14-1 Notes. Human Heredity

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "14-1 Notes. Human Heredity"

Transcription

1 14-1 Notes Human Heredity

2 Human Chromosomes Biologists can make a karyotype by cutting chromosomes out of photographs. There are 46 total chromosomes in a human body cell 23 from a haploid sperm 23 from a haploid egg

3 Human Chromosomes Two of the 46 chromosomes are called sex chromosomes. Females have 2 X chromosomes Males have 1 X and 1 Y chromosome The remaining 44 chromosomes are called autosomes.

4 Human Traits Pedigree charts are used to show how traits are passed from one generation to the next. Genetic counselors analyze pedigree charts to infer the genotypes of family members

5 Pedigree Chart

6 Human Traits Some of the most obvious human traits are almost impossible to associate with single genes. 2 reasons why: 1.) most traits are polygenic 2.) traits are only partly governed by genetics

7 Human Genes The human genome includes tens of thousands of genes. Some of the first genes to be identified were those that control blood type. Human blood comes in a variety of groups. The Rh blood group is determined by a single gene with two alleles 1.) dominant (+) 2.) recessive (-)

8 Human Genes The ABO group is more complicated. There are 3 alleles for this gene. 1.) I A 2.) I B 3.) i

9 Human Genes I A & I B are codominant and i is recessive. I A & I B produce antigens on blood cells and can give you type A, B, or AB blood. Two ii alleles produce no antigens and can give you type O blood.

10 Human Genes Many human genes have become known through the study of genetic disorders. Most of these disorders are caused by recessive alleles (Albinism, Cystic fibrosis, & PKU) Some are caused by dominant alleles (Huntington s disease & Achondroplasia) A few are caused by codominant alleles (Sickle cell disease)

11 Cystic Fibrosis Affects chromosome #7 Caused by 3 bases missing from the sequence and an amino acid not being produced. Chloride ions are not able to move across the cell membrane. This results in a build up of thick mucus in airways.

12 Sickle Cell Disease Mainly found in African Americans. Characterized by the bent and twisted shape of red blood cells. Cells get stuck in capillaries and blood stops moving through damaging cells, tissues, and organs.

13 14-2 Notes Human Chromosomes

14 Human Genes & Chromosomes Only about 2% of the 6 billion base pairs actually function as genes. Average human gene consists of about 3000 base pairs Largest genome has more than 2 million base pairs

15 Human Genes & Chromosomes Chromosomes 21 and 22 are the smallest human autosomes They were the first whose sequences were determined Disorders associated with 22 include leukemia, and neurofibromatosis Disorders associated with 21 include ALS (Lou Gehrig s disease)

16 Sex-Linked Genes Includes all genes located on the X or Y chromosome More than 100 sex-linked disorders have been found on the X chromosome The Y chromosome is much smaller with few genes

17 Color Blindness Recessive allele located on the X chromosome Found in about 1 of 10 males and 1 of 100 females More common in men since they only have one X chromosome

18 Hemophilia Includes two genes carried on the X chromosome to help control blood clotting A recessive allele for either gene may result in hemophilia Results in a missing protein needed to clot blood Those affected may bleed to death from a single cut

19 X-Chromosome Inactivation Scientists wondered how an extra X in females affected them British geneticist Mary Lyon discovered that one X is turned off by a region in the nucleus called a Barr body Also occurs in other mammals such as cats Cat color is determined by the X chromosome

20 Chromosomal Disorders A common error in meiosis is nondisjunction where the homologous chromosomes do not separate This can result in an abnormal number of chromosomes in the gamete and a disorder may occur

21 Down Syndrome Autosomal disorder in which there is a trisomy (3 copies) of chromosome 21 Affects 1 of 800 babies Results in mild to severe mental retardation and often an increased susceptibility to disease Scientists are not sure why an extra copy causes so much trouble

22 Sex Chromosomes Disorders Turner s Syndrome female with only one X chromosome Unable to reproduce Klinefelter s Syndrome males with an extra X chromosome (XXY) Unable to reproduce The genetic information stored on the Y chromosome determines sex in the developing embryo

23 14-3 Notes Human Molecular Genetics

24 Human DNA Analysis Humans contain roughly 6 billion base pairs in our DNA. Biologists use these sequences of DNA bases to form the human genome. Biologists can now read, analyze, and even change the molecular code of genes.

25 Testing for Alleles A variety of genetic tests have been developed to spot the differences in DNA sequences. Sometimes these genetic tests use labeled DNA probes. These detect the complementary base sequences found in disease-causing alleles.

26 Testing for Alleles Tests also detect differences between the lengths of normal and abnormal alleles. DNA testing can pinpoint the exact genetic basis of a disorder. Allows for more effective treatment for individuals affected by genetic disease

27 DNA Fingerprinting No individual is exactly like any other genetically; except identical twins. DNA fingerprinting analyzes sections of DNA that have little or no known function, but vary widely. DNA samples can be obtained from blood, sperm, and even hair strands. DNA fingerprinting has been used in the US since the 1980 s

28 Human Genome Project In 1990 scientists in the US and other countries began the Human Genome Project. In 2000 scientists announced that a working copy of the human DNA sequence was essentially complete. To get to this point they first worked on small genomes such as viruses and bacteria.

