Basics of weather interpretation

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Basics of weather interpretation"

Transcription

1 Basics of weather interpretation Safety at Sea Seminar, April 2 nd 2016 Dr. Gina Henderson Oceanography Dept., USNA Image source: accessed 03/03/13

2 The goal of this session is to: Understand main features on a surface weather chart Cloud interpretation as it relates to sailing conditions Severe weather on the Bay & en route to Bermuda Introduce upper atmospheric mb specifically Image source:

3 Weather products from NOAA Ocean Prediction Center

4 Weather products from NOAA Ocean Prediction Center

5 Weather products from NOAA Ocean Prediction Center

6 Let us identify some features on this Surface Analysis map: Image source:

7 Let us identify some features on this Surface Analysis map: Surface map ISSUED à time analysis was released VALID à Time conditions apply UTC/GMT/Zulu time Image source:

8 Let us identify some features on this Surface Analysis map: H vs. L? H vs. L relative to what? Mean sea level pressure à 1013 millibars Pressure gradients? Fronts? Image source:

9 Pressure gradients: At the surface winds cross the isobars toward low pressure and away from high pressure

10 Surface High pressure center Winds diverge at center Clockwise (anticyclonic flow) Surface Low pressure center Winds converge at center Counter-clockwise (cyclonic flow)

11 Wind 101 Wind à horizontal movement of air Naming wind o From source direction

12 Wind 101 Measuring wind speed o Knots o MPH o Beaufort Scale. force 1-12

13 Pressure Gradient Increased gradient à increased wind speed

14 Let us identify some features on this Surface Analysis map: Where are the strongest winds on this chart? What direction are they flowing? Image source:

15 Let us identify some features on this Surface Analysis map: Interpreting a station model Image source:

16 Let us identify some features on this Surface Analysis map: Interpreting a station model Image source:

17 Interpreting a station model

18 Interpreting a station model

19 Interpreting a station model

20 Interpreting a station model: What information are we given? Surface pressure (upper right) Pressure tendency (not shown here) Wave height (lower right) Temperature (upper left) Dew point temp (lower left) Wind speed & direction Sky conditions (middle) Sea surface temp (lower middle)

21 Interpreting a station model: What information are we given? Pressure range is 960 mb to 1060 mb. You must decide if a 9 or 10 should go in front of the pressure.

22 Interpreting a station model: What information are we given? 10.9 In this case mb 109 Pressure range is 960 mb to 1060 mb. You must decide if a 9 or 10 should go in front of the pressure.

23 Interpreting a station model: What information are we given? Surface pressure (upper right) Pressure tendency (not shown here) Wave height (lower right) Temperature (upper left) Dew point temp (lower left) Wind speed & direction Sky conditions (middle) Sea surface temp (lower middle)

24 What can clouds tell us about approaching weather systems?

25 Sky conditions: Cloud types & identification Named based on: Height Shape

26 Cirrus = thin and wispy

27 Stratus = flat clouds in layers

28 Cumulus = puffy clouds in heaps

29 Nimbostratus = rain (grey in color)

30 Cumulonimbus = thunderstorm

31 4 main types of thunderstorms, depending on how organized the system is Airmass à away from frontal boundary driven by intense surface heating, rarely produces hail/tornadoes 2. Squall line à a line of storms, often along a frontal boundary Associated with heavy precipitation, winds and potentially hail/tornadoes

32 4 main types of thunderstorms, depending on how organized the system is Multi-cell à storms occur in clusters Most common in spring/summer 4. Supercellà most intense and severe Supercell thunderstorm updrafts ALWAYS rotate

33 Thunderstorm clouds -- green tinge may indicate presence of hail

34 Thunderstorm clouds -- Hook echo, Tulsa 03/30/16

35 Squall Line Long line of thunderstorms o individual cells are so close together the heavy precipitation forms a long continuous line Typically form along an advancing cold front o Sometimes associated with a cold front aloft Can be hundreds of miles long Most commonly associated with strong straight-line winds o Can produce hail and/or tornadoes, too Called squall because of the abrupt wind changes

36 Squall Lines Squall line thunderstorms

37 Squall Lines Squall line thunderstorms L

38 Squall line approaching Memphis, TN. Note the heaviest precip is along the leading (eastern) edge of the line, with moderate but still continuous rainfall occurring 100+ km behind (to the west) of the line

39 Shelf cloud: found along the leading edge of the gust front

40 Squall Lines

41 Squall Lines

42 Let us identify some features on this Surface Analysis map: Pressure gradients Fronts? A front is a transition zone between two air masses of different temperature and moisture content (they have different densities) Image source:

43 Air Masses have uniform temperature & moisture characteristics Figure 5.21

44 Let us identify some features on this Surface Analysis map: Fronts, 4 main types 1. A stationary front 2. A cold front 3. A warm front 4. An occluded front Image source:

45 Mid latitude cyclones = clash of two different air mass types!

46 Image source: accessed 04/01/14 Let us compare the surface observations ahead, and behind the front

47 Stationary Front Cold air. X Warm air Cloud types depend on the atmospheric stability Precipitation intensity depends on the situation

48 Cold Front marks the front of a cold air mass How is it represented on a map? What type of clouds and weather is it associated with?

