Voltage Transformers. VT Types

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Voltage Transformers. VT Types"

Transcription

1 Voltage Transformers VT - Voltage Transformer, also know as Potential Transformer (PT) CVT - Capacitive Voltage Transformer also know as CCVT (Capacitive Coupled VT) BPD - Bushing Potential Device also know as CBD (Capacitive Bushing Device) Residual Voltage - Voltage on the secondary after the primary voltage has been removed Instrument Transformers 1 VT Types Wire Wound Transformer (WWT)- Traditional Transformer, primary and a secondary winding with an iron core Capacitive Voltage Transformer - Device with coupling capacitors, wire wound transformer. Bushing Potential Device - Similar to CVT, capacitive coupling from tap points in bushing of PCB Instrument Transformers 2 1

2 Wire Wound Transformers (WWT) Not used as a stand alone transformer rated for Line to Ground voltage. Wide Operating Range. 5% - 150% to 190% of Rated Voltage. Sized for Low Flux Density for this Wide Range. Expensive, and Large. Used with coupling capacitors in a CVT. Instrument Transformers 3 Basic Transformer Model Ip Op Np Is Oe Zb Vs Ns Os Instrument Transformers 4 2

3 Wire Wound Transformers Ideal Because of Accuracy in Reproducing Transients on the Secondary. Errors» no load Errors, Voltage Drop due to Exciting Current in Primary» load Errors, Voltage Drop in both Windings due to High Burden Currents Instrument Transformers 5 Capacitive VT Model Basic Circuit and Circuit Diagram L, Inductive Reactance» Tuned to Resonate with Equivalent C at System Frequency.» Prevents Phase Shift.» External or Internal to Wire Wound T.» Protects C2, Saturate if the Secondary of T is Shorted. Tuning of T ratio using Taps on T or Separate Auto- Transformer on Sec. Winding. Instrument Transformers 6 3

4 CVT Basic Circuit Line Voltage C Coupling Capacitors C 1 2 L Compensating Reactor Step-Down Transfomer Ferro-resonace Suppression Circuit Instrument Transformers 7 CVT Circuit Diagram Ce L Ri Rs Vi Z e Z B Instrument Transformers 8 4

5 Capacitive VTs (con t) Typical values of C1 are around 2000 pf. Accuracy/Errors» Typical Change of Phase Error at Rated Burden (150 VA.85 pf) 30 min/hz at 145kV 10 min/hz at 400kV.» Modern Transformers - Smaller Series Reactance, gives 1.5% and 60 min. Instrument Transformers 9 CVT Errors At Low System Voltage, the Core Flux and Permeability are Reduced. Exciting Impedance Decreases Intermediate Current and Voltage go up Causing Mag. and Phase Error. Standards» Steady State Classifications based on Burden type» No Standard for Transient Response Instrument Transformers 10 5

6 Ferroresonance Resulting from:» Primary Reclosing» Variations in Secondary Load (Short Circuits) DC Voltage Applied to Intermediate Voltage Terminal Saturates Core of WWT Reducing Exciting Impedance and Causing Large Inrush Currents. Instrument Transformers 11 Ferroresonance (con t) When Current Peaks and Starts to Decay, Core Magnetic Field will Collapse, Charging the Capacitor in the Opposite Polarity. 3rd Harmonic Voltage Common Output Voltage Increase of 25% to 50%. Common in Circuit with Low Losses. Increase the Resistive Load on the VT. Aux. VTs Aggravate the Condition. Ferro-resonance Suppression Circuit» Two types Active and Passive Instrument Transformers 12 6

7 Ferroresonance Suppression Circuits Relay Voltage Relay Voltage Step-Down Transformer Secondary C L Step-Down Transformer Secondary L f R f R R Active Passive Instrument Transformers 13 CVTs (con t) Active Circuit, No Affect of Fundamental Voltage, Low Impedance path for Off-Nominal Frequencies, Attenuates Off-Nominal Frequency Voltages. Passive Circuit, High Secondary Voltage, Flash Gap to Loading Resistor, Saturable Inductor will Saturate to Remove the Oscillations. Instrument Transformers 14 7

8 Transient Response Capacitors and Inductor Impedances, Large compared to the burden for CVTs. Results in Oscillations in Secondary when the Primary Voltage Changes Rapidly. Residual voltage due to Discharge of Energy Devices. Transient Overreach- CVT Transients Reduce Fundamental Component of Fault Voltage. Decreases Impedance, Zone 1 Element picks up for Fault out of Zone of Protection. Instrument Transformers 15 Solutions Reduce Zone 1 Impedance Reach - Becomes Ineffective.» Time Delay to Block Tripping During Transient Time - Close-In Fault Clearing Times. CVT Transients depends on Point On Wave of the Fault. Voltage Zero Faults Worse than Voltage Peaks. CVT Component Contributions to Transient Response» Turns Ratio, Higher for Better Isolation Between Capacitors and Burden. Instrument Transformers 16 8

9 CVTs (con t) Coupling Capacitors, High Capacitance CVTs Decrease Transient Magnitude.» Ferro-resonance Suppression Circuit Active Circuit acts like a Band-Pass Filter, Extra Time Delay in Output. Added Energy Storage Devices Contribute Adversely to the Transient. Passive Circuit has Little Effect on the Transient.» Output Burden, Parallel Burdens are Worse for Residual Voltages. Provide Additional Discharge Paths with Little Resistance for Damping. Instrument Transformers 17 Bushing Potential Device Model» Same as CVT» Mounts on or Near Circuit Breaker Bushing» Capacitances C1 and C2 Chosen from Tap Points on Side of Bushing. Instrument Transformers 18 9

