1 Analyze Weather in Cold Regions and Mountainous Terrain
2 Terminal Learning Objective Action: Analyze weather of cold regions and mountainous terrain Condition: Given a training mission that involves a specified route or location on the ground or a map in a cold region, a map sheet of the route/location, a current weather forecast for the general area, altimeter and/or barometer (if available) and any other pertinent weather information or data. Standard: Analyze the weather for the route/location in terms of visibility, survivability and mobility and determine how each of these aspects affects the training/mission.
3 Forces that create weather: Sun, air movement, earth s rotation, oceans and land masses, cold fronts and warm fronts Weather depends upon: Air temperature, humidity, air pressure, how air is being moved and if the air is being lifted or not You should observe: Clouds, air pressure, wind direction/speed, temperature and humidity to help predict weather Some tools that you can use are thermometer, barometer/altimeter and wind meter.
4 The Sun: is the major force behind the weather does not heat the earth evenly; at the equator it heats the earth s surface with greater intensity than it does at the poles uneven heating results in air movement; temperature variations are ultimately responsible for all weather
5 Air Movement Air pressure is the weight of the atmosphere at any given place. Air that is cooled, sinks and is dense (heavier) air therefore the air pressure is high. Air that is heated is less dense and rises therefore the air pressure is low. The higher in altitude you go, the lower the air pressure will be.
6 Earth s Rotation H L L Prevailing Westerlies Polar Easterlies 60º N Jet Stream H H 30º N L L L L Northeast Trade Winds H H 30º S L L 60º S H
7 Oceans and Land Masses Maritime Zones: influenced by large bodies of water moderate to heavy precipitation is typical (deep snow pack) cool, wet summers and moderate, wet winters freeze thaw cycles more common in winter Continental Zones: inland areas; influenced by large land mass moderate to light precipitation is typical (shallow snow pack) hot summers, very cold winters freeze thaw cycles are rare in winter
8 Fronts Warm Front: warm air mass moves into and over a slower or stationary cold air mass; warm air is less dense and therefore moves up and over the cold air mass Cold Front: cold air mass overtakes a slower or stationary warm air mass; cold air forces the warm air up Occluded Front: Combination of warm front and cold front characteristics; occurs frequently over land Stationary Front: no significant air movement is occurring
9 HUMIDITY Humidity is the amount of moisture in the air Warm air can hold more moisture. Saturation=100% humidity If air is cooled beyond saturation point it will be released. Fog, rain, snow etc. Dew point is the temperature at which condensation occurs. Either dew or frost. Adiabatic lapse rate- temperature drops 3-5 degrees Fahrenheit per 1000 feet of elevation.
10 Adiabatic Lapse Rate
11 Formation of Clouds Convective Lifting: Sun s heat radiating off the earth s surface causing air currents (thermals) to rise straight up and lift air to point of saturation. Frontal Lifting: A front is formed when two air masses of different moisture content and temperature collide. Air masses will not mix, so the warmer air will lift until it reaches its saturation point. Produces majority of precipitation. Cyclonic Lifting: An area of low pressure pulls air into its center from all over in a counterclockwise direction. When air reaches the center of low pressure, it has nowhere to go but up. Air continues to lift until it reaches the saturation point.
12 Formation of Clouds Orographic Lifting: This happens when an air mass is pushed up an over a mass of higher ground such as a mountain. This is typical along coast regions with mountains. As the air mass moves up the mountain range, the moisture is released quickly and typically produces heavy precipitation. This is evident in the Cascade Range of the Pacific Northwest.
13 Cloud Types Low Level Mid Level High Level Vertical-Development Clouds Less Common Clouds
14 Cloud Types Low-Level Clouds: Either Cumulus or Stratus; mostly composed of water; two of the precipitating low level clouds are Nimbostratus clouds and Stratocumulus clouds feet.
19 Cloud Types Mid-Level Clouds: Middle clouds generally indicate fair weather, especially if they are rising over time. These clouds have the prefix alto. Deteriorating weather is indicated by lowering middle clouds though these storms are usually hours away to 20,000 feet.
