dew point evaporation fog gas precipitation relative humidity a. Relative humidity refers

### ES 106 Laboratory # 6 MOISTURE IN THE ATMOSPHERE

ES 106 Laboratory # 6 MOISTURE IN THE ATMOSPHERE 6-1 Introduction By observing, recording, and analyzing weather conditions, meteorologists attempt to define the principles that control the complex interactions

### Fundamentals of Climate Change (PCC 587): Water Vapor

Fundamentals of Climate Change (PCC 587): Water Vapor DARGAN M. W. FRIERSON UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON, DEPARTMENT OF ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES DAY 2: 9/30/13 Water Water is a remarkable molecule Water vapor

### Seasonal & Daily Temperatures. Seasons & Sun's Distance. Solstice & Equinox. Seasons & Solar Intensity

Seasonal & Daily Temperatures Seasons & Sun's Distance The role of Earth's tilt, revolution, & rotation in causing spatial, seasonal, & daily temperature variations Please read Chapter 3 in Ahrens Figure

### Atmospheric Humidity. Chapter 4

Atmospheric Humidity Chapter 4 Circulation of Water in the Atmosphere A general definition of humidity is the amount of water vapor in the air. Remember, humidity is not constant through time or space,

### HUMIDITY AND PRECIPITATION

12 HUMIDITY AND PRECIPITATION In our previous lesson while discussing the composition of the atmosphere, we noted that water vapour, though a minor component, is a very important constituent of the atmosphere.

### V. Water Vapour in Air

V. Water Vapour in Air V. Water Vapour in Air So far we have indicated the presence of water vapour in the air through the vapour pressure e that it exerts. V. Water Vapour in Air So far we have indicated

### Weather and Climate Review

Weather and Climate Review STUFF YOU NEED TO KNOW and to UNDERSTAND! 1) Because water has a higher specific heat than land, water will warm and cool more slowly than the land will. Because of this: a)

### Name Class Date STUDY GUIDE FOR CONTENT MASTERY

Atmosphere SECTION 11.1 Atmospheric Basics In your textbook, read about the composition of the atmosphere. Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement. 1. Most of Earth s atmosphere

### MET Lecture 17 Lake-Effect Snowstorms

MET 4300 Lecture 17 Lake-Effect Snowstorms Lake Effect Storms Downwind of the Great Lakes, Great Salt Lake, etc. Cities in lake-effect snow belts: Syracuse (Italy), Rochester NY, Buffalo NY, Cleveland

### TOPIC: CLOUD CLASSIFICATION

INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, DELHI DEPARTMENT OF ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE ASL720: Satellite Meteorology and Remote Sensing TERM PAPER TOPIC: CLOUD CLASSIFICATION Group Members: Anil Kumar (2010ME10649) Mayank

### Assessment Schedule 2014 Earth and Space Science: Demonstrate understanding of processes in the atmosphere system (91414)

NCEA Level 3 Earth and Space Science (91414) 2014 page 1 of 7 Assessment Schedule 2014 Earth and Space Science: Demonstrate understanding of processes in the atmosphere system (91414) Evidence Statement

### Ocean Circulation and Climate. The Thermohaline Circulation

Ocean Circulation and Climate In addition to the atmospheric circulation heat is also transported to the poles by the ocean circulation. The ocean circulation is therefore an important part of the climate

### SEVERE AND UNUSUAL WEATHER

SEVERE AND UNUSUAL WEATHER Basic Meteorological Terminology Adiabatic - Referring to a process without the addition or removal of heat. A temperature change may come about as a result of a change in the

### Weather Basics. Temperature Pressure Wind Humidity. Climate vs. Weather. Atmosphere and Weather

Climate vs. Weather Atmosphere and Weather Weather The physical condition of the atmosphere (moisture, temperature, pressure, wind) Climate Long term pattern of the weather in a particular area Weather