29 Searching for Genes Only a small part of a human DNA molecule is made up of genes. Biologists continue to search for genes, which they locate in several ways. 1 way-they find DNA sequences that are known to be promoters. binding sites for RNA polymerase indicate the start of a gene

30 Searching for Genes Research groups are looking for genes that may provide useful clues to some of the basic properties of life. This may be useful in developing new drugs and treatments for diseases.

31 Gene Therapy The human genome might be used to cure genetic disorders by gene therapy. In gene therapy, an absent or faulty gene is replaced by a normal, working gene. Thus eliminating the cause of the disorder. The first authorized attempt to cure a human genetic disorder by gene transfer occurred in 1990.

32 Class Discussion-Ethical issues in human genetics It would be great to cure genetic disorders, but what are the costs? Should biologists try to engineer taller people, change eye color, hair, gender, or appearance? What will happen to the human species if we gain the opportunity to design our bodies? What will the consequences be if we develop the ability to clone human beings?

12.1 The Role of DNA in Heredity

12.1 The Role of DNA in Heredity 12.1 The Role of DNA in Heredity Only in the last 50 years have scientists understood the role of DNA in heredity. That understanding began with the discovery of DNA s structure. In 1952, Rosalind Franklin

More information

Genetic Mutations. Indicator 4.8: Compare the consequences of mutations in body cells with those in gametes.

Genetic Mutations. Indicator 4.8: Compare the consequences of mutations in body cells with those in gametes. Genetic Mutations Indicator 4.8: Compare the consequences of mutations in body cells with those in gametes. Agenda Warm UP: What is a mutation? Body cell? Gamete? Notes on Mutations Karyotype Web Activity

More information

Heredity - Patterns of Inheritance

Heredity - Patterns of Inheritance Heredity - Patterns of Inheritance Genes and Alleles A. Genes 1. A sequence of nucleotides that codes for a special functional product a. Transfer RNA b. Enzyme c. Structural protein d. Pigments 2. Genes

More information

Heredity and Prenatal Development: Chapter 3

Heredity and Prenatal Development: Chapter 3 Genetics 1 DEP 4053 Christine L. Ruva, Ph.D. Heredity and Prenatal Development: Chapter 3 PRINCIPLES OF HEREDITARY TRANSMISSION Genotype Phenotype Chromosomes: in the nucleus of the cell store and transmit

More information

Inheritance Patterns and Human Genetics. Chapter 12. Table of Contents. Section 1 Chromosomes and Inheritance Section 2 Human Genetics

Inheritance Patterns and Human Genetics. Chapter 12. Table of Contents. Section 1 Chromosomes and Inheritance Section 2 Human Genetics Inheritance Patterns and Human Genetics Table of Contents Section 1 Chromosomes and Inheritance Section 1 Chromosomes and Inheritance Objectives Distinguish between sex chromosomes and autosomes. Explain

More information

c. Law of Independent Assortment: Alleles separate and do not have an effect on another allele.

c. Law of Independent Assortment: Alleles separate and do not have an effect on another allele. Level Genetics Review KEY Describe the 3 laws that Gregor Mendel established after working with pea plants. a. Law of Dominance: states that the effect of a recessive allele is not observed when a dominant

More information

The correct answer is c A. Answer a is incorrect. The white-eye gene must be recessive since heterozygous females have red eyes.

The correct answer is c A. Answer a is incorrect. The white-eye gene must be recessive since heterozygous females have red eyes. 1. Why is the white-eye phenotype always observed in males carrying the white-eye allele? a. Because the trait is dominant b. Because the trait is recessive c. Because the allele is located on the X chromosome

More information

CHROMOSOMES AND INHERITANCE

CHROMOSOMES AND INHERITANCE SECTION 12-1 REVIEW CHROMOSOMES AND INHERITANCE VOCABULARY REVIEW Distinguish between the terms in each of the following pairs of terms. 1. sex chromosome, autosome 2. germ-cell mutation, somatic-cell

More information

CCR Biology - Chapter 7 Practice Test - Summer 2012

CCR Biology - Chapter 7 Practice Test - Summer 2012 Name: Class: Date: CCR Biology - Chapter 7 Practice Test - Summer 2012 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. A person who has a disorder caused

More information

Human Blood Types: Codominance and Multiple Alleles. Codominance: both alleles in the heterozygous genotype express themselves fully

Human Blood Types: Codominance and Multiple Alleles. Codominance: both alleles in the heterozygous genotype express themselves fully Human Blood Types: Codominance and Multiple Alleles Codominance: both alleles in the heterozygous genotype express themselves fully Multiple alleles: three or more alleles for a trait are found in the

More information

BioBoot Camp Genetics

BioBoot Camp Genetics BioBoot Camp Genetics BIO.B.1.2.1 Describe how the process of DNA replication results in the transmission and/or conservation of genetic information DNA Replication is the process of DNA being copied before