49 Warm Front marks the front of a warm air mass How is it represented on a map? What type of clouds and weather is it associated with?

50 Occluded Front Clouds and precipitation depend on the atmospheric stability

51 The following criteria are used to locate fronts: 1. Sharp temperature changes 2. Sharp dew point changes 3. Wind shift lines 4. Pressure changes (pressure tendency ) 5. The presence of clouds and precipitation

52 cp mp The following criteria are used to locate fronts: ct mt 1. Sharp temperature changes 2. Sharp dew point changes 3. Wind shift lines 4. Pressure changes (pressure tendency ) 5. The presence of clouds and precipitation

53 Interpreting a station model: What information are we given? Surface pressure (upper right) Pressure tendency (not shown here) Wave height (lower right) Temperature (upper left) Dew point temp (lower left) Wind speed & direction Sky conditions (middle) Sea surface temp (lower middle) Water holding capacity of atmosphere.. Amount of water in atmosphere. Dew point depression = T - TD

54 Image source: accessed 04/01/14

55 How do we forecast where surface systems will move? Look UP!

56 Let us identify some features on this Surface Analysis map: Where will our surface systems move to? Will they intensify or weaken? Image source:

57 500mb Chart: forecast -- Gives us the height where we reach 500mb of pressure

58 500mb Chart vs. Surface chart

59 500mb Chart: forecast -- Also called the steering level of the atmosphere

60 Let us track where our surface Low and surface High go... L H

61 24-hour forecasted surface map

62 Weather products from NOAA Ocean Prediction Center

63 24-hour wind & wave product

64 24-hour wind & wave product Wave height (ft) = total height from crest to trough

65 Hurricanes Atlantic hurricane season runs from June 1st to November 30th

66 Hurricanes Atlantic hurricane season runs from June 1st to November 30th

67 The goal of this session is to: ü Understand main features on a surface weather chart ü Cloud interpretation as it relates to sailing conditions ü Severe weather on the Bay & en route to Bermuda Dr. Gina Henderson Oceanography Dept., USNA ü Introduce upper atmospheric mb specifically Image source:

Unit 2: Synoptic Scale (Regional) Weather & Climate

Unit 2: Synoptic Scale (Regional) Weather & Climate Unit 2: Synoptic Scale (Regional) Weather & Climate Synoptic scale: Length: ~1000km (~600miles) to ~6000km (~3500miles) ~Length of Alabama to the length of the U.S. Time: Hours to Days (up to 1 week) So

More information

Reading a Weather Map

Reading a Weather Map Name Reading a Weather Map by Cindy Grigg Answer the following questions BEFORE you read this book. It is okay if you do not know as much as you thought. Do the best you can! 1. What kinds of information

More information

Mid latitude Cyclonic Storm System. 08 _15 ab. jpg

Mid latitude Cyclonic Storm System. 08 _15 ab. jpg Mid latitude Cyclonic Storm System 08 _15 ab. jpg Mid Latitude Cyclone Storm System (MLCSS) It has several names. Cyclone, Cyclonic Storm, Cyclonic System, Depression. Cyclonic Storms are the weather maker

More information

Chapter 8 Global Weather Systems

Chapter 8 Global Weather Systems Chapter 8 Global Weather Systems Global Weather Systems Low-latitudes Hadley Cell Circulation Wet near the equator Dry near 20-30 N and 20-30 S Periods of wet and dry in between Easterly Winds (NE & SE

More information

Hurricane Naming, Track, Structure Tropical Cyclone Development

Hurricane Naming, Track, Structure Tropical Cyclone Development Chapter 24: Tropical Cyclones Hurricane Naming, Track, Structure Tropical Cyclone Development Hurricane Characteristics Definition: Hurricanes have sustained winds of 120 km/hr (74 mph) or greater. Size:

More information

Weather Map Analysis Lab

Weather Map Analysis Lab Weather Map Analysis Lab Background: The purpose of this lab is to illustrate the construction and use of weather maps and to help you identify air masses, fronts and mid-latitude cyclones on weather maps.

More information

Weather: is the short term, day-to-day condition of the atmosphere

Weather: is the short term, day-to-day condition of the atmosphere Weather Weather: is the short term, day-to-day condition of the atmosphere Meteorology the scientific study of the atmosphere They focus on physical characteristics and motion and how it relates to chemical,

More information

LAB I - ATMOSPHERE AND CLIMATE LAB III AIR MASSES, FRONTS AND STORMS

LAB I - ATMOSPHERE AND CLIMATE LAB III AIR MASSES, FRONTS AND STORMS Introduction LAB I - ATMOSPHERE AND CLIMATE LAB III AIR MASSES, FRONTS AND STORMS This lab will provide students the opportunity to operationalize all of the concepts introduced in Chapters 3-7. Students

More information

Name: OBJECTIVES Correctly define: WEATHER BASICS: STATION MODELS: MOISTURE: PRESSURE AND WIND: Weather

Name: OBJECTIVES Correctly define: WEATHER BASICS: STATION MODELS: MOISTURE: PRESSURE AND WIND: Weather Name: OBJECTIVES Correctly define: air mass, air pressure, anemometer, barometer, cyclone, dew point, front, isobar, isotherm, meteorology, precipitation, psychrometer, relative humidity, saturated, transpiration

More information

Storm Type. Mteor 417 Iowa State University Week 8 Bill Gallus

Storm Type. Mteor 417 Iowa State University Week 8 Bill Gallus Storm Type Mteor 417 Iowa State University Week 8 Bill Gallus Three Major Types of Storms Single Cell Multicell Supercell Single Cell (Ordinary Cell) A) Forecasting Hints 1. Generally occur with instability

More information

Chapter 9: Air Masses and Fronts. Air Masses. Source Regions. Air masses Contain uniform temperature and humidity characteristics.

