EXPLANATION OF WEATHER ELEMENTS AND VARIABLES FOR THE DAVIS VANTAGE PRO 2 MIDSTREAM WEATHER STATION

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "EXPLANATION OF WEATHER ELEMENTS AND VARIABLES FOR THE DAVIS VANTAGE PRO 2 MIDSTREAM WEATHER STATION"

Transcription

1 EXPLANATION OF WEATHER ELEMENTS AND VARIABLES FOR THE DAVIS VANTAGE PRO 2 MIDSTREAM WEATHER STATION The Weather Envoy consists of two parts: the Davis Vantage Pro 2 Integrated Sensor Suite (ISS) and the Weather Console for data calculation and display. The data is further transferred from the weather console via a data logger to a PC for computing with the Davis WeatherLink software for additional reports and graphic display on the Internet. Not all reported results are measured. Some of the variables do not have any sensors or circuitry. They are calculated from measured parameters. Any conditions that affect the functions of the measurements that are used to calculate these variables will affect the readings of these variables. This includes the Weather Station Vantage Pro 2 setup screen settings. In each case, unless otherwise noted, the WeatherLink software uses international accepted scientific formulas and the Weather Console uses a lookup table that closely approximates the formulas. TEMPERATURE Temperature is a measurement of the average kinetic energy of the molecules in an object or system and can be measured with a thermometer or a calorimeter. It is a means of determining the internal energy contained within the system. The Weather Envoy uses the ISS temperature sensor to measure the outside air temperature. A second temperature sensor in the Weather Console measures the inside air temperature. You may use the probe to measure any other temperatures that are within the sensor s range. DEGREE-DAY CALCULATION METHODS High / Low Method If the high / low method is selected, the WeatherLink software uses the highest temperature and the lowest temperature for a given day to calculate the average temperature for that day. The difference between the average temperature and the base threshold are assumed to be the number of degree-days accumulated on that day. For example, if the average of the highest and lowest temperatures is 24 C above the base threshold, the software assumes 24 -days for the entire day.

2 Integration Method If the integration method is selected, the software calculates degree-days using the average temperature for an interval and the interval time. For example, if the average temperature during a 15-minute interval was 24 C above the base threshold, the software would calculate 0.25 degreedays during that interval (24 x 15 minutes in interval / minutes per day). The number of degree-days during each interval are added together to arrive at a degree-day total. This method calculates degree-day totals more accurately than the high / low method. HIGH AND LOW TEMPERATURES WeatherLink is constantly checking for new high and low temperatures. The highest and lowest temperature values recorded during an archive interval are written into archive memory. HEAT INDEX The Heat Index uses the temperature and the relative humidity to determine how hot the air actually feels. When humidity is low, the apparent temperature will be lower than the air temperature, since perspiration evaporates rapidly to cool the body. However, when humidity is high (i.e. the air is saturated with water vapour) the apparent temperature feels higher than the actual air temperature, because perspiration evaporates more slowly. The WeatherLink software uses the Steadman (1979 and 1998) formula to calculate the Heat Index, which is more accurate than the method used by the Weather Console and is calculated for all temperatures. The Heat Index is not stored in archive memory or in the database, it is rather calculated as necessary (for example, when plotting or displaying database information). When Heat Index data is needed, the software calculates an average for each archive interval based on the temperature and humidity readings for the archive period. The formula by the WeatherLink software is also used by the U.S. National Weather Service. The Heat Index is an indicator to determine indoor and outdoor comfort levels. HEAT VS TEMPERATURE Note that temperature is different from heat, though the two concepts are closely linked. Temperature is a measure of the internal energy of the system, while heat is a measure of how energy is transferred from one system (or body) to another. The greater the heat absorbed by a material, the more rapidly the atoms within the material begins to move, and thus the greater the rise in temperature.

3 WIND CHILL Wind chill takes into account how the speed of the wind affects our perception of the air temperature. Our bodies warm the surrounding air molecules by transferring heat from the skin. If there s no air movement, this insulating layer of warm air molecules stays next to the body and offers some protection from cooler air molecules. However, wind sweeps that warm air surrounding the body away. The faster the wind blows, the faster heat is carried away and the colder you feel. Wind has a warming effect at higher temperatures. HUMIDITY Humidity itself simply refers to the amount of water vapour in the air. However, the total amount of water vapour that the air can contain varies with air temperature and pressure. Relative humidity takes into account these factors and offers a humidity reading which reflects the amount of water vapour in the air as a percentage of the amount the air is capable of holding. Relative humidity, therefore, is not actually a measure of the amount of water vapour in the air, but a ratio of the air s water vapour content to its capacity. When we use the term humidity in the manual and on the screen, we mean relative humidity. It is important to realise that relative humidity changes with temperature, pressure, and water vapour content. For a parcel of air with a capacity for 10g of water vapour, which contains 4g of water vapour, the relative humidity would be 40%. Adding 2g more water vapour (for a total of 6g) would change the humidity to 60%. If that same parcel of air is then warmed so that it has the capacity for 20g of water vapour, the relative humidity drops to 30% even though water vapour content does not change. Relative humidity is an important factor in determining the amount of evaporation from plans and wet surfaces since warm air with low humidity has a large capacity to absorb extra water vapour. DEW POINT Dew point is the temperature to which air must be cooled for saturation (100% relative humidity) to occur, providing there is no change in water content. The dew point is an important measurement used to predict the formation of dew, frost and fog. If dew point and temperature are close together in the late afternoon when the air begins to turn colder, fog is likely to occur during the night. In addition a high dew point indicates a better chance of rain, severe thunderstorms and tornados.