More information

1 Mutation and Genetic Change

1 Mutation and Genetic Change CHAPTER 14 1 Mutation and Genetic Change SECTION Genes in Action KEY IDEAS As you read this section, keep these questions in mind: What is the origin of genetic differences among organisms? What kinds

More information

Biology Final Exam Study Guide: Semester 2

Biology Final Exam Study Guide: Semester 2 Biology Final Exam Study Guide: Semester 2 Questions 1. Scientific method: What does each of these entail? Investigation and Experimentation Problem Hypothesis Methods Results/Data Discussion/Conclusion

More information

14.3 Studying the Human Genome

14.3 Studying the Human Genome 14.3 Studying the Human Genome Lesson Objectives Summarize the methods of DNA analysis. State the goals of the Human Genome Project and explain what we have learned so far. Lesson Summary Manipulating

More information

Biology 1406 Exam 4 Notes Cell Division and Genetics Ch. 8, 9

Biology 1406 Exam 4 Notes Cell Division and Genetics Ch. 8, 9 Biology 1406 Exam 4 Notes Cell Division and Genetics Ch. 8, 9 Ch. 8 Cell Division Cells divide to produce new cells must pass genetic information to new cells - What process of DNA allows this? Two types

More information

Bio EOC Topics for Cell Reproduction: Bio EOC Questions for Cell Reproduction:

Bio EOC Topics for Cell Reproduction: Bio EOC Questions for Cell Reproduction: Bio EOC Topics for Cell Reproduction: Asexual vs. sexual reproduction Mitosis steps, diagrams, purpose o Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase, Cytokinesis Meiosis steps, diagrams, purpose

More information

Genetics Module B, Anchor 3

Genetics Module B, Anchor 3 Genetics Module B, Anchor 3 Key Concepts: - An individual s characteristics are determines by factors that are passed from one parental generation to the next. - During gamete formation, the alleles for

More information

MCB41: Second Midterm Spring 2009

MCB41: Second Midterm Spring 2009 MCB41: Second Midterm Spring 2009 Before you start, print your name and student identification number (S.I.D) at the top of each page. There are 7 pages including this page. You will have 50 minutes for

More information

Mitosis, Meiosis and Fertilization 1

Mitosis, Meiosis and Fertilization 1 Mitosis, Meiosis and Fertilization 1 I. Introduction When you fall and scrape the skin off your hands or knees, how does your body make new skin cells to replace the skin cells that were scraped off? How

More information

Name: 4. A typical phenotypic ratio for a dihybrid cross is a) 9:1 b) 3:4 c) 9:3:3:1 d) 1:2:1:2:1 e) 6:3:3:6

Name: 4. A typical phenotypic ratio for a dihybrid cross is a) 9:1 b) 3:4 c) 9:3:3:1 d) 1:2:1:2:1 e) 6:3:3:6 Name: Multiple-choice section Choose the answer which best completes each of the following statements or answers the following questions and so make your tutor happy! 1. Which of the following conclusions

More information

Chapter 9 Patterns of Inheritance

Chapter 9 Patterns of Inheritance Bio 100 Patterns of Inheritance 1 Chapter 9 Patterns of Inheritance Modern genetics began with Gregor Mendel s quantitative experiments with pea plants History of Heredity Blending theory of heredity -

More information

CHAPTER 15 THE CHROMOSOMAL BASIS OF INHERITANCE. Section B: Sex Chromosomes

CHAPTER 15 THE CHROMOSOMAL BASIS OF INHERITANCE. Section B: Sex Chromosomes CHAPTER 15 THE CHROMOSOMAL BASIS OF INHERITANCE Section B: Sex Chromosomes 1. The chromosomal basis of sex varies with the organism 2. Sex-linked genes have unique patterns of inheritance 1. The chromosomal

More information

Genetics Copyright, 2009, by Dr. Scott Poethig, Dr. Ingrid Waldron, and Jennifer Doherty Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania 1

Genetics Copyright, 2009, by Dr. Scott Poethig, Dr. Ingrid Waldron, and Jennifer Doherty Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania 1 Genetics Copyright, 2009, by Dr. Scott Poethig, Dr. Ingrid Waldron, and Jennifer Doherty Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania 1 We all know that children tend to resemble their parents in

More information

Genetics Test Biology I

Genetics Test Biology I Genetics Test Biology I Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Avery s experiments showed that bacteria are transformed by a. RNA. c. proteins.

More information

Chromosomes, Mapping, and the Meiosis Inheritance Connection

Chromosomes, Mapping, and the Meiosis Inheritance Connection Chromosomes, Mapping, and the Meiosis Inheritance Connection Carl Correns 1900 Chapter 13 First suggests central role for chromosomes Rediscovery of Mendel s work Walter Sutton 1902 Chromosomal theory

More information

Mutations & DNA Technology Worksheet

Mutations & DNA Technology Worksheet Mutations & DNA Technology Worksheet Name Section A: Mutations Mutations are changes in DNA. Somatic mutations occur in non-reproductive cells and won't be passed onto offspring. Mutations that occur in

More information

Cell Division. Use Target Reading Skills. This section explains how cells grow and divide.