Chapter 9: Air Masses and Fronts. Air Masses. Source Regions. Air masses Contain uniform temperature and humidity characteristics. Chapter 9: Air Masses and Fronts Air masses Contain uniform temperature and humidity characteristics. What Characterize Air Masses? What Define Fronts? Fronts Boundaries between unlike air masses. Air

More information

Air mass & Frontal depression

Air mass & Frontal depression Air mass & Frontal depression An air mass is a large body of air, with a reasonably uniform temperature, humidity and pressure. It can have a horizontal extension of thousands square miles and adopts the

More information

4 4.1 Summarize the processes of the water cycle (including evaporation, condensation, precipitation, and runoff).

4 4.1 Summarize the processes of the water cycle (including evaporation, condensation, precipitation, and runoff). 4 4.1 Summarize the processes of the water cycle (including evaporation, condensation, precipitation, and runoff). The Water Cycle Water changes form and cycles between the surface, the air, and back again.

More information

Weather Forecasting Webquest. Name

Weather Forecasting Webquest. Name Weather Forecasting Webquest Name Begin by going to the following website: http://www.oar.noaa.gov/k12/html/forecasting2.html Click on the Get info.1 link Weather Symbols Click on the symbols site. Read

More information

Earth s Atmosphere: Some Facts.

Earth s Atmosphere: Some Facts. Some terminology Weather is the state of the atmosphere at a given place and time. Temperature, precipitation, cloudiness, humidity, and wind are all components of weather. Climate is a composite of weather

More information

Storms Short Study Guide

Storms Short Study Guide Name: Class: Date: Storms Short Study Guide Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. A(n) thunderstorm forms because of unequal heating

More information

08 _15 ab. jpg. Mid latitude Cyclonic Storm System The Cloud Shield is Usually Comma Shaped with the Head around the

08 _15 ab. jpg. Mid latitude Cyclonic Storm System The Cloud Shield is Usually Comma Shaped with the Head around the 08 _15 ab. jpg Mid latitude Cyclonic Storm System The Cloud Shield is Usually Comma Shaped with the Head around the Low Pressure Center and the Tail Just ahead of the Cold Front Mid Latitude Cyclone Storm

More information

Read and study the following information. After reading complete the review questions. Clouds

Read and study the following information. After reading complete the review questions. Clouds Name: Pd: Read and study the following information. After reading complete the review questions. Clouds What are clouds? A cloud is a large collection of very tiny droplets of water or ice crystals. The

More information

2. The map below shows high-pressure and low-pressure weather systems in the United States.

2. The map below shows high-pressure and low-pressure weather systems in the United States. 1. Which weather instrument has most improved the accuracy of weather forecasts over the past 40 years? 1) thermometer 3) weather satellite 2) sling psychrometer 4) weather balloon 6. Wind velocity is

More information

Hurricanes. Characteristics of a Hurricane

Hurricanes. Characteristics of a Hurricane Hurricanes Readings: A&B Ch. 12 Topics 1. Characteristics 2. Location 3. Structure 4. Development a. Tropical Disturbance b. Tropical Depression c. Tropical Storm d. Hurricane e. Influences f. Path g.

More information

WEATHER THEORY Temperature, Pressure And Moisture

WEATHER THEORY Temperature, Pressure And Moisture WEATHER THEORY Temperature, Pressure And Moisture Air Masses And Fronts Weather Theory- Page 77 Every physical process of weather is a result of a heat exchange. The standard sea level temperature is 59

More information

How to analyze synoptic-scale weather patterns Table of Contents

How to analyze synoptic-scale weather patterns Table of Contents How to analyze synoptic-scale weather patterns Table of Contents Before You Begin... 2 1. Identify H and L pressure systems... 3 2. Locate fronts and determine frontal activity... 5 3. Determine surface

More information

Interpreting weather charts

Interpreting weather charts Page 1 of 14 Home Learning centre Secondary Students Interpreting weather charts Weather data Primary Secondary Higher UK climate Webcams Resources Interpreting weather charts Introduction Weather systems

More information

Air Masses and Fronts

Air Masses and Fronts Air Masses and Fronts Air Masses The weather of the United States east of the Rocky Mountains is dominated by large masses of air that travel south from the wide expanses of land in Canada, and north from

More information

Air masses, fronts and cyclones

Air masses, fronts and cyclones Air masses, fronts and cyclones G Aims Air masses, fronts and cyclones To explain the seasonal changes in weather patterns in the midlatitudes To outline the sequence of stages in the life cycle of a migrating

More information

Mesoscale Convective Systems. Supercell Thunderstorm

Mesoscale Convective Systems. Supercell Thunderstorm Chapter 18: Thunderstorm Ai Th d t Airmass Thunderstorm Mesoscale Convective Systems Frontal Squall Lines Frontal Squall Lines Supercell Thunderstorm Thunderstorm Thunderstorms, also called cumulonimbus

More information

How Can You Predict When Severe Weather Will Occur?