### 1. The map below shows high-pressure and low-pressure weather systems in the United States.

1. The map below shows high-pressure and low-pressure weather systems in the United States. 6. Which map correctly shows the wind directions of the highpressure and low-pressure systems? 1) 2) Which two

### Study Guide: Water Cycle & Humidity

Earth Science Name Date Per. Study Guide: Water Cycle & Humidity 1. Explain the difference between Specific Humidity and Relative Humidity. Specific humidity refers to the actual amount of water vapor

### Clouds and the Energy Cycle

August 1999 NF-207 The Earth Science Enterprise Series These articles discuss Earth's many dynamic processes and their interactions Clouds and the Energy Cycle he study of clouds, where they occur, and

### Chapter 8 Global Weather Systems

Chapter 8 Global Weather Systems Global Weather Systems Low-latitudes Hadley Cell Circulation Wet near the equator Dry near 20-30 N and 20-30 S Periods of wet and dry in between Easterly Winds (NE & SE

### CGC1D1: Interactions in the Physical Environment Factors that Affect Climate

Name: Date: Day/Period: CGC1D1: Interactions in the Physical Environment Factors that Affect Climate Chapter 12 in the Making Connections textbook deals with Climate Connections. Use pages 127-144 to fill

### Precipitation forms from water droplets or ice crystals.

KEY CONCEPT Water falls to Earth s surface as precipitation. BEFORE, you learned Water moves between Earth's surface and the atmosphere Water vapor condenses into clouds NOW, you will learn How precipitation

### Name: OBJECTIVES Correctly define: WEATHER BASICS: STATION MODELS: MOISTURE: PRESSURE AND WIND: Weather

Name: OBJECTIVES Correctly define: air mass, air pressure, anemometer, barometer, cyclone, dew point, front, isobar, isotherm, meteorology, precipitation, psychrometer, relative humidity, saturated, transpiration

### Global Wind and Pressure Belts as a Response to the Unequal Heating of the Atmosphere

LESSON 2: GLOBAL AIR CIRCULATION Key Concepts In this lesson we will focus on summarising what you need to know about: The mechanics present to create global wind and pressure belts as a response to the

### Lornshill Academy. Geography Department. National Revision. Physical Environments Weather

Lornshill Academy Geography Department National Revision Physical Environments Weather Weather Revision Sheets What you need to know: 1. Factors that affect the weather: a) latitude; b) altitude; c) distance

### The Clouds Outside My Window. National Weather Service NOAA

The Clouds Outside My Window National Weather Service NOAA The Clouds Out My Window Written and illustrated by John Jensenius My window With help from Owlie Skywarn 1 The Clouds Outside My Window Whether

Convec,on, cloud and radia,on Convection redistributes the thermal energy yielding (globally-averaged), a mean lapse rate of ~ -6.5 o C/km. Radiative processes tend to produce a more negative temperature

### Weather Theory. Chapter 11. Introduction

Chapter 11 Weather Theory Introduction Weather is an important factor that influences aircraft performance and flying safety. It is the state of the atmosphere at a given time and place, with respect to

### In a majority of ice-crystal icing engine events, convective weather occurs in a very warm, moist, tropical-like environment. aero quarterly qtr_01 10

In a majority of ice-crystal icing engine events, convective weather occurs in a very warm, moist, tropical-like environment. 22 avoiding convective Weather linked to Ice-crystal Icing engine events understanding

### Geology 1347 Meteorology

Geology 1347 Meteorology Exam 1 Review 1. Carbon dioxide enters the atmosphere: a. mainly through the decay of vegetation b. volcanic eruptions c. exhalations of animal life d. burning of fossil fuels

### Make a Cloud Finder. How to Fold the Cloud Finder: Play the Weather Word Game:

Make a Cloud Finder Make a Cloud Finder. The pattern is included here. Learn the names of the beautiful clouds that may appear in the sky where you live. Color your Cloud Finder, and cut it out on the