Cell Division. Use Target Reading Skills. This section explains how cells grow and divide. Cell Processes and Energy Name Date Class Cell Processes and Energy Guided Reading and Study Cell Division This section explains how cells grow and divide. Use Target Reading Skills As you read, make a

More information

Complex Inheritance. Mendel observed monogenic traits and no linked genes It s not usually that simple.

Complex Inheritance. Mendel observed monogenic traits and no linked genes It s not usually that simple. Complex Inheritance Mendel observed monogenic traits and no linked genes It s not usually that simple. Other Types of Inheritance Incomplete Dominance The phenotype of the heterozygote is intermediate

More information

Honors Biology Practice Questions #1. Name. 6. Seastars have a diploid number of 24 chromosomes. The haploid number would be

Honors Biology Practice Questions #1. Name. 6. Seastars have a diploid number of 24 chromosomes. The haploid number would be Honors Biology Practice Questions #1 1. Donkeys have 68 chromosomes in each body cell. If a donkey cell undergoes meiosis, how many chromosomes should be in each gamete? A. 18 B. 34 C. 68 D. 132 2. A sperm

More information

The Developing Person Through the Life Span 8e by Kathleen Stassen Berger

The Developing Person Through the Life Span 8e by Kathleen Stassen Berger The Developing Person Through the Life Span 8e by Kathleen Stassen Berger Chapter 3 Heredity and Environment PowerPoint Slides developed by Martin Wolfger and Michael James Ivy Tech Community College-Bloomington

More information

Chapter 4 Pedigree Analysis in Human Genetics. Chapter 4 Human Heredity by Michael Cummings 2006 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Chapter 4 Pedigree Analysis in Human Genetics. Chapter 4 Human Heredity by Michael Cummings 2006 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning Chapter 4 Pedigree Analysis in Human Genetics Mendelian Inheritance in Humans Pigmentation Gene and Albinism Fig. 3.14 Two Genes Fig. 3.15 The Inheritance of Human Traits Difficulties Long generation time

More information

Multiple Choice Review Mitosis & Meiosis

Multiple Choice Review Mitosis & Meiosis Multiple Choice Review Mitosis & Meiosis 1. Which of the following accurately describes the one of the major divisions of mitosis? a. During the mitotic phase, cells are performing their primary function

More information

Genetics 1. Defective enzyme that does not make melanin. Very pale skin and hair color (albino)

Genetics 1. Defective enzyme that does not make melanin. Very pale skin and hair color (albino) Genetics 1 We all know that children tend to resemble their parents. Parents and their children tend to have similar appearance because children inherit genes from their parents and these genes influence

More information

Asexual - in this case, chromosomes come from a single parent. The text makes the point that you are not exact copies of your parents.

Asexual - in this case, chromosomes come from a single parent. The text makes the point that you are not exact copies of your parents. Meiosis The main reason we have meiosis is for sexual reproduction. It mixes up our genes (more on that later). But before we start to investigate this, let's talk a bit about reproduction in general:

More information

Chapter 3. Chapter Outline. Chapter Outline 9/11/10. Heredity and Evolu4on

Chapter 3. Chapter Outline. Chapter Outline 9/11/10. Heredity and Evolu4on Chapter 3 Heredity and Evolu4on Chapter Outline The Cell DNA Structure and Function Cell Division: Mitosis and Meiosis The Genetic Principles Discovered by Mendel Mendelian Inheritance in Humans Misconceptions

More information

UNIT 13 (OPTION) Genetic Abnormalities

UNIT 13 (OPTION) Genetic Abnormalities Unit 13 Genetic Abnormailities 1 UNIT 13 (OPTION) Genetic Abnormalities Originally developed by: Hildur Helgedottir RN, MN Revised (2000) by: Marlene Reimer RN, PhD, CCN (C) Associate Professor Faculty

More information

Biology and Society, Exam II

Biology and Society, Exam II iology and Society, Exam II Name There are 50 multiple choice questions. Answer A for true, for false. Write your NAME on the scantron and above, and ID NUMER in the identification number blank on the

More information

Human Mendelian Disorders. Genetic Technology. What is Genetics? Genes are DNA 9/3/2008. Multifactorial Disorders

Human Mendelian Disorders. Genetic Technology. What is Genetics? Genes are DNA 9/3/2008. Multifactorial Disorders Human genetics: Why? Human Genetics Introduction Determine genotypic basis of variant phenotypes to facilitate: Understanding biological basis of human genetic diversity Prenatal diagnosis Predictive testing

More information

11.1 The Work of Gregor Mendel

11.1 The Work of Gregor Mendel 11.1 The Work of Gregor Mendel Lesson Objectives Describe Mendel s studies and conclusions about inheritance. Describe what happens during segregation. Lesson Summary The Experiments of Gregor Mendel The

More information

Each person normally has 23 pairs of chromosomes, or 46 in all. We inherit one chromosome per pair from our mother and one from our father.