How Can You Predict When Severe Weather Will Occur? 4.7 Explain How Can You Predict When Severe Weather Will Occur? In this Learning Set, you have been exploring how winds and oceans affect weather and climate. You then used what you know to explain how

More information

Benchmark Study Guide S6E4 Weather Review. Name Date

Benchmark Study Guide S6E4 Weather Review. Name Date Benchmark Study Guide S6E4 Weather Review Name Date S6E4 Students will understand how the distribution of land and oceans affects climate and weather. a. Demonstrate that land and water absorb and lose

More information

List the Oceans that hurricanes can form in. (There should be 4) Describe the shape of the winds and the direction that they spin.

List the Oceans that hurricanes can form in. (There should be 4) Describe the shape of the winds and the direction that they spin. Heat Transfer Tab: (Use the textbook or the ScienceSaurus book) Box 1: Radiation: (on the colored tab) Draw a picture (on the white tab directly below it) Box 2: Convection: (on the colored tab) Draw a

More information

DO NOT WRITE ON THIS PAPER WEATHER NOTES WARM/COLD FRONTS

DO NOT WRITE ON THIS PAPER WEATHER NOTES WARM/COLD FRONTS WEATHER NOTES WARM/COLD FRONTS What is a Front? Definition: A narrow transition zone, or boundary, between disparate synoptic scale air masses whose primary discontinuity is density. It is synoptic scale

More information

Weather Theory. Objective. Outline. Schedule. Equipment. Content. 1. The atmosphere Composition Circulation

Weather Theory. Objective. Outline. Schedule. Equipment. Content. 1. The atmosphere Composition Circulation Weather Theory Objective To develop basic understanding of weather theory. Outline The atmosphere Pressure Wind and Currents Moisture and Temperature Clouds Fronts Weather hazards Schedule Discussion 2:00

More information

3. Lines on a weather map that connect points of equal air pressure are A. isotherms B. isobars C. cold fronts D. warm fronts

3. Lines on a weather map that connect points of equal air pressure are A. isotherms B. isobars C. cold fronts D. warm fronts 1. The chart shows the relationship between altitude and air pressure. What is the approximate air pressure at an altitude of 22 kilometers? A. 40 millibars B. 120 millibars C. 200 millibars D. 400 millibars

More information

SUBTROPICAL ANTICYCLONES & ASSOCIATED WEATHER CONDITIONS 20 FEBRUARY 2014

SUBTROPICAL ANTICYCLONES & ASSOCIATED WEATHER CONDITIONS 20 FEBRUARY 2014 SUBTROPICAL ANTICYCLONES & ASSOCIATED WEATHER CONDITIONS 20 FEBRUARY 2014 In this lesson we: Lesson Description Discuss the THREE high pressure cells that affect South Africa: Location, identification,

More information

Weather Forecasting - Introduction

Weather Forecasting - Introduction Chapter 14 - Weather Forecasting Weather Forecasting - Introduction Weather affects nearly everyone nearly every day Weather forecasts are issued: to save lives reduce property damage reduce crop damage

More information

Identify how scientists measure weather conditions in different parts of the atmosphere. Compare 2 types of satellite image s.

Identify how scientists measure weather conditions in different parts of the atmosphere. Compare 2 types of satellite image s. Lesson 3 Weather Forecasts LA.6.2.2.3, MA.6.A.3.6, SC.6.E.7.7, SC.6.N.1.1, SC.6.N.3.4 Skim or scan the heading, boldfaced words, and pictures in the lesson. Identify or predict three facts you will learn

More information

WeatherBug Vocabulary Bingo

WeatherBug Vocabulary Bingo Type of Activity: Game: Interactive activity that is competitive, and allows students to learn at the same time. Activity Overview: WeatherBug Bingo is a fun and engaging game for you to play with students!

More information

Geography Grade 10. Lesson 1. Global Pressure Systems

Geography Grade 10. Lesson 1. Global Pressure Systems Geography Grade 10 Lesson 1 A low pressure system over an area can cause rain and strong winds! The table below gives us some examples of low pressure systems over an area. Severe storms over South Coast

More information

Weather 1 page 1. Weather Map Analysis

Weather 1 page 1. Weather Map Analysis Weather 1 page 1 Weather Map Analysis Introduction Mid-latitude weather is largely influenced by processes that redistribute excess energy from the tropics to higher latitudes. It is the mid-latitudes

More information

Weather Systems, Hurricanes, Nili Harnik DEES, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory

Weather Systems, Hurricanes, Nili Harnik DEES, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory Weather Systems, Hurricanes, etc Nili Harnik DEES, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory nili@ldeo.columbia.edu Coriolis Force Coriolis force The Coriolis Force On Earth Cloud types, as a function of height