20 Altocumulus Clouds: Mid Level
21 Altostratus Clouds: Mid Level
22 Cloud Types High-Level Clouds: These clouds are in the upper reaches of the troposphere (+20,000ft) and indicate moisture aloft and that precipitation is hours away. Cirrus and Cirrostratus are the most common. The only indicators of these clouds may be a halo or ring around the moon or sun.
23 Cirrus Clouds: High Level
24 Cirrostratus Clouds: High Level
25 Vertical Development Cloud Formations Cumulonimbus: generally in the shape of anvils. Produce the majority of thunderstorms. +39,000 ft. Generally start as cumulus that bunch together and begin to build by convective lifting. The result is usually afternoon thunderstorms. Can be violent with high wind, hail, lightning and possibly tornados. Fairly short lived.
26 Cumulonimbus Clouds: Thunderhead
27 Less Common Cloud Formations Orographic or Lenticular Clouds: Look similar to contact lenses. Indicate poor weather in the near future. Contrails: Exhaust from jets creates clouds in the upper atmosphere; evaporate quickly in fair weather; contrails that takes longer than 2 hours to evaporate indicate impending bad weather
28 Lenticular Clouds
29 Lenticular Clouds
30 Weather Prediction Some of the indicators that weather conditions will change/deteriorate significantly in the near future are: lenticular cloud formation cirrus clouds or halo around sun or moon (24-36 hours) thunderheads (cumulonimbus) thickening, lowering clouds falling barometer - decreasing barometric pressure general warming temperatures marked wind increases or direction shifts contrails that do not dissipate after 2 hours
31 Winds Velocity increases with altitude and is further enhanced by rapid rise over mountain barrier (orographic lifting) Velocity increases as wind funnels through narrowing valleys and passes (venturi effect) As the wind speed doubles, its force on an object quadruples Wind chill is another hazard created by winds
32 Wind velocity increases as it moves through a narrow pass or col.
33 Wind Chill AIR TEMPERATURE IN FAHRENHEIT WIND SPEED WIND SPEED BASED ON MEASURES AT 33 FEET HEIGHT. IF WIND SPEED MEASURED AT GROUND LEVEL, MULTIPLY BY 1.5 TO OBTAIN WIND SPEED AT 33 FEET IN HEIGHT AND THEN UTILIZE CHART.
34 Temperatures are -30º F or colder; heat or vapor source present and still air conditions Obscures vision and target recognition Hinders movement Ice Fog Leaves signature when weapons are fired or vehicles are operated Numerous supplementary positions are needed for weapons Can be used to conceal your movement
35 Blizzard High winds Blowing snow Reduced visibility Usually lasts 24 hours or less
36 Whiteout Loss of Depth Perception Units Should Stop and Wait Condition out
37 Temperature Inversion Cold air settles in low areas; warm air settles on top of cold Can be 20 F difference Bivouac site selection in this narrow band of elevation. Expect to see it in river valleys especially during periods of calm winds. Can be visible from higher elevation in the form of ice fog filling a valley
38 Looming Optical illusion that causes objects to appear closer than they actually are; causes problems with range estimation Normally occurs in extreme cold or hot dry air
39 Chinook Winds These are warm, dry winds that occur in the lee of high mountain ranges. It is a fairly common wintertime phenomena in the mountainous west and in parts of Alaska. These winds develop in well-defined areas and can be quite strong.
40 Aurora Borealis Caused by Charged Particles Produced by the Sun Occur All Year Aurora Borealis Activity Can Adversely Effect AM and satellite communications but may enhance FM communications In Southern Hemisphere Called Aurora Australis
41 Aurora Borealis
42 Lightning Thunderstorm conditions occur more frequently in continental ranges than maritime ranges Topography of mountains contributes to the formation of thunderstorms Ridges and peaks are focal points for lightning
43 Precautions in a Lightning Storm You should: avoid high risk areas for bivouacs such as peaks and high passes take note of building cumulonimbus clouds and plan to be in a low risk area as the day progresses seek lower ground if you are caught by a fast moving storm avoid wet lichen covered rock, drainages, standing under tall trees, crouching in shallow caves or under overhangs and being connected to climbing ropes insulate yourself from the ground; squat or sit on a sleeping pad or a bunched up climbing rope for example be spaced at least 15 feet apart from other individuals
44 Summary Action: Analyze weather of cold regions and mountainous terrain Condition: Given a training mission that involves a specified route or location on the ground or a map in a cold region, a map sheet of the route/location, a current weather forecast for the general area, altimeter and/or barometer (if available) and any other pertinent weather information or data. Standard: Analyze the weather for the route/location in terms of visibility, survivability and mobility and determine how each of these aspects affects the training mission.