Each person normally has 23 pairs of chromosomes, or 46 in all. We inherit one chromosome per pair from our mother and one from our father. AP Psychology 2.2 Behavioral Genetics Article Chromosomal Abnormalities About 1 in 150 babies is born with a chromosomal abnormality (1, 2). These are caused by errors in the number or structure of chromosomes.

More information

A trait is a variation of a particular character (e.g. color, height). Traits are passed from parents to offspring through genes.

A trait is a variation of a particular character (e.g. color, height). Traits are passed from parents to offspring through genes. 1 Biology Chapter 10 Study Guide Trait A trait is a variation of a particular character (e.g. color, height). Traits are passed from parents to offspring through genes. Genes Genes are located on chromosomes

More information

Heredity. Sarah crosses a homozygous white flower and a homozygous purple flower. The cross results in all purple flowers.

Heredity. Sarah crosses a homozygous white flower and a homozygous purple flower. The cross results in all purple flowers. Heredity 1. Sarah is doing an experiment on pea plants. She is studying the color of the pea plants. Sarah has noticed that many pea plants have purple flowers and many have white flowers. Sarah crosses

More information

Chapter 8: The Cellular Basis of Reproduction and Inheritance

Chapter 8: The Cellular Basis of Reproduction and Inheritance Chapter 8: The Cellular Basis of Reproduction and Inheritance Introduction Stages of an Organism s Life Cycle: Development: All changes that occur from a fertilized egg or an initial cell to an adult organism.

More information

Genetics Part 1: Inheritance of Traits

Genetics Part 1: Inheritance of Traits Genetics Part 1: Inheritance of Traits Genetics is the study of how traits are passed from parents to offspring. Offspring usually show some traits of each parent. For a long time, scientists did not understand

More information

7A The Origin of Modern Genetics

7A The Origin of Modern Genetics Life Science Chapter 7 Genetics of Organisms 7A The Origin of Modern Genetics Genetics the study of inheritance (the study of how traits are inherited through the interactions of alleles) Heredity: the

More information

Gene mutation and molecular medicine Chapter 15

Gene mutation and molecular medicine Chapter 15 Gene mutation and molecular medicine Chapter 15 Lecture Objectives What Are Mutations? How Are DNA Molecules and Mutations Analyzed? How Do Defective Proteins Lead to Diseases? What DNA Changes Lead to

More information

HEREDITY (B) In domestic cats, the gene for Tabby stripes (T) is dominant over the gene for no stripes (t)

HEREDITY (B) In domestic cats, the gene for Tabby stripes (T) is dominant over the gene for no stripes (t) GENETIC CROSSES In minks, a single gene controls coat color. The allele for a brown (B) coat is dominant to the allele for silver-blue (b) coats. 1. A homozygous brown mink was crossed with a silverblue

More information

Cystic Fibrosis Webquest Sarah Follenweider, The English High School 2009 Summer Research Internship Program

Cystic Fibrosis Webquest Sarah Follenweider, The English High School 2009 Summer Research Internship Program Cystic Fibrosis Webquest Sarah Follenweider, The English High School 2009 Summer Research Internship Program Introduction: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an inherited chronic disease that affects the lungs and

More information

The more varied population is older because the mtdna has had more time to accumulate mutations.

The more varied population is older because the mtdna has had more time to accumulate mutations. Practice problems (with answers) This is the degree of difficulty of the questions that will be on the test. This is not a practice test because I did not consider how long it would take to finish these

More information

What Is Genetic Counseling? Helping individuals and families understand how genetics affects their health and lives

What Is Genetic Counseling? Helping individuals and families understand how genetics affects their health and lives What Is Genetic Counseling? Helping individuals and families understand how genetics affects their health and lives What does the career involve? Explore family histories to identify risks Reducing risks

More information

1. Which of the following correctly organizes genetic material from the broadest category to the most specific category?

1. Which of the following correctly organizes genetic material from the broadest category to the most specific category? DNA and Genetics 1. Which of the following correctly organizes genetic material from the broadest category to the most specific category? A. genome chromosome gene DNA molecule B. genome chromosome DNA

More information

1.1.1 Which of the following is NOT part of a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule?

1.1.1 Which of the following is NOT part of a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule? MATRIC LIFE SCIENCES PAPER 1 2009 1 Tissues, cells & molecular studies; Life systems SECTION A QUESTION 1 1.1 Various possible options are provided as answers to the following questions. Choose the correct

More information

Genetic Testing in Research & Healthcare

Genetic Testing in Research & Healthcare We Innovate Healthcare Genetic Testing in Research & Healthcare We Innovate Healthcare Genetic Testing in Research and Healthcare Human genetic testing is a growing science. It is used to study genes

More information

Genetics for the Novice

Genetics for the Novice Genetics for the Novice by Carol Barbee Wait! Don't leave yet. I know that for many breeders any article with the word genetics in the title causes an immediate negative reaction. Either they quickly turn

More information

Guilford County Schools Traditional Schedule Curriculum Guide. Dates Objective Sample Essential Questions