More information

Geog 531 Exercise #2 UNDERSTANDING SYNOPTIC CHARTS

Geog 531 Exercise #2 UNDERSTANDING SYNOPTIC CHARTS Geog 531 Exercise #2 UNDERSTANDING SYNOPTIC CHARTS (Please answer right on this handout where sketches are requested in Question # 1, # 4, and # 6b. For the other questions, type out your answers and staple

More information

Overview of today s s lecture

Overview of today s s lecture Overview of today s s lecture What is a mid-latitude cyclone? What are the main components? A (brief) history of where this idea came from How do MLCs form (i.e. what are the favorable ingredients?) What

More information

Weather Map Symbols, Abbreviations, and Features

Weather Map Symbols, Abbreviations, and Features Weather Map Symbols, Abbreviations, and Features Table of Contents 1. Symbols... 2 Pressure Systems/Fronts... 2 Precipitation... 3 Wind Speed... 4 Center pressures (on Surface Maps)... 4 2. Abbreviations...

More information

Winds. Winds on a weather map are represented by wind barbs; e.g., Notes:

Winds. Winds on a weather map are represented by wind barbs; e.g., Notes: Winds Winds on a weather map are represented by wind barbs; e.g., flag half flag pennant wind direction The wind is blowing from the side with the flags and pennants (think an arrow with feathers) Speeds

More information

Pressure, Forces and Motion

Pressure, Forces and Motion Pressure, Forces and Motion Readings A&B: Ch. 4 (p. 93-114) CD Tutorials: Pressure Gradients, Coriolis, Forces & Winds Topics 1. Review: What is Pressure? 2. Horizontal Pressure Gradients 3. Depicting

More information

LESSON 3 PREDICTING WEATHER. Chapter 7, Weather and Climate

LESSON 3 PREDICTING WEATHER. Chapter 7, Weather and Climate LESSON 3 PREDICTING WEATHER Chapter 7, Weather and Climate OBJECTIVES Describe high- and low- pressure systems and the weather associated with each. Explain how technology is used to study weather. MAIN

More information

Weather Notes with Poole Sailing It is a requirement of the SOLAS rules that we have a passage plan whenever we take a boat to sea, and an essential

Weather Notes with Poole Sailing It is a requirement of the SOLAS rules that we have a passage plan whenever we take a boat to sea, and an essential Weather Notes with Poole Sailing It is a requirement of the SOLAS rules that we have a passage plan whenever we take a boat to sea, and an essential part of that plan is an understanding of the weather

More information

WEATHER AND CLIMATE practice test

WEATHER AND CLIMATE practice test WEATHER AND CLIMATE practice test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. What role does runoff play in the water cycle? a. It is the process in

More information

Classic Anvil Shaped Thunderstorm

Classic Anvil Shaped Thunderstorm Classic Anvil Shaped Thunderstorm Many of the illustrations and explanations in this power point came from http://www.srh.weather.gov/jetstream/index.htm Overshooting Top Indicates Strong Updrafts Life

More information

Elements of the Weather

Elements of the Weather Elements of the Weather The weather is made up of different elements, which are measured either by special instruments or are observed by a meteorologist. These measurements are then recorded and used

More information

Weather and Climate Review

Weather and Climate Review Weather and Climate Review STUFF YOU NEED TO KNOW and to UNDERSTAND! 1) Because water has a higher specific heat than land, water will warm and cool more slowly than the land will. Because of this: a)

More information

Meteorology: Weather and Climate

Meteorology: Weather and Climate Meteorology: Weather and Climate Large Scale Weather Systems Lecture 1 Tropical Cyclones: Location and Structure Prof. Roy Thompson Crew building Large-scale Weather Systems Tropical cyclones (1-2) Location,

More information

1. The map below shows high-pressure and low-pressure weather systems in the United States.

1. The map below shows high-pressure and low-pressure weather systems in the United States. 1. The map below shows high-pressure and low-pressure weather systems in the United States. 6. Which map correctly shows the wind directions of the highpressure and low-pressure systems? 1) 2) Which two

More information

4 Forecasting the Weather

4 Forecasting the Weather CHAPTER 21 4 Forecasting the Weather SECTION Weather KEY IDEAS As you read this section, keep these questions in mind: How do weather stations communicate weather data? How do meteorologists create weather

More information

2 Atmospheric Pressure

2 Atmospheric Pressure 2 Atmospheric Pressure meteorology 2.1 Definition and Pressure Measurement 2.1.1 Definition Pressure acts in all directions, up and sideways as well as down, but it is convenient in meteorology to regard

More information

Earth's Atmosphere. The atmosphere is a thin layer of air that protects the Earth s surface from extreme temperatures and harmful sun rays

Earth's Atmosphere. The atmosphere is a thin layer of air that protects the Earth s surface from extreme temperatures and harmful sun rays The Atmosphere Earth's Atmosphere The atmosphere is a thin layer of air that protects the Earth s surface from extreme temperatures and harmful sun rays Thin Gaseous envelope What is Weather? State of

More information

Chapter 6. Atmospheric Moisture and Precipitation

Chapter 6. Atmospheric Moisture and Precipitation Chapter 6 Atmospheric Moisture and Precipitation The Hydrosphere Hydrosphere water in the earth-atmosphere atmosphere system Oceans and Salt Lakes 97.6% Ice Caps and Glaciers 1.9% (Not available for humans)

More information

Synoptic Weather Maps

Synoptic Weather Maps LAB 38 Synoptic Weather Maps Purpose Materials The purpose of this lab is to have you read and interpret the information displayed on synoptic weather maps. You will also learn the techniques used by meteorologists

More information

Description: This competition will test the student's knowledge of meteorological terms, techniques, and events.