4 Dew point is also a good indicator of the air s actual water vapour content (as opposed to relative humidity). High dew point indicates high vapour content and low dew point indicates low vapour content. One can even use dew point to predict the minimum overnight temperature. Provided no new weather fronts are expected overnight, the afternoon s dew point gives a good indication of what minimum temperature can be expected at night, since the air is not likely to get colder than the dew point anytime during the night. Since condensation occurs when the air temperature reaches the dew point, and condensation releases heat into the air, reaching the dew point halts the cooling process. AVERAGE WIND The anemometer measures wind speed and wind direction and is part of the Integrated Sensor Suite (ISS). WeatherLink samples the wind speed reading from the station a number of times during the interval (the actual number depends on your archive interval). Those readings are averaged to determine the average wind speed for the interval. The WeatherLink software accumulates the following wind speed statistics for each minute (as determined by the computer clock). The number of data points received, the highest wind speed value, and the sum of all of the wind speed values received. These statistics are kept for the last full 10 minutes, plus the last minute that is currently being updated. HIGH WIND SPEED The WeatherLink is constantly checking for a new high wind speed. The highest wind speed value recorded during the interval gets written into archive memory. The average and high wind values are calculated by aggregating the last X minute statistics, plus the statistics for the current minute. For example, the two-minute high wind speed is the highest value recorded in the last two full minutes plus the current minute divided by the number of samples over the same period. WIND DIRECTION The WeatherLink samples the wind direction reading a number of times during the interval (the actual number depends on one s archive interval). If wind speed is greater than zero (0) when the WeatherLink samples wind direction, it places a marker into one of sixteen bins that correspond to the sixteen compass points. At the time of the archive, the WeatherLink determines which bin contains the most markers and writes the corresponding wind direction to the archive memory as the dominant wind direction.

5 BAROMETRIC PRESSURE The weight of the air that makes up our atmosphere exerts a pressure on the surface of the earth. This pressure is known as atmospheric pressure. Generally, the more air above an area, the higher the atmospheric pressure. This in turn means that atmospheric pressure changes with altitude. For example, atmospheric pressure is greater at sea level than on a mountaintop. To compensate for this difference and facilitate comparison between locations with different altitudes, atmospheric pressure is generally adjusted to the equivalent sea level pressure. This adjusted pressure is known as barometric pressure. In reality, the Weather Station Vantage Pro2 measures atmospheric pressure. When entering the location s altitude in setup mode, the Vantage Pro and Vantage Pro2 calculates the necessary correction factor to consistently translate atmospheric pressure into barometric pressure. Barometric pressure also changes with local weather conditions, making barometric pressure an extremely important and useful weather forecasting tool. High pressure zones are generally associated with fair weather while low pressure zones are generally associated with poor weather. For forecasting purposes however the absolute barometric pressure value is generally less important than the change in barometric pressure. In general, rising pressure indicates improving weather conditions while falling pressure indicates deteriorating weather conditions. RAINFALL In calculating both daily and yearly rainfall totals for the software, the WeatherLink checks the total rain register on the station. The WeatherLink compares the current total rain value to the previous total rain entry in the archive memory to determine the amount of rainfall that occurred during the interval. Vantage Pro2 incorporates a tipping-bucket rain collector in the ISS that measures 0.01 for each tip of the bucket. The station logs rain data in the same units it is measured in and converts the logged totals into the selected display units (inches or millimetres) at the time it is displayed. Converting at display time reduces possible compounded rounding errors over time.

6 HIGH RAIN RATE Rate calculations are based on the interval of time between each bucket tip, which is each at a 0.01 rainfall increment. When there is rainfall within the archive period, the highest measured value is reported. When no rainfall occurs, the rain rate will slowly decay based on the elapse time since the last measured rainfall. Parameters used include Rain Total (actually, rain rate is a measured variable in the sense that it is measured by the ISS and transmitted to the display console, whereas all other calculated variables are determined by the Weather Console from data received from the ISS). Under normal conditions, rain rate data is sent with a nominal interval of 10 to 12 seconds. Every time a rain tip or click occurs, a new rain rate value is computed (from the timer values) and the rate timers are reset to zero. Rain rate is calculated based on the time between successive tips of the rain collector. The rain rate value is the highest rate since the last transmitted rain rate data packet. (Under most conditions, however, a rain tip will not occur every 10 to 12 seconds). If there have been no rain tips since the last rain rate data transmission, then the rain rate based on the time since that last tip is indicated. This results in slowly decaying rate values as a rain storm ends, instead of showing a rain rate which abruptly drops to zero. This results in a more realistic representation of the actual rain event. STORM RAINFALL It takes two clicks (equivalent of 0.5mm rain) to begin a storm event and 24 hours without rain to end a storm event. SOLAR RADIATION Solar radiation is a measure of the intensity of the sun s radiation reaching a horizontal surface. This irradiance includes both the direct component from the sun and the reflected component from the rest of the sky. The solar radiation reading gives a measure of the amount of solar radiation hitting the solar radiation sensor at any given time, expressed in Watts per square meter (W/m²). The value logged by WeatherLink is the average solar radiation measured over the archive interval. HI SOLAR RADIATION This is the peak solar radiation measured during the archive interval. TEMPERATURE HUMIDITY SUN WIND (THSW) INDEX Like Heat Index, the THSW Index uses humidity and temperature to calculate an apparent temperature. In addition, THSW incorporates the heating effects of solar radiation and the cooling effects of wind (like wind chill) on our perception of temperature. Thus, this index indicates the level of thermal comfort including the effects of all these values.

7 TEMPERATURE HUMIDITY WIND (THW) INDEX The THW Index uses humidity, temperature and wind to calculate an apparent temperature that incorporates the cooling effects of wind on our perception of temperature. This index represents only humidity, temperature and wind to determine a level of thermal comfort. U.V. INDEX Energy from the sun reaches the earth as visible, infrared, and ultraviolet (UV) rays. Exposure to UV rays can cause numerous health problems, such as sun burn, skin cancer, skin aging, and cataracts; and can suppress the immune system. The Vantage Pro 2 Integrated Sensor Suite (ISS) can help analyse the changing levels of UV radiation and can advise of situations where exposure is particularly unacceptable. The UV readings do not take into account UV reflected off snow or water, which can significantly increase the amount of UV to which one is exposed. Nor does the Vantage Pro 2 take into account the dangers of prolonged exposure to UV radiation. The readings do not suggest that any amount of exposure is safe or healthful. Do not use the Vantage Pro 2 to determine the amount of UV radiation to which one is exposed. Scientific evidence suggests that UV exposure should be avoided and that even low UV doses can be harmful. The UV Index measures the intensity of UV. It was first defined by Environment Canada and since has been adopted by the World Meteorological Organisation. UV Index uses a scale of 0 to 16 to rate the current intensity of UV. The UV value logged by WeatherLink is the average UV measured during the archive interval. HI U.V. INDEX The Hi UV Index is the peak UV measured during the archive interval. EVAPOTRANSPIRATION (ET) Evapotranspiration (ET) is the amount of water that moves from the ground (and plants on the ground) to the atmosphere through both evaporation and transpiration. It is primarily important to people who are monitoring plant growth and associated water usage. Measuring actual ET for a given location requires the measurement of weather variables at different heights at the same location and is beyond the capabilities of our current Davis weather station. Instead, a single set of weather data measurements are used to calculate a reference ET (ETo). ETo is the amount of ET that is expected at a location with specified reference conditions under the actual weather conditions.