WEATHER AND CLIMATE practice test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. What role does runoff play in the water cycle? a. It is the process in
Chapter 7 Stability and Cloud Development Atmospheric Stability 1 Cloud Development - stable environment Stable air (parcel) - vertical motion is inhibited if clouds form, they will be shallow, layered
CLOUDS Formation & Classification DR. K. K. CHANDRA Department of forestry, Wildlife & Environmental Sciences, GGV, Bilaspur What is Cloud It is mass of tiny water droplets or ice crystals or both of size
Vocabulary and Writing Worksheet 1. Choose the best vocabulary word for each sentence and write it in the blank. dew point evaporation fog gas precipitation relative humidity a. Relative humidity refers
Introduction to Climatology GEOGRAPHY 300 Cloud Development and Forms Tom Giambelluca University of Hawai i at Mānoa LIFTING MECHANISMS 1. Orographic 2. Frontal 3. Convergence 4. Convection Cloud Development
United States Army Northern Warfare Training Center Cold Weather (CWLC, CWOC & ALIT) Student Handout Winter 2011-2012 Battle Cold and Conquer Mountains Edition 11 October 2011 Table of Contents Subject
Cumulifor m clouds develop as air slowly rises over Lake Powell in Utah. Figure 6.1 Dew forms on clear nightswhen objects on the surface cool to a temperature below the dew point. If these beads of water
Type of Activity: Game: Interactive activity that is competitive, and allows students to learn at the same time. Activity Overview: WeatherBug Bingo is a fun and engaging game for you to play with students!
Chapter 6 - Cloud Development and Forms Understanding Weather and Climate Aguado and Burt Interesting Cloud 1 Mechanisms that Lift Air Orographic lifting Frontal Lifting Convergence Localized convective
Name Period 4 th Six Weeks Notes 2015 Weather Radiation Convection Currents Winds Jet Streams Energy from the Sun reaches Earth as electromagnetic waves This energy fuels all life on Earth including the
KEY CONCEPT Most clouds form as air rises and cools. BEFORE, you learned Water vapor circulates from Earth to the atmosphere Warm air is less dense than cool air and tends to rise NOW, you will learn How
Cirrus (CI) Detached clouds in the form of delicate white filaments or white patches or narrow bands. These clouds have a fibrous or hair like appearance, or a silky sheen or both. with frontal lifting
FOR SUBSCRIBERS ONLY! - TRIAL PASSWORD USERS MAY NOT REPRODUCE AND DISTRIBUTE PRINTABLE MATERIALS OFF THE SOLPASS WEBSITE! 1 NAME DATE GRADE 5 SCIENCE SOL REVIEW WEATHER LABEL the 3 stages of the water
WEATHER THEORY Temperature, Pressure And Moisture Air Masses And Fronts Weather Theory- Page 77 Every physical process of weather is a result of a heat exchange. The standard sea level temperature is 59
1. The map below shows high-pressure and low-pressure weather systems in the United States. 6. Which map correctly shows the wind directions of the highpressure and low-pressure systems? 1) 2) Which two
INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, DELHI DEPARTMENT OF ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE ASL720: Satellite Meteorology and Remote Sensing TERM PAPER TOPIC: CLOUD CLASSIFICATION Group Members: Anil Kumar (2010ME10649) Mayank
Cloud Types Levels Overview: During this project, students learn about different types of clouds and determine which type of cloud is most commonly overhead in their area over a period of four weeks. Objectives:
Chapter 6 Atmospheric Moisture and Precipitation The Hydrosphere Hydrosphere water in the earth-atmosphere atmosphere system Oceans and Salt Lakes 97.6% Ice Caps and Glaciers 1.9% (Not available for humans)
Common Cloud Names, Shapes, and Altitudes: Low Clouds Middle Clouds High Clouds Genus Cumulus Cumulonimbus (extend through all 3 levels) Stratus Stratocumulus Altocumulus Altostratus Nimbostratus (extend
Weather Weather: is the short term, day-to-day condition of the atmosphere Meteorology the scientific study of the atmosphere They focus on physical characteristics and motion and how it relates to chemical,
Chapter 6: Cloud Development and Forms (from The Blue Planet ) Why Clouds Form Static Stability Cloud Types Why Clouds Form? Clouds form when air rises and becomes saturated in response to adiabatic cooling.