Description: This competition will test the student's knowledge of meteorological terms, techniques, and events. Weather or Not Description: This competition will test the student's knowledge of meteorological terms, techniques, and events. Number of Participants: 2 Approximate Time: 45 minutes The Competition: 1.

More information

Mountain Leader Training. Introduction to mountain weather

Mountain Leader Training. Introduction to mountain weather Mountain Leader Training Introduction to mountain weather Mountain Weather Why worry about the weather! How is weather created! The atmosphere Weather systems Airmass modification Depressions and fronts

More information

Ocean and Weather. Name: Period: Date: Essential Question: How does the ocean affect climate and weather on land?

Ocean and Weather. Name: Period: Date: Essential Question: How does the ocean affect climate and weather on land? Ocean and Weather Name: Period: Date: Essential Question: How does the ocean affect climate and weather on land? On the left is the Illustration of major ocean currents throughout the globe. Ocean currents

More information

Meteorology Study Guide

Meteorology Study Guide Name: Class: Date: Meteorology Study Guide Modified True/False Indicate whether the sentence or statement is true or false. If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the sentence or statement

More information

THUNDER STORMS AND LIGHTNING. By: Kyle Clearly, Zach Weissinger, Nick Reimer

THUNDER STORMS AND LIGHTNING. By: Kyle Clearly, Zach Weissinger, Nick Reimer THUNDER STORMS AND LIGHTNING By: Kyle Clearly, Zach Weissinger, Nick Reimer STORM FACTS Nearly 2000 thunderstorms are in progress around the world. A typical thunder storm is 15 miles in diameter and last

More information

FOURTH GRADE WEATHER

FOURTH GRADE WEATHER FOURTH GRADE WEATHER 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES WATER CYCLE OVERVIEW OF FOURTH GRADE WATER WEEK 1. PRE: Comparing different reservoirs of water. LAB: Experimenting with surface tension and capillary

More information

MET 200 Lecture 19 Midlatitude Cyclones. Hallow s Eve Mask. Midlatitude Cyclones or Winter Storms

MET 200 Lecture 19 Midlatitude Cyclones. Hallow s Eve Mask. Midlatitude Cyclones or Winter Storms MET 200 Lecture 19 Midlatitude Cyclones Hallow s Eve Mask 1 2 Lecture 19 Midlatitude Cyclones Midlatitude Cyclones or Winter Storms Cyclogenesis Energy Source Life Cycle Air Streams Vertical Structure

More information

Chapter 3: Weather Map. Weather Maps. The Station Model. Weather Map on 7/7/2005 4/29/2011

Chapter 3: Weather Map. Weather Maps. The Station Model. Weather Map on 7/7/2005 4/29/2011 Chapter 3: Weather Map Weather Maps Many variables are needed to described weather conditions. Local weathers are affected by weather pattern. We need to see all the numbers describing weathers at many

More information

Characteristics of Northeast Winter Snow Storms

Characteristics of Northeast Winter Snow Storms Satellites, Weather, and Climate Module 19: Characteristics of Northeast Winter Snow Storms Dr. Jay Shafer Dec 8, 2011 Lyndon State College Jason.Shafer@lyndonstate.edu Outline Large scale structure of

More information

Weather Forecasting. DELTA SCIENCE READER Overview... 103 Before Reading... 104 Guide the Reading... 105 After Reading... 114

Weather Forecasting. DELTA SCIENCE READER Overview... 103 Before Reading... 104 Guide the Reading... 105 After Reading... 114 Weather Forecasting T ABLE OF CONTENTS ABOUT DELTA SCIENCE MODULES Program Introduction................... iii Teacher s Guide..................... iv Delta Science Readers................ vi Equipment

More information

Chapter 15: Hurricanes

Chapter 15: Hurricanes Chapter 15: Hurricanes Tropical weather & easterly waves Structure of a hurricane Hurricane formation theories Organized convection Heat engine driven by warm ocean Stages of development Hurricane formation

More information

Activity 7 Precipitation Patterns Level 2

Activity 7 Precipitation Patterns Level 2 Activity 7 Precipitation Patterns Level 2 http://www.uni.edu/storm/activities/level2/index.shtml Objective: Students will demonstrate the relationship between precipitation types and surface temperatures.