8 The two most common reference conditions used for agricultural purposes are the grass reference well watered grass that completely shades the ground, is uniformly clipped to a few inches in height and the alfalfa reference similar to the grass reference with alfalfa instead of grass, and a different height. The Davis ET calculations all calculate ETo for a grass reference. Effectively, ET is the opposite of rainfall, and it is expressed in the same units of measure (millimetres). The Weather Envoy uses air temperature, relative humidity, average wind speed, and solar radiation data to estimate ET, which is calculated once per hour on the hour. Source: Compiled from Davis Weather Information Reports

Reference Guide. Vantage PRO2 Quick. Davis Instruments Diablo Ave, Hayward, CA U.S.A.

Reference Guide. Vantage PRO2 Quick. Davis Instruments Diablo Ave, Hayward, CA U.S.A. Davis Instruments 3465 Diablo Ave, Hayward, CA 94545 U.S.A. Phone (510) 732-9229 Fax (510) 732-9188 www.davisnet.com E-mail: sales@davisnet.com support@davisnet.com Vantage PRO2 Quick Reference Guide Part

More information

Lecture 9: Evaporation

Lecture 9: Evaporation Lecture 9: Evaporation Key Questions 1. What is a evaporation? 2. Why does evaporation cool water? 3. What are the main energy inputs into a lake? 4. What is a vapor pressure deficit? 5. How does wind

More information

Cabled Vantage Pro2 & Vantage Pro2 Plus Stations

Cabled Vantage Pro2 & Vantage Pro2 Plus Stations W IN D N W N W E S W M PH S N E SE Last 2 4h rs E very 1 hr N W S E N T E M P O U T T EM P IN F DA ILY R A IN F H U M O U T in H U M IN S TAT IO N NO.1 pm B A RO M ETER C H IL L RAIN TR EA in m b F in

More information

Reference Guide. Vantage PRO2 Quick

Reference Guide. Vantage PRO2 Quick 3465 Diablo Avenue, Hayward, CA 94545-2778 U.S.A. 510-732-9229 Fax: 510-732-9188 E-mail: info@davisnet.com www.davisnet.com Vantage PRO2 Quick Reference Guide Part Number: 07395.235 Rev C (1/6/2012) 2012

More information

Vantage Pro2, Vantage VUE, Vantage Pro, and Health EnviroMonitor Systems

Vantage Pro2, Vantage VUE, Vantage Pro, and Health EnviroMonitor Systems INTERPRETING UV READINGS Application Note 6 Vantage Pro2, Vantage VUE, Vantage Pro, and Health EnviroMonitor Systems Introduction Ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause health damage in many ways: to the

More information

WeatherLink for Alarm Output. Introduction. Hardware Installation and Requirements. Addendum

WeatherLink for Alarm Output. Introduction. Hardware Installation and Requirements. Addendum WeatherLink for Alarm Output Addendum Introduction This Streaming Data Logger is designed to provide an electrical interface between a Vantage Pro2, Vantage Vue, or Vantage Pro weather station console

More information

For more detailed information, see your Vantage Vue Console manual.

For more detailed information, see your Vantage Vue Console manual. For more detailed information, see your Vantage Vue Console manual. Current Weather Mode Moon phase, alarm & forecast icons Wind Rose Compass Antenna icon shows active transmission Graph of selected variable

More information

TEST NAME: Matter TEST ID: GRADE:05 SUBJECT:Life and Physical Sciences TEST CATEGORY: My Classroom

TEST NAME: Matter TEST ID: GRADE:05 SUBJECT:Life and Physical Sciences TEST CATEGORY: My Classroom TEST NAME: Matter TEST ID: 49717 GRADE:05 SUBJECT:Life and Physical Sciences TEST CATEGORY: My Classroom Matter Page 1 of 30 Student: Class: Date: 1. What is the MAJOR role of the Sun in the water cycle?

More information

Temperature and Humidity

Temperature and Humidity Temperature and Humidity Overview Water vapor is a very important gas in the atmosphere and can influence many things like condensation and the formation of clouds and rain, as well as how hot or cold

More information

Infrared Thermometer Guidance

Infrared Thermometer Guidance Infrared Thermometer Guidance Infrared thermometers can be used to answer a range of questions, including: - What is the temperature of the clouds? - What is the greenhouse effect? - If it is sunny, how

More information

Introduction to Wildland Fire Management. REM 244: Introduction to Wildland Fire Management

Introduction to Wildland Fire Management. REM 244: Introduction to Wildland Fire Management Introduction to Wildland Fire Management Fireline Safety 101: Keep informed on fire weather conditions and forecasts REM 244: Introduction to Wildland Fire Management 3. Introduction to Fire Weather Surface

More information

Name Class Date STUDY GUIDE FOR CONTENT MASTERY

Name Class Date STUDY GUIDE FOR CONTENT MASTERY Atmosphere SECTION 11.1 Atmospheric Basics In your textbook, read about the composition of the atmosphere. Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement. 1. Most of Earth s atmosphere

More information

Atmospheric Humidity. Chapter 4

Atmospheric Humidity. Chapter 4 Atmospheric Humidity Chapter 4 Circulation of Water in the Atmosphere A general definition of humidity is the amount of water vapor in the air. Remember, humidity is not constant through time or space,

More information

Partnerships Implementing Engineering Education Worcester Polytechnic Institute Worcester Public Schools