TUESDAY: air & water & clouds Water, Phase Changes, Clouds How can freezing make something warmer? 'warm air can hold more water' why? How do clouds form? The (extraordinary) properties of Water Physical
Education and Outreach Lesson Plan Visit our online activities collection http://education.arm.gov/ Grade levels K 2 Common Covering Clouds Common Covering Clouds Approximate Time 1 1/2 hours, or two 45-minute
Stability & Cloud Development This chapter discusses: 1. Definitions and causes of stable and unstable atmospheric air 2. Processes that cause instability and cloud development Stability & Movement A rock,
Cloud Classification schemes 1) classified by where they occur (for example: high, middle, low) 2) classified by amount of water content and vertical extent (thick, thin, shallow, deep) 3) classified by
Clouds for pilots Ed Williams http://williams.best.vwh.net/ Clouds are important to pilots! Many of our weather problems are associated with clouds: Fog Thunderstorms Cloud In flight icing Cloud physics
The Clouds Outside My Window National Weather Service NOAA The Clouds Out My Window Written and illustrated by John Jensenius My window With help from Owlie Skywarn 1 The Clouds Outside My Window Whether
Satellite Weather And Climate (SWAC) Satellite and cloud interpretation Vermont State Climatologist s Office University of Vermont Dr. Lesley-Ann Dupigny-Giroux Vermont State Climatologist firstname.lastname@example.org
Name: Pd: Read and study the following information. After reading complete the review questions. Clouds What are clouds? A cloud is a large collection of very tiny droplets of water or ice crystals. The
Satellites, Weather and Climate Module 2b: Cloud identification & classification SSEC MODIS Today Our Cloud Watching and Identification Goals describe cloud classification system used by meteorologists
Lecture 7a: Cloud Development and Forms Why Clouds Form Cloud Types (from The Blue Planet ) Why Clouds Form? Clouds form when air rises and becomes saturated in response to adiabatic cooling. Four Ways
Atmosphere SECTION 11.1 Atmospheric Basics In your textbook, read about the composition of the atmosphere. Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement. 1. Most of Earth s atmosphere
NASA Facts National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov The Importance of Understanding Clouds One of the most interesting features of Earth, as seen from space, is the ever-changing distribution
Chapter 8 Global Weather Systems Global Weather Systems Low-latitudes Hadley Cell Circulation Wet near the equator Dry near 20-30 N and 20-30 S Periods of wet and dry in between Easterly Winds (NE & SE
Weather Unit Exam Pre-Test Questions 7613-1 - Page 1 Name: 1) Equal quantities of water are placed in four uncovered containers with different shapes and left on a table at room temperature. From which
Name: Date: Day/Period: CGC1D1: Interactions in the Physical Environment Factors that Affect Climate Chapter 12 in the Making Connections textbook deals with Climate Connections. Use pages 127-144 to fill
Stability and Cloud Development AT350 Why did this cloud form, whereas the sky was clear 4 hours ago? Stability in the atmosphere An Initial Perturbation Stable Unstable Neutral If an air parcel is displaced
KEY CONCEPT Climate is a long-term weather pattern. BEFORE, you learned The Sun s energy heats Earth s surface unevenly The atmosphere s temperature changes with altitude Oceans affect wind flow NOW, you
These 3 climate graphs and tables of data show average temperatures and precipitation for each month in Victoria, Winnipeg and Whitehorse: Figure 1.1 Month J F M A M J J A S O N D Year Precipitation 139
Section 3 What Is Climate? Key Concept Earth s climate zones are caused by the distribution of heat around Earth s surface by wind and ocean currents. What You Will Learn Climate is the average weather
SIXTH GRADE WEATHER 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES WATER CYCLE OVERVIEW OF SIXTH GRADE WATER WEEK 1. PRE: Evaluating components of the water cycle. LAB: Experimenting with porosity and permeability.