More information

Great Lakes snow belts Large-scale weather pattern. How precipitation organizes within the storms

Great Lakes snow belts Large-scale weather pattern. How precipitation organizes within the storms Chapter 13: Lake-Effect Snowstorms Great Lakes snow belts Large-scale weather pattern How lake-effecteffect snowstorms develop How precipitation organizes within the storms The Great Lakes Snow Belts 80km

More information

Unit 2: Weather Dynamics Investigating Weather Maps

Unit 2: Weather Dynamics Investigating Weather Maps UNIT 2 Chapter 2: Weather Forecasting Section 2.2 Unit 2: Weather Dynamics Investigating Weather Maps Science 10 Mrs. Purba UNIT 2 Investigating Weather Maps Section 2.2 What can a weather map tell you?

More information

Weather Unit Test. Page 1. 2 The cartoon below shows a strong wind blowing from right to left.

Weather Unit Test. Page 1. 2 The cartoon below shows a strong wind blowing from right to left. Name Weather Unit Test Page 1 1 The diagram below shows the flow of air over a mountain from point A to point C. Which graph best shows the approximate temperature change of the rising and descending air

More information

Lornshill Academy. Geography Department. National Revision. Physical Environments Weather

Lornshill Academy. Geography Department. National Revision. Physical Environments Weather Lornshill Academy Geography Department National Revision Physical Environments Weather Weather Revision Sheets What you need to know: 1. Factors that affect the weather: a) latitude; b) altitude; c) distance

More information

Chapter Overview. Seasons. Earth s Seasons. Distribution of Solar Energy. Solar Energy on Earth. CHAPTER 6 Air-Sea Interaction

Chapter Overview. Seasons. Earth s Seasons. Distribution of Solar Energy. Solar Energy on Earth. CHAPTER 6 Air-Sea Interaction Chapter Overview CHAPTER 6 Air-Sea Interaction The atmosphere and the ocean are one independent system. Earth has seasons because of the tilt on its axis. There are three major wind belts in each hemisphere.

More information

Exploring Florida: Teaching Resources for Science 1 of 6

Exploring Florida: Teaching Resources for Science 1 of 6 Exploring Florida: Teaching Resources for Science 1 of 6 Tropical Cyclones This document describes tropical cyclones and the dangers they pose to coastal populations. It is intended to help teachers improve

More information

PREDICTING THE WEATHER

PREDICTING THE WEATHER NAME DATE PARTNER(S) PREDICTING THE WEATHER How well does your local weatherman do in predicting the weather? Is he or she more accurate for the next day or for a week in the future? Why do you think that

More information

SIGNIFICANT WEATHER PROGNOSTIC CHARTS

SIGNIFICANT WEATHER PROGNOSTIC CHARTS SIGNIFICANT WEATHER PROGNOSTIC CHARTS Significant weather prognostic charts (progs) (Figure 11-1) portray forecasts of selected weather conditions at specified valid times. Each valid time is the time

More information

7613-1 - Page 1. Weather Unit Exam Pre-Test Questions

7613-1 - Page 1. Weather Unit Exam Pre-Test Questions Weather Unit Exam Pre-Test Questions 7613-1 - Page 1 Name: 1) Equal quantities of water are placed in four uncovered containers with different shapes and left on a table at room temperature. From which

More information

Chapter 3: Weather Map. Station Model and Weather Maps Pressure as a Vertical Coordinate Constant Pressure Maps Cross Sections

Chapter 3: Weather Map. Station Model and Weather Maps Pressure as a Vertical Coordinate Constant Pressure Maps Cross Sections Chapter 3: Weather Map Station Model and Weather Maps Pressure as a Vertical Coordinate Constant Pressure Maps Cross Sections Weather Maps Many variables are needed to described dweather conditions. Local

More information

Earth Science Lecture Summary Notes Chapter 7 - Water and Atmospheric Moisture

Earth Science Lecture Summary Notes Chapter 7 - Water and Atmospheric Moisture Earth Science Lecture Summary Notes Chapter 7 - Water and Atmospheric Moisture (based on Christopherson, Geosystems, 6th Ed., 2006) Prof. V.J. DiVenere - Dept. Earth & Environmental Science - LIU Post

More information

Storms. A storm can be defined as a disturbed state of the atmosphere, the

Storms. A storm can be defined as a disturbed state of the atmosphere, the Storms. A storm can be defined as a disturbed state of the atmosphere, the opposite of what we would call calm. Storms are a natural part of the environment, arising as a consequence of solar heating and

More information

Chapter 3 Weather Maps

Chapter 3 Weather Maps Chapter 3 Weather Maps Surface Station Model Used to plot surface weather observations on weather maps It shows: Temperature (deg F) Dewpoint Temperature (deg F) Coded Sea Level Pressure Wind speed and

More information

Severe Weather. Tornado

Severe Weather. Tornado Severe Weather Tornado Tornado A tornado (aka twister) is a violently rotating column of air (wind vortex) that is in contact with both the Earth surface and a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases, the

More information

If wispy, no significant icing or turbulence. If dense or in bands turbulence is likely. Nil icing risk. Cirrocumulus (CC)

If wispy, no significant icing or turbulence. If dense or in bands turbulence is likely. Nil icing risk. Cirrocumulus (CC) Cirrus (CI) Detached clouds in the form of delicate white filaments or white patches or narrow bands. These clouds have a fibrous or hair like appearance, or a silky sheen or both. with frontal lifting

More information

1. Isobars (i-so-bar from the Greek word isobares meaning of equal weight)

1. Isobars (i-so-bar from the Greek word isobares meaning of equal weight) 1. Isobars (i-so-bar from the Greek word isobares meaning of equal weight) Isobars are lines on a weather map that join places of equal pressure. Meteorologists collect information from weather stations,

More information

YEAR 1: Seasons and Weather

YEAR 1: Seasons and Weather YEAR 1: Seasons and Weather Contents Include: The four seasons Tools to record the weather Making graphs Clouds Weather forecasts Weather around the world Please Note: The activities included in this pack

More information

Acceleration. For an aircraft to experience a 1 g acceleration a wind velocity change of 9.8 m/s (18 kts) would be required.