Partnerships Implementing Engineering Education Worcester Polytechnic Institute Worcester Public Schools Partnerships Implementing Engineering Education Worcester Polytechnic Institute Worcester Public Schools Supported by: National Science Foundation Weather: 4.H.3 Weather and Classical Instruments Grade

More information

Weather Envoy Manual. For Vantage Pro2. Davis Instruments, 3465 Diablo Avenue, Hayward, CA

Weather Envoy Manual. For Vantage Pro2. Davis Instruments, 3465 Diablo Avenue, Hayward, CA Vantage Pro2 Weather Envoy Manual For Vantage Pro2 & Vantage Pro2 Plus Weather Stations Davis Instruments, 3465 Diablo Avenue, Hayward, CA 94545 510-732-9229 www.davisnet.com FCC Part 15 Class B Registration

More information

The Sun and Water Cycle

The Sun and Water Cycle reflect Have you ever jumped in a puddle or played in the rain? If so, you know you can get very wet. What you may not know is that a dinosaur could have walked through that same water millions of years

More information

Humidity, Condensation, Clouds, and Fog. Water in the Atmosphere

Humidity, Condensation, Clouds, and Fog. Water in the Atmosphere Humidity, Condensation, Clouds, and Fog or Water in the Atmosphere The Hydrologic Cycle Where the Water Exists on Earth Evaporation From the Oceans and Land The Source of Water Vapor for the Atmosphere

More information

Weather Basics. Temperature Pressure Wind Humidity. Climate vs. Weather. Atmosphere and Weather

Weather Basics. Temperature Pressure Wind Humidity. Climate vs. Weather. Atmosphere and Weather Climate vs. Weather Atmosphere and Weather Weather The physical condition of the atmosphere (moisture, temperature, pressure, wind) Climate Long term pattern of the weather in a particular area Weather

More information

Temperature affects water in the air.

Temperature affects water in the air. KEY CONCEPT Most clouds form as air rises and cools. BEFORE, you learned Water vapor circulates from Earth to the atmosphere Warm air is less dense than cool air and tends to rise NOW, you will learn How

More information

CHAPTER 5 Lectures 10 & 11 Air Temperature and Air Temperature Cycles

CHAPTER 5 Lectures 10 & 11 Air Temperature and Air Temperature Cycles CHAPTER 5 Lectures 10 & 11 Air Temperature and Air Temperature Cycles I. Air Temperature: Five important factors influence air temperature: A. Insolation B. Latitude C. Surface types D. Coastal vs. interior

More information

Earth s Atmosphere. Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere. 3. All the energy from the Sun reaches Earth s surface.

Earth s Atmosphere. Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere. 3. All the energy from the Sun reaches Earth s surface. CHAPTER 12 LESSON 2 Earth s Atmosphere Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere Key Concepts How does energy transfer from the Sun to Earth and to the atmosphere? How are air circulation patterns within the atmosphere

More information

Unit 2: Weather. ways to keep track of common trends in weather patterns. some have scientific facts, while others are more about coincidence

Unit 2: Weather. ways to keep track of common trends in weather patterns. some have scientific facts, while others are more about coincidence Unit 2: Weather Weather Lore: ways to keep track of common trends in weather patterns some have scientific facts, while others are more about coincidence weather lore may vary from place to place as different

More information

USER MANUAL. for APRS. WeatherLink. For Vantage Pro2, Vantage Pro2 Plus, Vantage Vue and Weather Envoy. Product number 6540

USER MANUAL. for APRS. WeatherLink. For Vantage Pro2, Vantage Pro2 Plus, Vantage Vue and Weather Envoy. Product number 6540 W IN D NW SW M P H NE SE Last 24hrs Every 1 hr N W S E N TEM P O U T TEM P IN F DA ILY RAIN F HUM OUT in HUM IN STATIO N N.1 O pm BARO M ETER CHILL RAIN TE RA in m b in /h r USER MANUAL WeatherLink for

More information

3. Lines on a weather map that connect points of equal air pressure are A. isotherms B. isobars C. cold fronts D. warm fronts

3. Lines on a weather map that connect points of equal air pressure are A. isotherms B. isobars C. cold fronts D. warm fronts 1. The chart shows the relationship between altitude and air pressure. What is the approximate air pressure at an altitude of 22 kilometers? A. 40 millibars B. 120 millibars C. 200 millibars D. 400 millibars

More information

How to use these weather Stations

How to use these weather Stations How to use these weather Stations The weather stations have been installed to assist residents, businesses and service providers in managing their outdoor water use. These stations provide up to the minute

More information

Cabled Vantage Pro2 & Vantage Pro2 Plus Stations

Cabled Vantage Pro2 & Vantage Pro2 Plus Stations WIND NW N W E SW MPH S NE Last 24 hrs Every 1 hr N W S E N SE TEMP OUT TEMP IN DAILY RAIN F F HUM OUT in HUM IN STATION NO.1 pm BAROMETER CHILL RAIN RATE inmb F in/hr Cabled Vantage Pro2 & Vantage Pro2

More information

Chapter 5. Measures of Humidity. Phases of Water. Atmospheric Moisture

Chapter 5. Measures of Humidity. Phases of Water. Atmospheric Moisture Chapter 5 Atmospheric Moisture Measures of Humidity 1. Absolute humidity 2. Specific humidity 3. Actual vapor pressure 4. Saturation vapor pressure 5. Relative humidity 6. Dew point Phases of Water evaporation

More information

Name: OBJECTIVES Correctly define: WEATHER BASICS: STATION MODELS: MOISTURE: PRESSURE AND WIND: Weather

Name: OBJECTIVES Correctly define: WEATHER BASICS: STATION MODELS: MOISTURE: PRESSURE AND WIND: Weather Name: OBJECTIVES Correctly define: air mass, air pressure, anemometer, barometer, cyclone, dew point, front, isobar, isotherm, meteorology, precipitation, psychrometer, relative humidity, saturated, transpiration

More information

Sunlight and Temperature

Sunlight and Temperature Sunlight and Temperature Name In a previous lab, you studied interactions between the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere. Many of these interactions involve energy exchanges ultimately

