Chapter 3: Climate and Climate Change Answers

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1 Chapter 3: Climate and Climate Change Answers Section A: Climate 1. (a) Explain what each of the following means: (4 x 1 mark) (i) climate the average weather of an area over a year period (ii) maritime connected with or influenced by the sea (iii) temperate the area between the Earth s tropical and polar regions (iv) tropical the area either between the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn, north and south of the Equator Match the description with the climate types from the list given: (5 x 1 mark) Tropical Continental Dry Polar Maritime Hot, wet and humid all year Warm/hot summers, cold (often snowy) winters Hot and dry, may be several months without rain Very cold temperatures below or only just above freezing all year Warm summers and cool winters, rain throughout the year. (c) (i) Name the climate type (1 mark) polar (ii) Give two named locations which experience this type of climate (1 +1 mark) Arctic and Antarctic (iii) Explain why this climate type experiences very cold temperatures It is found in high latitudes, furthest away from the Equator at or near the North and South Poles where the sun is lower in the sky / the regions are further away from the sun. 2. (a) (i) What is the range of temperatures? (1 mark) 24 to 28 = 4 C Pearson Education Ltd

2 (ii) When is the wettest month? (1 mark) March (iii) What type of climate is this? (1 mark) tropical (rainforest) Explain why: (2 marks) Hot all year High annual rainfall, with one very wet and one less wet season (i) What type of climate is it? (1 mark) arid / hot desert (ii) Explain why: (2 marks) Very low annual rainfall Temperatures always above 15ºC, and very hot over 30ºC for almost half the year (c) Compare the two climate graphs. Describe the similarities and differences of the two climates shown by the graphs. Use data from both graphs in your answer. (4 marks for full marks must include both similarities and differences, plus reference to data.) In both, temperatures are quite high: although in the tropics it is between 24º 28ºC all year, in the arid area it has a greater range (15º 30ºC) The tropics is very wet (6 months with over 200mm per month), the arid region has very little rainfall (5 months with hardly any) 3. (a) (i) What type of climate does the Netherlands experience? (1 mark) Temperate maritime (ii) Explain why it is called this. (1 + 1 mark) Temperate: located in the temperate zone/band of latitude, midway between the tropical and polar latitudes. Maritime: influenced by the sea (i) Describe the path taken by the Gulf Stream. (2 marks) It flows north west along the Atlantic coast of South America into the Caribbean/Gulf of Mexico before turning north east off Florida. The current then travels across the North Atlantic to the west of the UK and mainland Europe before returning south via Iceland as a cold, deep water current Pearson Education Ltd

3 (ii) What effect does it have on the climate of the Netherlands? Explain why. (1 mark for effect, 1 for explanation.) It is a warm water current, so it keeps the coast of Western Europe warmer and ice free in winter compared to other coastlines at similar latitudes (c) There are small variations in climate in the Netherlands. Describe these, giving examples. (3 + 3 marks) Detail may vary but should include: (i) Temperature: decreases very gradually as you move from the south west to the north east, from 10.8 to 9.3 C. Examples student choice (may name regions/towns etc). (ii) Precipitation: ranges from 725 to 975 mm per year. It is slightly wetter along the north east coast and centre of the country. The drier areas are as you move eastwards inland and to the south, with the exception of Limburg in the south east, which is in the mid range. 4. (a) Biomes and ecosystems are made from both living and non living parts. Name these six parts. For each one indicate if it is living (L) or non living (NL). (1 mark for 4 5 correct, 2 for all 6) Soils (NL), Climate (NL), geology (NL), Relief (NL), Flora/plants (L), Fauna/animals (L) The parts of a biome or ecosystem are interdependent. Explain what this means using examples. (3 marks. Max 2 without examples) e.g. They work together as a unit or system, each part depending on the other e.g. the type of soil depends largely on the rock underneath (geology), which is broken down this depends on the climate. If the land is very steep (relief) the soil will be thin. The plants which grow on the soil which is formed are those which can tolerate the type of soil. Likewise the animals which feed off these particular plants are ones that need the nutrients in these types. (c) (i) What type of forest biome does it show? (1 mark) Coniferous forest (ii) What does the photo show about the type of climate it can grow in? (1 mark) Cold/snowy. May offer tundra as an answer. Polar is incorrect (too cold) (d) This type of forest has quite a low biodiversity. (i) Explain what this means. (1 mark) A small range of flora and fauna / plants and animals (ii) Why do you think it has low biodiversity? (2 marks) Cold climate, especially in winter. Discourages plant growth / lack of food for animals. (Total = 50 marks) Pearson Education Ltd