Activity 4 Clouds Over Your Head Level 1 1 Objectives: Students will become familiar with the four main types of clouds: stratus, cirrus, cumulus, and cumulonimbus and their characteristics. Students will
Clouds/WX Codes B.1 Introduction This appendix provides the necessary tables and specific instructions to enter Clouds/Wx at the Surface Data screen. This guidance assumes no previous knowledge of synoptic
Chapter 11 Weather Theory Introduction Weather is an important factor that influences aircraft performance and flying safety. It is the state of the atmosphere at a given time and place, with respect to
Weather Journals: a. copying forecast text b. figure captions c. linking figures with text d. citing source material e. units In the News: http://www.reuters.com In the News: warmer waters in the Pacific
Field Manual for the U.S. Antarctic Program Chapter 10 Weather Figure 10-1: Storm approaching. (photo by Tim Cully) Weather in Antarctica is characterized by extremes: extreme temperatures, extreme winds,
Climate and Climate Change Name Date Class Climate and Climate Change Guided Reading and Study What Causes Climate? This section describes factors that determine climate, or the average weather conditions
Name: Class: Date: Storms Short Study Guide Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. A(n) thunderstorm forms because of unequal heating
Select the be answer on the answer sheet. Please do not make any marks on this te. 1. Weather is be defined as the A. changes that occur in cloud formations from day to day. B. amount of rain or snow that
Air Masses and Fronts Air Masses The weather of the United States east of the Rocky Mountains is dominated by large masses of air that travel south from the wide expanses of land in Canada, and north from
Chapter Overview CHAPTER 6 Air-Sea Interaction The atmosphere and the ocean are one independent system. Earth has seasons because of the tilt on its axis. There are three major wind belts in each hemisphere.
firecatching.blogspot.com Kids.brittanica.com Clouds and fog are physically the same just location is different Fog is considered a stratus cloud at or near the surface What does one see when looking at
Severe Weather A Reading A Z Level T Leveled Book Word Count: 1,775 LEVELED BOOK T SEVERE WEATHER Written by Bruce D. Cooper Illustrated by Cende Hill Visit www.readinga-z.com for thousands of books and
CHAPTER 21 4 Forecasting the Weather SECTION Weather KEY IDEAS As you read this section, keep these questions in mind: How do weather stations communicate weather data? How do meteorologists create weather
Weather or Not Description: This competition will test the student's knowledge of meteorological terms, techniques, and events. Number of Participants: 2 Approximate Time: 45 minutes The Competition: 1.
Severe Weather A Reading A Z Level T Leveled Reader Word Count: 1,801 LEVELED READER T Written by Bruce D. Cooper Illustrations by Cende Hill Visit www.readinga-z.com for thousands of books and materials.