More information

Technical Note A007 Modbus Gateway Vantage Pro2 25/09/2009 Rev. A 1 de 7

Technical Note A007 Modbus Gateway Vantage Pro2 25/09/2009 Rev. A 1 de 7 1 de 7 1. Introduction This Technical Note explains how to configure the Modbus Gateway for Vantage Pro2. The Modbus Gateway allows the easy connection of a PLC (Programmable Logic Controller), RTU (Remote

More information

Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere

Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere Essential Questions How does energy transfer from the sun to Earth and the atmosphere? How are air circulation patterns with the atmosphere created? Vocabulary Radiation:

More information

Humidity, Condensation, and Clouds-I. GEOL 1350: Introduction To Meteorology

Humidity, Condensation, and Clouds-I. GEOL 1350: Introduction To Meteorology Humidity, Condensation, and Clouds-I GEOL 1350: Introduction To Meteorology 1 Overview Water Circulation in the Atmosphere Properties of Water Measures of Water Vapor in the Atmosphere (Vapor Pressure,

More information

Setup of an internet enabled Davis Vantage Pro2 weather station using a Raspberry Pi Zeist Hoge Dennen October 2014

Setup of an internet enabled Davis Vantage Pro2 weather station using a Raspberry Pi Zeist Hoge Dennen October 2014 Setup of an internet enabled Davis Vantage Pro2 weather station using a Raspberry Pi Zeist Hoge Dennen October 2014 http://www.sluitertijd.org/station-zeist-hoge-dennen r.sluiter@gmail.com Introduction

More information

CHAPTER 6: WEATHER FOR SOARING

CHAPTER 6: WEATHER FOR SOARING CHAPTER 6: WEATHER FOR SOARING Weather patterns on Earth are complicated and chaotic. Weather is a result of the atmosphere s constant attempt to reach equilibrium. This equilibrium is continually upset

More information

4 4.1 Summarize the processes of the water cycle (including evaporation, condensation, precipitation, and runoff).

4 4.1 Summarize the processes of the water cycle (including evaporation, condensation, precipitation, and runoff). 4 4.1 Summarize the processes of the water cycle (including evaporation, condensation, precipitation, and runoff). The Water Cycle Water changes form and cycles between the surface, the air, and back again.

More information

Reading the Simplified Psychrometric Chart for Frost Protection 1

Reading the Simplified Psychrometric Chart for Frost Protection 1 ABE 372 Reading the Simplified Psychrometric Chart for Frost Protection 1 Ray A. Bucklin and Dorota Z. Haman 2 Psychrometrics is the study of the physical and thermodynamic properties of air-water mixtures.

More information

CONDENSATION IN REFRIDGERATED BUILDINGS

CONDENSATION IN REFRIDGERATED BUILDINGS CONDENSATION IN REFRIDGERATED BUILDINGS By: Steve Salisbury Nov. 10, 2010 (revised Nov. 14, 2013) Introduction The following discussion reviews the basic causes of condensation in refrigerated buildings

More information

1. The map below shows high-pressure and low-pressure weather systems in the United States.

1. The map below shows high-pressure and low-pressure weather systems in the United States. 1. The map below shows high-pressure and low-pressure weather systems in the United States. 6. Which map correctly shows the wind directions of the highpressure and low-pressure systems? 1) 2) Which two

More information

AIMS Education Foundation

AIMS Education Foundation Developed and Published by AIMS Education Foundation This book contains materials developed by the AIMS Education Foundation. AIMS (Activities Integrating Mathematics and Science) began in 1981 with a

More information

Water Resources Engineering Prof. R Srivastava Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur. Lecture No.

Water Resources Engineering Prof. R Srivastava Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur. Lecture No. 1 Water Resources Engineering Prof. R Srivastava Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur Lecture No. 16 In today s lecture we will look at various components of the water

More information

Wireless Vantage Pro2 & Vantage Pro2 Plus Stations

Wireless Vantage Pro2 & Vantage Pro2 Plus Stations WIND NW N W E SW MPH S NE SE Last 24 hrs Every 1 hr N W S E N TEMP OUT TEMP IN DAILY RAIN F F HUM OUT in HUM IN STATION NO.1 pm BAROMETER CHILL RAIN RATE inmb in/hr Wireless Vantage Pro2 & Vantage Pro2

More information

ESS55: EARTH S ATMOSPHERE / Homework # 3 / (due 4/24/2014)

ESS55: EARTH S ATMOSPHERE / Homework # 3 / (due 4/24/2014) ESS55: EARTH S ATMOSPHERE / Homework # 3 / (due 4/24/2014) Name Student ID: version: (1) (21) (41) (2) (22) (42) (3) (23) (43) (4) (24) (44) (5) (25) (45) (6) (26) (46) (7) (27) (47) (8) (28) (48) (9)

More information

Section 3 What Is Climate?

Section 3 What Is Climate? Section 3 What Is Climate? Key Concept Earth s climate zones are caused by the distribution of heat around Earth s surface by wind and ocean currents. What You Will Learn Climate is the average weather

More information

Chapter 2 Student Reading

Chapter 2 Student Reading Chapter 2 Student Reading Atoms and molecules are in motion We warm things up and cool things down all the time, but we usually don t think much about what s really happening. If you put a room-temperature

More information

water cycle (hydrologic cycle) precipitation infiltrate runoff evapotranspiration Infiltration

water cycle (hydrologic cycle) precipitation infiltrate runoff evapotranspiration Infiltration Regents Earth Science Unit 8 Climate Water Cycle Most of Earth s water was created by volcanic out-gassing when the Earth formed and by impacts by comets early in Earth s history this water has remained

More information

Lornshill Academy. Geography Department. National Revision. Physical Environments Weather

Lornshill Academy. Geography Department. National Revision. Physical Environments Weather Lornshill Academy Geography Department National Revision Physical Environments Weather Weather Revision Sheets What you need to know: 1. Factors that affect the weather: a) latitude; b) altitude; c) distance

More information

Home Automation with Virtual Weather Station and HomeSeer TM. Home Automation with Virtual Weather Station. Virtual Weather Station Description