Guilford County Schools Traditional Schedule Curriculum Guide. Dates Objective Sample Essential Questions Guilford County Schools Traditional Schedule Curriculum Guide Instructions for use: Follow the weekly recommendations for teaching the objectives listed on the pacing document. When you need clarification

More information

somatic cell egg genotype gamete polar body phenotype homologous chromosome trait dominant autosome genetics recessive

somatic cell egg genotype gamete polar body phenotype homologous chromosome trait dominant autosome genetics recessive CHAPTER 6 MEIOSIS AND MENDEL Vocabulary Practice somatic cell egg genotype gamete polar body phenotype homologous chromosome trait dominant autosome genetics recessive CHAPTER 6 Meiosis and Mendel sex

More information

Name: Class: Date: ID: A

Name: Class: Date: ID: A Name: Class: _ Date: _ Meiosis Quiz 1. (1 point) A kidney cell is an example of which type of cell? a. sex cell b. germ cell c. somatic cell d. haploid cell 2. (1 point) How many chromosomes are in a human

More information

Gene Mapping Techniques

Gene Mapping Techniques Gene Mapping Techniques OBJECTIVES By the end of this session the student should be able to: Define genetic linkage and recombinant frequency State how genetic distance may be estimated State how restriction

More information

Name Date Period. 2. When a molecule of double-stranded DNA undergoes replication, it results in

Name Date Period. 2. When a molecule of double-stranded DNA undergoes replication, it results in DNA, RNA, Protein Synthesis Keystone 1. During the process shown above, the two strands of one DNA molecule are unwound. Then, DNA polymerases add complementary nucleotides to each strand which results

More information

Eukaryotic Cells and the Cell Cycle

Eukaryotic Cells and the Cell Cycle Eukaryotic Cells and the Cell Cycle Mitosis, Meiosis, & Fertilization Learning Goals: After completing this laboratory exercise you will be able to: 1. Identify the stages of the cell cycle. 2. Follow

More information

CCR Biology - Chapter 9 Practice Test - Summer 2012

CCR Biology - Chapter 9 Practice Test - Summer 2012 Name: Class: Date: CCR Biology - Chapter 9 Practice Test - Summer 2012 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Genetic engineering is possible

More information

Reproductive System & Development: Practice Questions #1

Reproductive System & Development: Practice Questions #1 Reproductive System & Development: Practice Questions #1 1. Which two glands in the diagram produce gametes? A. glands A and B B. glands B and E C. glands C and F D. glands E and F 2. Base your answer

More information

Lecture 38: DNA Fingerprinting

Lecture 38: DNA Fingerprinting Lecture 38: DNA Fingerprinting (DNA technology) The most awesome and powerful tool acquired by man since the splitting of atoms - The Time Magazine (USA) Conventional fingerprint of an individual comes

More information

Mendelian and Non-Mendelian Heredity Grade Ten

Mendelian and Non-Mendelian Heredity Grade Ten Ohio Standards Connection: Life Sciences Benchmark C Explain the genetic mechanisms and molecular basis of inheritance. Indicator 6 Explain that a unit of hereditary information is called a gene, and genes

More information

Genetics of Turner syndrome. Rosemarie Kelly Principal genetic Counsellor National Centre for Medical Genetics

Genetics of Turner syndrome. Rosemarie Kelly Principal genetic Counsellor National Centre for Medical Genetics Genetics of Turner syndrome Rosemarie Kelly Principal genetic Counsellor National Centre for Medical Genetics National Centre for Medical Genetics Clinical Genetics Cytogenetics Molecular Genetics www.genetics.ie

More information

Name Date. Meiosis Worksheet

Name Date. Meiosis Worksheet Name Date Meiosis Worksheet Identifying Processes On the lines provided, order the different stages of meiosis I THROUGH meiosis II, including interphase in the proper sequence. 1. homologous chromosome

More information

This fact sheet describes how genes affect our health when they follow a well understood pattern of genetic inheritance known as autosomal recessive.

This fact sheet describes how genes affect our health when they follow a well understood pattern of genetic inheritance known as autosomal recessive. 11111 This fact sheet describes how genes affect our health when they follow a well understood pattern of genetic inheritance known as autosomal recessive. In summary Genes contain the instructions for

More information

Genetic Disorders HST.023. Spring 2003

Genetic Disorders HST.023. Spring 2003 Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology HST.035: Principle and Practice of Human Pathology Dr. Badizadegan Genetic Disorders HST.023 Spring 2003 Genetic Disorders Cytogenetic Disorders Gross

More information

Punnett Square: Monohybird Crosses

Punnett Square: Monohybird Crosses Punnett Squares A Punnett square is a mathematical device used by geneticists to show combinations of gametes and to predict offspring ratios. There are a few fundamental concepts of Punnett squares that

More information

B2 5 Inheritrance Genetic Crosses

B2 5 Inheritrance Genetic Crosses B2 5 Inheritrance Genetic Crosses 65 minutes 65 marks Page of 55 Q. A woman gives birth to triplets. Two of the triplets are boys and the third is a girl. The triplets developed from two egg cells released

More information

Meiosis. The form of cell division by which gametes, with half the number of chromosomes, are produced. Diploid (2n) haploid (n)

Meiosis. The form of cell division by which gametes, with half the number of chromosomes, are produced. Diploid (2n) haploid (n) MEIOSIS Meiosis The form of cell division by which gametes, with half the number of chromosomes, are produced. Diploid (2n) haploid (n) Meiosis is sexual reproduction. Two divisions (meiosis I and meiosis

More information

Chromosomes, Karyotyping, and Abnormalities (Learning Objectives) Learn the components and parts of a metaphase chromosome.