Acceleration. For an aircraft to experience a 1 g acceleration a wind velocity change of 9.8 m/s (18 kts) would be required. Turbulence is irregular motion of the atmosphere The principal sources of turbulence are thermal, orographic and dynamical, acting separately or in combination. Turbulence of significance to the operation

More information

Weather. Weather is the set of environmental conditions encountered from day to day in a particular location.

Weather. Weather is the set of environmental conditions encountered from day to day in a particular location. WEATHER 1 Weather Weather is the set of environmental conditions encountered from day to day in a particular location. Climate is the set of environmental conditions averaged over many years for a geographic

More information

CHAPTER 6: WEATHER FOR SOARING

CHAPTER 6: WEATHER FOR SOARING CHAPTER 6: WEATHER FOR SOARING Weather patterns on Earth are complicated and chaotic. Weather is a result of the atmosphere s constant attempt to reach equilibrium. This equilibrium is continually upset

More information

QPort Marine Services

QPort Marine Services CHAPTER 4 Weather over the water Predicting changes and future developments to weather patterns over the ocean is an invaluable, albeit complex, science that is continually conducted in Australia by the

More information

SIXTH GRADE WEATHER 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

SIXTH GRADE WEATHER 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES SIXTH GRADE WEATHER 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES WATER CYCLE OVERVIEW OF SIXTH GRADE WATER WEEK 1. PRE: Evaluating components of the water cycle. LAB: Experimenting with porosity and permeability.

More information

Convective Clouds. Convective clouds 1

Convective Clouds. Convective clouds 1 Convective clouds 1 Convective Clouds Introduction Convective clouds are formed in vertical motions that result from the instability of the atmosphere. This instability can be caused by: a. heating at

More information

Name: Date: LAB: Weather Patterns Adapted from Exploration in Earth Science, The Physical Setting, United Publishing Company, Inc

Name: Date: LAB: Weather Patterns Adapted from Exploration in Earth Science, The Physical Setting, United Publishing Company, Inc Name: Date: LAB: Weather Patterns Adapted from Exploration in Earth Science, The Physical Setting, United Publishing Company, Inc Introduction: A basic principle in the Earth Sciences is that energy is

More information

Characteristics and Position of Africa s Major Climate Regions

Characteristics and Position of Africa s Major Climate Regions LESSON 3: AFRICA S CLIMATE REGIONS Key Concepts You must know, or be able to do the following: Name, understand the characteristics and position of Africa s major climate regions Be able to link the African

More information

Weather Help - Surface & Low Level Significant Weather Maps. Surface Weather Depiction

Weather Help - Surface & Low Level Significant Weather Maps. Surface Weather Depiction Weather Help - Surface & Low Level Significant Weather Maps Surface Weather Depiction Flight Conditions Ceiling Visibility Present Weather Wind Direction and Speed Color of station as well as labeled directly

More information

Key Idea 1: Weather and Climate

Key Idea 1: Weather and Climate Key Idea 1: Weather and Climate 1.1 What physical factors lead to variations in climate in different regions of the world Weather Climate The day to day changes in the atmosphere. It is constantly changing.

More information

Weather Charts. Natural History Museum of Utah Nature Unleashed Stefan Brems

Weather Charts. Natural History Museum of Utah Nature Unleashed Stefan Brems Across the world, many different charts of different formats are used by different governments. These charts can be anything from a simple prognostic chart, used to convey weather forecasts in a simple

More information

Humidity, Condensation, Clouds, and Fog. Water in the Atmosphere

Humidity, Condensation, Clouds, and Fog. Water in the Atmosphere Humidity, Condensation, Clouds, and Fog or Water in the Atmosphere The Hydrologic Cycle Where the Water Exists on Earth Evaporation From the Oceans and Land The Source of Water Vapor for the Atmosphere

More information

-ma, we see that the acceleration of a falling object (g) is g=g*m

-ma, we see that the acceleration of a falling object (g) is g=g*m Forces of Motion And Sir Isaac Newton Sir Isaac Newton, the father of mechanics, is one of the most important scientists who ever lived, changing the standards by which scientists think. His genius in

More information

The Syllabus Suggests.. Weather Made (Really) Simple

The Syllabus Suggests.. Weather Made (Really) Simple The Syllabus Suggests.. Weather Made (Really) Simple!!! As a Mountain Leader we Should!!!! Know where to obtain forecasts Interpret forecasts from various sources Apply them to our journey planning Recognise

More information