Home Automation with Virtual Weather Station and HomeSeer TM. Home Automation with Virtual Weather Station. Virtual Weather Station Description Ambient 1642 E. Silverwood Drive Phoenix, AZ 85048 TEL 480-283-1644 FAX 480-283-1645 Home Automation with and HomeSeer TM Home Automation with and HomeSeer TM Connect your home automation system to your

More information

6 th Grade Science Mini Assessment #4

6 th Grade Science Mini Assessment #4 Multiple Choice Directions: Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Why does precipitation occur more often near the equator than near the poles? A. Colder air

More information

Estação Meteorológica sem fio VEC-STA-003

Estação Meteorológica sem fio VEC-STA-003 Estação Meteorológica sem fio VEC-STA-003 The Weatherwise Instruments professional touch-screen weather station is designed for easy everyday use and fits right into any home or office. The indoor base

More information

Mars Weather, Agriculture and Greenhouses

Mars Weather, Agriculture and Greenhouses Mars Weather, Agriculture and Greenhouses Before humans can exist on the surface of Mars, there is much to be learned about the weather, soil, and the potential use of greenhouses on Mars. Martian weather

More information

Greenhouse Glazing Effects on Heat Transfer for Winter Heating and Summer Cooling

Greenhouse Glazing Effects on Heat Transfer for Winter Heating and Summer Cooling Greenhouse Glazing Effects on Heat Transfer for Winter Heating and Summer Cooling David R. Mears, Ph.D. Bioresource Engineering Department of Plant Biology and Pathology Rutgers University 20 Ag Extension

More information

Optimum Solar Orientation: Miami, Florida

Optimum Solar Orientation: Miami, Florida Optimum Solar Orientation: Miami, Florida The orientation of architecture in relation to the sun is likely the most significant connection that we can make to place in regards to energy efficiency. In

More information

Heat form of energy that flows from one system or object to another b/c they have different temperatures

Heat form of energy that flows from one system or object to another b/c they have different temperatures Temperature What is temperature? Heat form of energy that flows from one system or object to another b/c they have different temperatures Temperature a measure of the average kinetic energy of individual

More information

Be a Weather and Climate Watcher

Be a Weather and Climate Watcher Be a Weather and Climate Watcher This education resource was developed through support from the Midwestern Regional Climate Center, Illinois-Indiana Sea Grant, and the Illinois State Water Survey. Molly

More information

Elements of the Weather

Elements of the Weather Elements of the Weather The weather is made up of different elements, which are measured either by special instruments or are observed by a meteorologist. These measurements are then recorded and used

More information

Wireless Vantage Pro 2 & Vantage Pro Plus 2 Stations

Wireless Vantage Pro 2 & Vantage Pro Plus 2 Stations Including Fan-Aspirated Models 6152 6162 6153 6163 VANTAGE PRO 2 The Vantage Pro2 (6152, 6153) and Vantage Pro2 Plus (6162, 6162) Wireless Weather Stations include two components: the Integrated Sensor

More information

MAST ACADEMY OUTREACH. WOW (Weather on Wheels)

MAST ACADEMY OUTREACH. WOW (Weather on Wheels) MAST ACADEMY OUTREACH MIDDLE SCHOOL PROGRAM Adventures Aboard WOW (Weather on Wheels) Highlights Teacher Instructions / Answer Keys MAST Academy Maritime and Science Technology High School Miami-Dade County

More information

6 th Grade Science Assessment: Weather & Water Select the best answer on the answer sheet. Please do not make any marks on this test.

6 th Grade Science Assessment: Weather & Water Select the best answer on the answer sheet. Please do not make any marks on this test. Select the be answer on the answer sheet. Please do not make any marks on this te. 1. Weather is be defined as the A. changes that occur in cloud formations from day to day. B. amount of rain or snow that

More information

Summary Booklet Topic 8 Weather Patterns

Summary Booklet Topic 8 Weather Patterns Kingdom Schools Science Department Grade 5- Term 2 Name: Date: Section: Summary Booklet Topic 8 Weather Patterns Lesson 1 :How does Air move? Skill 8-1: Understand that air pressure is related to altitude,

More information

Ocean and Weather. Name: Period: Date: Essential Question: How does the ocean affect climate and weather on land?

Ocean and Weather. Name: Period: Date: Essential Question: How does the ocean affect climate and weather on land? Ocean and Weather Name: Period: Date: Essential Question: How does the ocean affect climate and weather on land? On the left is the Illustration of major ocean currents throughout the globe. Ocean currents

More information

2. Record both the wet and dry bulb temperatures.

2. Record both the wet and dry bulb temperatures. Name: LAB: Dewpoint and Relative Humidity Date: Introduction: (adapted from L. Wood, 2003) Evaporation of water is happening all the time. As long as there is water vapor molecules above the liquid, there

More information

W820 Professional Bluetooth Weather Station

W820 Professional Bluetooth Weather Station W820 Professional Bluetooth Weather Station AT&T 11:57 AM BACK TEMPERATURE CURRT TEMPERATURE 20 MIN 7 C MAX 25 C C 25 C AVG DEW POINT 18 C TEMPERATURE CHART FOR THE LAST 48 HOURS 25 C 10 C 9 C 12 C 3AM

More information

ACTIVITY. Surface Air Pressure Patterns. Materials. Station Pressure Plotting and Analysis on Weather Maps. Introduction

ACTIVITY. Surface Air Pressure Patterns. Materials. Station Pressure Plotting and Analysis on Weather Maps. Introduction ACTIVITY Surface Air Pressure Patterns Materials Upon completing this activity, you should be able to: Draw lines of equal pressure (isobars) to show the pattern of surface air pressures on a weather map.

More information

Overview of the IR channels and their applications

Overview of the IR channels and their applications Ján Kaňák Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute Jan.kanak@shmu.sk Overview of the IR channels and their applications EUMeTrain, 14 June 2011 Ján Kaňák, SHMÚ 1 Basics in satellite Infrared image interpretation

More information

This chapter discusses: 1. Definitions and causes of stable and unstable atmospheric air. 2. Processes that cause instability and cloud development

This chapter discusses: 1. Definitions and causes of stable and unstable atmospheric air. 2. Processes that cause instability and cloud development Stability & Cloud Development This chapter discusses: 1. Definitions and causes of stable and unstable atmospheric air 2. Processes that cause instability and cloud development Stability & Movement A rock,

More information

Identify how scientists measure weather conditions in different parts of the atmosphere. Compare 2 types of satellite image s.