Chromosomes, Karyotyping, and Abnormalities (Learning Objectives) Learn the components and parts of a metaphase chromosome. Chromosomes, Karyotyping, and Abnormalities (Learning Objectives) Learn the components and parts of a metaphase chromosome. Define the terms karyotype, autosomal and sex chromosomes. Explain how many of

More information

CHROMOSOMES Dr. Fern Tsien, Dept. of Genetics, LSUHSC, NO, LA

CHROMOSOMES Dr. Fern Tsien, Dept. of Genetics, LSUHSC, NO, LA CHROMOSOMES Dr. Fern Tsien, Dept. of Genetics, LSUHSC, NO, LA Cytogenetics is the study of chromosomes and their structure, inheritance, and abnormalities. Chromosome abnormalities occur in approximately:

More information

DNA 1 2. I. Extracting DNA from Your Cells

DNA 1 2. I. Extracting DNA from Your Cells DNA 1 2 I. Extracting DNA from Your Cells Each cell in your body has a nucleus with multiple chromosomes. Each chromosome contains a DNA molecule. Each cell is surrounded by a cell membrane that regulates

More information

Science 10-Biology Activity 14 Worksheet on Sexual Reproduction

Science 10-Biology Activity 14 Worksheet on Sexual Reproduction Science 10-Biology Activity 14 Worksheet on Sexual Reproduction 10 Name Due Date Show Me NOTE: This worksheet is based on material from pages 367-372 in Science Probe. 1. Sexual reproduction requires parents,

More information

Respiration occurs in the mitochondria in cells.

Respiration occurs in the mitochondria in cells. B3 Question Which process occurs in the mitochondria in cells? Why do the liver and muscle cells have large number of mitochondria? What is the function of the ribosomes? Answer Respiration occurs in the

More information

Chapter 14: Mendel and the Gene Idea

Chapter 14: Mendel and the Gene Idea Name Period Chapter 14: Mendel and the Gene Idea If you have completed a first-year high school biology course, some of this chapter will serve as a review for the basic concepts of Mendelian genetics.

More information

Worksheet - COMPARATIVE MAPPING 1

Worksheet - COMPARATIVE MAPPING 1 Worksheet - COMPARATIVE MAPPING 1 The arrangement of genes and other DNA markers is compared between species in Comparative genome mapping. As early as 1915, the geneticist J.B.S Haldane reported that

More information

Genetics Lecture Notes 7.03 2005. Lectures 1 2

Genetics Lecture Notes 7.03 2005. Lectures 1 2 Genetics Lecture Notes 7.03 2005 Lectures 1 2 Lecture 1 We will begin this course with the question: What is a gene? This question will take us four lectures to answer because there are actually several

More information

Chapter 8 Cell division. Review

Chapter 8 Cell division. Review Chapter 8 Cell division Mitosis/Meiosis Review This spot that holds the 2 chromatid copies together is called a centromere The phase of the cell cycle in which cells stop dividing all together. G 0 Cell

More information

Two copies of each autosomal gene affect phenotype.

Two copies of each autosomal gene affect phenotype. SECTION 7.1 CHROMOSOMES AND PHENOTYPE Study Guide KEY CONCEPT The chromosomes on which genes are located can affect the expression of traits. VOCABULARY carrier sex-linked gene X chromosome inactivation

More information

Lecture 6: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (RFLPs)

Lecture 6: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (RFLPs) Lecture 6: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (RFLPs) Single nucleotide polymorphisms or SNPs (pronounced "snips") are DNA sequence variations that occur

More information

Human Karyotyping Lab #

Human Karyotyping Lab # Human Karyotyping Lab # Background: Occasionally chromosomal material is lost or rearranged during the formation of gametes or during cell division of the early embryo. Such changes, primarily the result

More information

5. The cells of a multicellular organism, other than gametes and the germ cells from which it develops, are known as

5. The cells of a multicellular organism, other than gametes and the germ cells from which it develops, are known as 1. True or false? The chi square statistical test is used to determine how well the observed genetic data agree with the expectations derived from a hypothesis. True 2. True or false? Chromosomes in prokaryotic

More information

Meiosis is a special form of cell division.