4 Section B: Climate Change 1. (a) Study the photo below showing tree rings. It is a reliable method of identifying climate change over hundreds of years. (i) Describe how tree rings show climate change. (2 marks) The spaces in between the rings (each ring is a year s growth) vary according to how wet/dry and cold/warm it has been. The bigger the spaces, the higher the temperatures and rainfall that year. (ii) Describe and explain a second accurate method of identifying past changes in climate. (2 marks) Ice cores. When ice forms it traps gases in it like CO 2. By analysing ice core differences in gas content over centuries can be identified. Explain how the following natural causes can cause changes in the Earth s climate. (2 + 2 marks) (i) solar activity: energy received by the Earth from the sun varies by about 1%, but it creates lower temperatures during an 11 year cycle. (ii) volcanic eruptions: ash and dust released into the atmosphere reflect incoming radiation back into space, causing temperatures on the Earth s surface to fall. (c) What essential role do forests play in balancing emissions which contribute to climate change? (2 marks) Trees absorb CO 2 so act as what we call carbon sinks. This CO 2 is stored in forests reducing the amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere. (d) Describe and explain how the following human activities are contributing to recent climate change. (3+3 marks) (i) Population growth (from 1 billion in 1800 to 7 billion today): more people = need for more space and more resources. More land is built on, more transport needed, more greenhouse gases released (ii) Industrialisation (Industrial Revolution to today): as countries industrialised, energy was needed to drive new machinery and new forms of transport. This increases the emission of greenhouse gases as energy is needed in factories, for transport and for homes. 2. (a) Name three major greenhouse gases. For each one, give one main source. (2+2+2 marks) Any 3 from: Carbon dioxide burning fossil fuels, deforestation, burning vegetation Methane decaying vegetation and organic matter; rice fields; wetlands Nitrous oxide nitrogen fertilisers; burning fossil fuels, biomass and wood Ozone occurs naturally in the atmosphere Halocarbons aerosols (some now restricted); coolants; insulation Pearson Education Ltd

5 What would happen to temperatures on the Earth s surface if there were no greenhouse gases in the atmosphere? (2 marks) They would fall by between C, making life on Earth as it is now almost impossible (c) Draw an annotated diagram to show how the greenhouse effect works. Include the words: greenhouse gases, atmosphere and radiation. (4 marks 3 for detail/accuracy of annotations and appropriate use of the given words, 1 for diagram) (d) What are the four main human causes of CO 2 emissions today? (3 right for 1 mark, all 4 for 2 marks) Factories/industrial processes Thermal power stations burning fossil fuels Vehicle and aircraft exhausts Burning large areas of forest and grassland (e) Why is it difficult to reduce CO 2 emissions? (3 marks) Increased industrialisation, especially as LDCs develop It could take years for the gases already in the atmosphere to decrease to acceptable levels Renewable energy sources are unlikely to be able to meet current energy needs yet 3. (a) Describe and explain how climate change may have a bad effect on: ( marks) (i) glaciers and tourism: glaciers will continue to melt, shrink and retreat. Lack of ice and snow may result in less tourists, less winter sports etc. (ii) some animal species: as temperatures change, some animals will not be able to survive in their current habitats and may have nowhere to go so become extinct e.g. polar bears in the Arctic (iii) extreme weather events: there may be an increase in tropical storms and hurricanes, causing more damage (i) Give two reasons why the melting of ice and ice sheets benefit us in the future. Use named examples in your answers. (2 + 2 marks) It could open up shipping routes currently unusable e.g. NW passage above Canada Ice covered parts of Greenland may melt as it warms up, allowing crops to be grown Pearson Education Ltd

6 (ii) Describe and explain one other benefit from increased temperatures. (1 mark for description, 1 mark for explanation.) e.g. one of: Some regions will have longer growing seasons, increasing crop yield Areas which are too cold to grow e.g. fruits and vines, will have the conditions needed to grow them successfully The tree line will move nearer the polar regions, increasing biodiversity (c) Describe four ways in which climate change could affect the Netherlands in the future. (4 x 1 mark) Average temperatures may rise between 1 2 C Rainfall may increase slightly and/or fall as heavier showers Different types of crops could be grown during longer, warmer growing seasons Rising sea levels could cause major flooding: sea defences will need to be made higher and stronger 4. (a) What is the difference between mitigation and adaption in terms of managing climate change? Give specific examples in your answers. (2 x 2 marks) Mitigation: is taking action on causes of climate change e.g. cutting greenhouse gas emissions Adaption: taking action to cope with the effects of climate change e.g. building stronger and higher defences against flooding from rising sea levels (i) When and where was the world s first Earth Summit held? (1 mark) 1992, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (ii) What were the two main topics discussed? (2 x 1 mark) How we should protect the environment The future use of the Earth s resources (iii) What important group was set up as a result of the summit? What is its main role? (1 + 1 mark) The United Nations Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to monitor and predict climate change (c) Explain why the Kyoto Treaty was so important. (2 marks) It was the first global treaty which set out to cut greenhouse gas emissions by introducing set targets (d) What do you think is more important for the Netherlands in managing future climate change mitigation or adaption? (6 marks) Pearson Education Ltd

7 Student choice should present their argument/opinion clearly but support it with examples/data. May choose to take a mixed route, with some mitigation and some adaption strategies. (Total = 50 marks) Section A = 50 marks Section B = 50 marks Total = 100 marks Pearson Education Ltd

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