Identify how scientists measure weather conditions in different parts of the atmosphere. Compare 2 types of satellite image s. Lesson 3 Weather Forecasts LA.6.2.2.3, MA.6.A.3.6, SC.6.E.7.7, SC.6.N.1.1, SC.6.N.3.4 Skim or scan the heading, boldfaced words, and pictures in the lesson. Identify or predict three facts you will learn

More information

Fog and Cloud Development. Bows and Flows of Angel Hair

Fog and Cloud Development. Bows and Flows of Angel Hair Fog and Cloud Development Bows and Flows of Angel Hair 1 Ch. 5: Condensation Achieving Saturation Evaporation Cooling of Air Adiabatic and Diabatic Processes Lapse Rates Condensation Condensation Nuclei

More information

Inquiry project: Weather Forecast

Inquiry project: Weather Forecast Inquiry project: Weather Forecast In this lesson students will build a simple barometer and use it to record data of air pressure over two weeks, in order to understand the ways in which air pressure is

More information

MAKING SENSE OF ENERGY Electromagnetic Waves

MAKING SENSE OF ENERGY Electromagnetic Waves Adapted from State of Delaware TOE Unit MAKING SENSE OF ENERGY Electromagnetic Waves GOALS: In this Part of the unit you will Learn about electromagnetic waves, how they are grouped, and how each group

More information

How do we predict Weather and Climate?

How do we predict Weather and Climate? Explanation and follow on work Introduction and aim of the activity This activity involved experiencing two different but essential ways of observing the weather. Weather balloons (also known as radiosondes)

More information

Key Idea 1: Weather and Climate

Key Idea 1: Weather and Climate Key Idea 1: Weather and Climate 1.1 What physical factors lead to variations in climate in different regions of the world Weather Climate The day to day changes in the atmosphere. It is constantly changing.

More information

The Psychrometric chart and greenhouse climate control

The Psychrometric chart and greenhouse climate control The Psychrometric chart and greenhouse climate control Mr. J.O. Voogt June 2013 Every grower should know the Psychrometric chart by heart Introduction What is the Psychrometric chart? We all know that

More information

8. Barometric Trend Arrow 9. Graph Icon 10. Current Rain Icon 11. Station Number Indicator 12. Weather Ticker 13. Graph Field 14.

8. Barometric Trend Arrow 9. Graph Icon 10. Current Rain Icon 11. Station Number Indicator 12. Weather Ticker 13. Graph Field 14. 9DQWDJH3UR Š :HDWKHU6WDWLRQ &RQVROH 0DQXDO 3URGXFW & 9DQWDJH3UR&RQVROH'LVSOD\)HDWXUHV 2 3 4 5 6 WIND NW N NE GRAPH pm 2nd 7 1 W E TEMP OUT F HUM OUT BAROMETER hpa 8 SW Last 24 hrs MPH SE S Every 1 hr TEMP

More information

Figure 2.1: Warm air rising from SAPREF stacks, October 2002 Source: GroundWork

Figure 2.1: Warm air rising from SAPREF stacks, October 2002 Source: GroundWork 13 CHAPTER TWO SOME CONCEPTS IN CLIMATOLOGY 2.1 The Adiabatic Process An important principle to remember is that, in the troposphere, the first layer of the atmosphere, temperature decreases with altitude.

More information

The human body core temperature is constant around 37.1±1.0 o C ( degree Fahrenheit = degree Celsius 1.8 + 32 )

The human body core temperature is constant around 37.1±1.0 o C ( degree Fahrenheit = degree Celsius 1.8 + 32 ) The human body core temperature is constant around 37.1±1.0 o C ( degree Fahrenheit = degree Celsius 1.8 + 32 ) ( good to 20% over this range of T a and T skin ) 1. What is wind chill temperature?

More information

Factors that contribute to heat stress and affect the body's ability to disperse excess heat and maintain normal body temperature are:

Factors that contribute to heat stress and affect the body's ability to disperse excess heat and maintain normal body temperature are: 0543. Heat Stress Policy Archery Victoria Title: Policy and Procedures Manual Subject: Heat Stress Policy Author: Chief Executive Officer - Trevor Filmer Date: 22-Mar-10 Replaces: 11-Jan-09 Number: 0543

More information

What is Solar Control?

What is Solar Control? A better environment inside and out. Solar, Safety and Security Window Films: Tech Bulletin Understanding Solar Performance Solar Gard solar control window films use advanced technology to benefit consumers

More information

Weather and climate. in rainforests every day in Scotland in winter in rainforests once a month in Scotland in summer (c) Frontal rainfall occurs.

Weather and climate. in rainforests every day in Scotland in winter in rainforests once a month in Scotland in summer (c) Frontal rainfall occurs. Weather and climate Which option best completes each of the following sentences? (a) Relief rainfall occurs. () in mountainous areas in desert areas in the east of England in rainforests (b) Convectional

More information

Weather Vocabulary. Weather- The condition of the atmosphere at a certain time and place.

Weather Vocabulary. Weather- The condition of the atmosphere at a certain time and place. Weather Vocabulary Weather- The condition of the atmosphere at a certain time and place. Meteorologist-A scientist who studies weather Weather maps- a map or chart showing the meteorological conditions,

More information

WeatherLink for Vantage Pro and Vantage Pro2

WeatherLink for Vantage Pro and Vantage Pro2 WeatherLink for Vantage Pro and Vantage Pro2 6510SER 6544 6510USB 6550 6540 6560 WeatherLink Software and Data Logger WeatherLink for Vantage Pro and Vantage Pro2 consists of our WeatherLink software and

More information

FACTSHEET. Greenhouse. Understanding Humidity Control in Greenhouses INTRODUCTION. What is Humidity? September 2015

FACTSHEET. Greenhouse. Understanding Humidity Control in Greenhouses INTRODUCTION. What is Humidity? September 2015 Greenhouse FACTSHEET September 2015 Understanding Humidity Control in Greenhouses INTRODUCTION Humidity can be the most difficult environmental factor to control in greenhouses. Maintaining setpoints and

More information

Tech Bulletin. Understanding Solar Performance

Tech Bulletin. Understanding Solar Performance Tech Bulletin Understanding Solar Performance Bekaert solar control window films use advanced technology to benefit consumers with quality solutions that enhance comfort and decrease energy use. By understanding

More information

Analyze Weather in Cold Regions and Mountainous Terrain

Analyze Weather in Cold Regions and Mountainous Terrain Analyze Weather in Cold Regions and Mountainous Terrain Terminal Learning Objective Action: Analyze weather of cold regions and mountainous terrain Condition: Given a training mission that involves a specified

More information

Name: Class: Date: 10. Some substances, when exposed to visible light, absorb more energy as heat than other substances absorb.