Meiosis is a special form of cell division. Page 1 of 6 KEY CONCEPT Meiosis is a special form of cell division. BEFORE, you learned Mitosis produces two genetically identical cells In sexual reproduction, offspring inherit traits from both parents

More information

Chapter 13: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles

Chapter 13: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Name Period Chapter 13: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Concept 13.1 Offspring acquire genes from parents by inheriting chromosomes 1. Let s begin with a review of several terms that you may already know.

More information

II. DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid Located in the nucleus of the cell Codes for your genes

II. DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid Located in the nucleus of the cell Codes for your genes HEREDITY = passing on of characteristics from parents to offspring How?...DNA! I. DNA, Chromosomes, Chromatin, and Genes DNA = blueprint of life (has the instructions for making an organism) Chromatin=

More information

Fact Sheet 14 EPIGENETICS

Fact Sheet 14 EPIGENETICS This fact sheet describes epigenetics which refers to factors that can influence the way our genes are expressed in the cells of our body. In summary Epigenetics is a phenomenon that affects the way cells

More information

Cell Division Mitosis and Meiosis

Cell Division Mitosis and Meiosis Cell Division Mitosis and Meiosis students will describe the processes of mitosis and meiosis o define and explain the significance of chromosome number in somatic and sex cells o explain the events of

More information

Mendelian inheritance and the

Mendelian inheritance and the Mendelian inheritance and the most common genetic diseases Cornelia Schubert, MD, University of Goettingen, Dept. Human Genetics EUPRIM-Net course Genetics, Immunology and Breeding Mangement German Primate

More information

www.njctl.org PSI Biology Mitosis & Meiosis

www.njctl.org PSI Biology Mitosis & Meiosis Mitosis and Meiosis Mitosis Classwork 1. Identify two differences between meiosis and mitosis. 2. Provide an example of a type of cell in the human body that would undergo mitosis. 3. Does cell division

More information

Biology Behind the Crime Scene Week 4: Lab #4 Genetics Exercise (Meiosis) and RFLP Analysis of DNA

Biology Behind the Crime Scene Week 4: Lab #4 Genetics Exercise (Meiosis) and RFLP Analysis of DNA Page 1 of 5 Biology Behind the Crime Scene Week 4: Lab #4 Genetics Exercise (Meiosis) and RFLP Analysis of DNA Genetics Exercise: Understanding how meiosis affects genetic inheritance and DNA patterns

More information

Terms: The following terms are presented in this lesson (shown in bold italics and on PowerPoint Slides 2 and 3):

Terms: The following terms are presented in this lesson (shown in bold italics and on PowerPoint Slides 2 and 3): Unit B: Understanding Animal Reproduction Lesson 4: Understanding Genetics Student Learning Objectives: Instruction in this lesson should result in students achieving the following objectives: 1. Explain

More information

DNA Fingerprinting. Unless they are identical twins, individuals have unique DNA

DNA Fingerprinting. Unless they are identical twins, individuals have unique DNA DNA Fingerprinting Unless they are identical twins, individuals have unique DNA DNA fingerprinting The name used for the unambiguous identifying technique that takes advantage of differences in DNA sequence

More information

Biology 160 Lab Module 10 Meiosis Activity & Mendelian Genetics

Biology 160 Lab Module 10 Meiosis Activity & Mendelian Genetics Name Biology 160 Lab Module 10 Meiosis Activity & Mendelian Genetics Introduction During your lifetime you have grown from a single celled zygote into an organism made up of trillions of cells. The vast

More information

Sex Linkage. Reciprocal Cross. Exceptions 8/26/10

Sex Linkage. Reciprocal Cross. Exceptions 8/26/10 Sex Linkage Reciprocal Cross Organisms that have different sexes can be crossed in two different ways Phenotype A male X Phenotype B female Phenotype B male X Phenotype A female Mendel concluded that reciprocal

More information

AP Biology PowerPoint Notes Chapter 11 & 12 Patterns of Heredity and Human Genetics

AP Biology PowerPoint Notes Chapter 11 & 12 Patterns of Heredity and Human Genetics AP Biology PowerPoint Notes Chapter 11 & 12 Patterns of Heredity and Human Genetics Mendelism and Genotype Genotype must be considered an integrated whole of all the genes because genes often work together

More information

4.1 Cell Division and Genetic Material pg The Cell Theory is a central idea to Biology and it evolved in the 1800 s. The Cell Theory States:

4.1 Cell Division and Genetic Material pg The Cell Theory is a central idea to Biology and it evolved in the 1800 s. The Cell Theory States: 4.1 Cell Division and Genetic Material pg. 160 The Cell Theory is a central idea to Biology and it evolved in the 1800 s. The Cell Theory States: 1. All living things are composed of one or more cells.

More information

Honors Biology Course Summary Department: Science

Honors Biology Course Summary Department: Science Honors Biology Course Summary Department: Science Semester 1 Learning Objective #1 - Ecology Students will understand how organisms interact with each other and the environment. Target(s) to Meet Learning

More information

Chapter 13: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles

Chapter 13: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Name Period Concept 13.1 Offspring acquire genes from parents by inheriting chromosomes 1. Let s begin with a review of several terms that you may already know. Define: gene locus gamete male gamete female

More information