CHAPTER 5 Lectures 10 & 11 Air Temperature and Air Temperature Cycles I. Air Temperature: Five important factors influence air temperature: A. Insolation B. Latitude C. Surface types D. Coastal vs. interior
1. Which single factor generally has the greatest effect on the climate of an area on the Earth's surface? 1) the distance from the Equator 2) the extent of vegetative cover 3) the degrees of longitude
AS/A2-Level Geography Anticyclones, depressions, hot & drought, cold & snow Learning Objectives: To describe and explain the weather associated with high and low pressure systems and their links to extreme
SECOND GRADE WEATHER 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES WATER CYCLE OVERVIEW OF SECOND GRADE WATER WEEK 1. PRE: Exploring the properties of water. LAB: Experimenting with different soap mixtures. POST:
TEMPERATURE Temperature Data Daily Temperature High 90 F Low 60 F Daily Temperature Range? Difference between High & Low for Day Daily Average Temperature? Mid-point between High & Low for Day Temperature
Atmospheric Stability & Cloud Development Stable situations a small change is resisted and the system returns to its previous state Neutral situations a small change is neither resisted nor enlarged Unstable
SUBTROPICAL ANTICYCLONES & ASSOCIATED WEATHER CONDITIONS 20 FEBRUARY 2014 In this lesson we: Lesson Description Discuss the THREE high pressure cells that affect South Africa: Location, identification,
Southern AER Atmospheric Education Resource Vol. 9 No. 5 Spring 2003 Editor: Lauren Bell In this issue: g Climate Creations exploring mother nature s remote control for weather and Climate. g Crazy Climate
Humidity, Condensation, Clouds, and Fog or Water in the Atmosphere The Hydrologic Cycle Where the Water Exists on Earth Evaporation From the Oceans and Land The Source of Water Vapor for the Atmosphere
THIRD GRADE WEATHER 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES WATER CYCLE OVERVIEW OF THIRD GRADE WATER WEEK 1. PRE: Comparing the different components of the water cycle. LAB: Contrasting water with hydrogen
Fog and Cloud Development Bows and Flows of Angel Hair 1 Ch. 5: Condensation Achieving Saturation Evaporation Cooling of Air Adiabatic and Diabatic Processes Lapse Rates Condensation Condensation Nuclei
Water & Climate Review 1. The cross section below shows the direction of air flowing over a mountain. Points A and B are at the same elevation on opposite sides of the mountain. 4. The graph below shows
THUNDER STORMS AND LIGHTNING By: Kyle Clearly, Zach Weissinger, Nick Reimer STORM FACTS Nearly 2000 thunderstorms are in progress around the world. A typical thunder storm is 15 miles in diameter and last
Partnerships Implementing Engineering Education Worcester Polytechnic Institute Worcester Public Schools Supported by: National Science Foundation Weather: 4.H.3 Weather and Classical Instruments Grade
58 The Causes of Climate R E A D I N G Climates are described by the same conditions used to describe weather, such as temperature, precipitation, and wind. You now know that oceans have an important effect
How to analyze synoptic-scale weather patterns Table of Contents Before You Begin... 2 1. Identify H and L pressure systems... 3 2. Locate fronts and determine frontal activity... 5 3. Determine surface
KEY CONCEPT Water falls to Earth s surface as precipitation. BEFORE, you learned Water moves between Earth's surface and the atmosphere Water vapor condenses into clouds NOW, you will learn How precipitation
Name: _ Date: LAB: Dew Point and Cloud Formation Adapted from Exploration in Earth Science, The Physical Setting, United Publishing Company, Inc. Introduction: Cumulus clouds are our puffy fair weather
reflect Think of the last time it rained in your city. When the rain stopped, you probably saw puddles on the ground. After a few hours, though, the ground was dry again. Where did all that rainwater go?
Cloud Protocols Purpose To observe the type and cover of clouds including contrails Overview Students observe which of ten types of clouds and how many of three types of contrails are visible and how much
Name: Date: 1. Today weather forecasting is better because of the use of A. barometers. B. telescopes. C. satellites. D. anemometers. 2. The letter H is the weather symbol for A. hail storms. B. humidity.
13 CHAPTER TWO SOME CONCEPTS IN CLIMATOLOGY 2.1 The Adiabatic Process An important principle to remember is that, in the troposphere, the first layer of the atmosphere, temperature decreases with altitude.
ES 106 Laboratory # 6 MOISTURE IN THE ATMOSPHERE 6-1 Introduction By observing, recording, and analyzing weather conditions, meteorologists attempt to define the principles that control the complex interactions
GEOLOGY 10 Extended Notes #6 The Atmosphere (LT Chapter 11) Weather vs. climate? Composition of Air Major Gases Mostly N and O (Fig. 11.2 on p. 283). Additives Water vapor the source of clouds and precipitation