Name: Class: Date: 10. Some substances, when exposed to visible light, absorb more energy as heat than other substances absorb. Name: Class: Date: ID: A PS Chapter 13 Review Modified True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the statement true. 1. In all cooling

More information

But, could we force these clouds to create rain in the desert?

But, could we force these clouds to create rain in the desert? Clouds Exploration Phase How do clouds form? Above are fair weather cumulus (heaped/cotton ball) clouds. They do not form a single layer, as stratus clouds. They do not resemble wisps of hair, as cirrus.

More information

7613-1 - Page 1. Weather Unit Exam Pre-Test Questions

7613-1 - Page 1. Weather Unit Exam Pre-Test Questions Weather Unit Exam Pre-Test Questions 7613-1 - Page 1 Name: 1) Equal quantities of water are placed in four uncovered containers with different shapes and left on a table at room temperature. From which

More information

THE HUMIDITY/MOISTURE HANDBOOK

THE HUMIDITY/MOISTURE HANDBOOK THE HUMIDITY/MOISTURE HANDBOOK Table of Contents Introduction... 3 Relative Humidity... 3 Partial Pressure... 4 Saturation Pressure (Ps)... 5 Other Absolute Moisture Scales... 8 % Moisture by Volume (%M

More information

YORK CATHOLIC DISTRICT SCHOOL BOARD

YORK CATHOLIC DISTRICT SCHOOL BOARD YORK CATHOLIC DISTRICT SCHOOL BOARD BOARD POLICY Policy Section Policy Number Students 221 Former Policy # Page 221 1 of 7 Original Approved Last Approved June 6, 2006 September 24, 2013 POLICY TITLE:

More information

Seasonal Temperature Variations

Seasonal Temperature Variations Seasonal and Daily Temperatures Fig. 3-CO, p. 54 Seasonal Temperature Variations What causes the seasons What governs the seasons is the amount of solar radiation reaching the ground What two primary factors

More information

WEATHER AND CLIMATE, MICRO-CLIMATE. i) A state or condition of the atmosphere at a given place and at a given instant of time.

WEATHER AND CLIMATE, MICRO-CLIMATE. i) A state or condition of the atmosphere at a given place and at a given instant of time. WEATHER AND CLIMATE, MICRO-CLIMATE Weather i) A state or condition of the atmosphere at a given place and at a given instant of time. ii) The daily or short term variations of different conditions of lower

More information

WEATHER AND CLIMATE practice test

WEATHER AND CLIMATE practice test WEATHER AND CLIMATE practice test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. What role does runoff play in the water cycle? a. It is the process in

More information

2. The map below shows high-pressure and low-pressure weather systems in the United States.

2. The map below shows high-pressure and low-pressure weather systems in the United States. 1. Which weather instrument has most improved the accuracy of weather forecasts over the past 40 years? 1) thermometer 3) weather satellite 2) sling psychrometer 4) weather balloon 6. Wind velocity is

More information

Scientist Guide. Let s Talk About the Weather. Introduction

Scientist Guide. Let s Talk About the Weather. Introduction Scientist Guide Let s Talk About the Weather Introduction Agriculture is highly dependent on the weather. Ever since the first seed was sown, farmers have been watching the sky and hoping for good weather.

More information

Vantage Pro2 Temperature/Humidity Sensor Replacement Kit

Vantage Pro2 Temperature/Humidity Sensor Replacement Kit Vantage Pro2 Temperature/Humidity Sensor Replacement Kit The following instructions are for replacing the Temperature/Humidity sensor on Vantage Pro2 stations (# 6152, 6152C, 6162, 6162C, 6382) manufactured

More information

Laboratory exercise No. 4 Water vapor and liquid moisture transport

Laboratory exercise No. 4 Water vapor and liquid moisture transport Laboratory exercise No. 4 Water vapor and liquid moisture transport Water vapor transport in porous materials Due to the thermal conductivity of water and other unfavourable properties and effects in porous

More information

Geology 1347 Meteorology

Geology 1347 Meteorology Geology 1347 Meteorology Exam 1 Review 1. Carbon dioxide enters the atmosphere: a. mainly through the decay of vegetation b. volcanic eruptions c. exhalations of animal life d. burning of fossil fuels

More information

Humidity Activity Background

Humidity Activity Background Humidity Activity Background Water is the common name for a chemical that has two atoms of hydrogen (H) for each atom of oxygen (O). The chemical formula for water, then, is H 2 O. Water has some special

More information

Dr. Muhammad Asif Hanif, Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

Dr. Muhammad Asif Hanif, Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan Incoming solar energy is largely in the visible region of the spectrum. The shorter wavelength blue solar light is scattered relatively more strongly by molecules and particles in the upper atmosphere,

More information

Water on Earth Unique Properties of Water Humidity Atmospheric Stability Clouds and Fog

Water on Earth Unique Properties of Water Humidity Atmospheric Stability Clouds and Fog GEO 101: PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Chapter 07: Water and Atmospheric Moisture Water on Earth Unique Properties of Water Humidity Atmospheric Stability Clouds and Fog Water on Earth The origin of water A scientific

More information

HAY MOISTURE & WEATHER:

HAY MOISTURE & WEATHER: HAY MOISTURE & WEATHER: IMPLICATIONS FOR HAY HARVEST Paul Brown Extension Specialist, Biometeorlogy University of Arizona Harvest Losses vs. Moisture From Collins & Owens, 1995 Losses During Haymaking

More information