10 Bushing Potential Device Accuracy/Errors» Steady State Accuracy's Similar to those in a CVT» Suggest Having Burden with a pf of 100% and Load Device to Burden Rating, to Reduce Transients. Instrument Transformers 19 BPD Transient Response» Low Capacitance Values Resulting from the Method Obtained.» Lower C Devices have Worse Transient Response. Instrument Transformers 20 10

11 Transient Response of CCVT s CCVT Transient Response is Dependent on:» Stack Capacitance» Intermediate Tap Voltage» Secondary Burden Instrument Transformers 21 11

Extra Questions - 1. 1. What current will flow in a 20Ω resistor when it is connected to a 50V supply? a) 0.4A b) 1.6A c) 2.5A

Extra Questions - 1. 1. What current will flow in a 20Ω resistor when it is connected to a 50V supply? a) 0.4A b) 1.6A c) 2.5A Extra Questions - 1 1. What current will flow in a 20Ω resistor when it is connected to a 50V supply? a) 0.4A b) 1.6A c) 2.5A 2. A current of 500mA flows in a resistance of 12Ω. What power is dissipated

More information

Lecture 3 Power System Measurement. Course map

Lecture 3 Power System Measurement. Course map Lecture 3 Power System Measurement 1 Course map 2 1 Outline of the Lecture Instrument Transformers (NPAG Ch. 6) Voltage Transformer Current Transformers Measurement Setups Transducers (NPAG Ch. 22) 3 The

More information

Fall 12 PHY 122 Homework Solutions #10

Fall 12 PHY 122 Homework Solutions #10 Fall 12 PHY 122 Homework Solutions #10 HW10: Ch.30 Q5, 8, 15,17, 19 P 1, 3, 9, 18, 34, 36, 42, 51, 66 Chapter 30 Question 5 If you are given a fixed length of wire, how would you shape it to obtain the

More information

Line Reactors and AC Drives

Line Reactors and AC Drives Line Reactors and AC Drives Rockwell Automation Mequon Wisconsin Quite often, line and load reactors are installed on AC drives without a solid understanding of why or what the positive and negative consequences

More information

This webinar brought to you by the Relion product family Advanced protection and control IEDs from ABB

This webinar brought to you by the Relion product family Advanced protection and control IEDs from ABB This webinar brought to you by the Relion product family Advanced protection and control IEDs from ABB Relion. Thinking beyond the box. Designed to seamlessly consolidate functions, Relion relays are smarter,

More information

Circuits with inductors and alternating currents. Chapter 20 #45, 46, 47, 49

Circuits with inductors and alternating currents. Chapter 20 #45, 46, 47, 49 Circuits with inductors and alternating currents Chapter 20 #45, 46, 47, 49 RL circuits Ch. 20 (last section) Symbol for inductor looks like a spring. An inductor is a circuit element that has a large

More information

If there is no fault, then with proper connections account for the CT polarity, we should obtain circulatory current through CT secondary.

If there is no fault, then with proper connections account for the CT polarity, we should obtain circulatory current through CT secondary. Module 10 : Differential Protection of Bus, Transformer and Generator Lecture 39 : Transformer Protection Introduction Differential protection of transformer was introduced in lecture 2. Traditionally,

More information

NZQA registered unit standard 20431 version 2 Page 1 of 7. Demonstrate and apply fundamental knowledge of a.c. principles for electronics technicians

NZQA registered unit standard 20431 version 2 Page 1 of 7. Demonstrate and apply fundamental knowledge of a.c. principles for electronics technicians NZQA registered unit standard 0431 version Page 1 of 7 Title Demonstrate and apply fundamental knowledge of a.c. principles for electronics technicians Level 3 Credits 7 Purpose This unit standard covers

More information

Instrument Transformers Application Guide

Instrument Transformers Application Guide Instrument Transformers Application Guide Edited by ABB AB High Voltage Products Department: Marketing & Sales Text: Knut Sjövall, ABB Layout, 3D and images: Mats Findell, ABB SE-771 80 LUDVIKA, Sweden

More information

Digital Energy ITI. Instrument Transformer Basic Technical Information and Application

Digital Energy ITI. Instrument Transformer Basic Technical Information and Application g Digital Energy ITI Instrument Transformer Basic Technical Information and Application Table of Contents DEFINITIONS AND FUNCTIONS CONSTRUCTION FEATURES MAGNETIC CIRCUITS RATING AND RATIO CURRENT TRANSFORMER

More information

Electrical Machines II. Week 1: Construction and theory of operation of single phase transformer

Electrical Machines II. Week 1: Construction and theory of operation of single phase transformer Electrical Machines II Week 1: Construction and theory of operation of single phase transformer Transformers Overview A transformer changes ac electric power at one frequency and voltage level to ac electric

More information

Since any real component also has loss due to the resistive component, the average power dissipated is 2 2R

Since any real component also has loss due to the resistive component, the average power dissipated is 2 2R Quality factor, Q Reactive components such as capacitors and inductors are often described with a figure of merit called Q. While it can be defined in many ways, it s most fundamental description is: Q

More information

Student Name Instructor Name. High School or Vocational Center Grade. COMPETENCY RECORD FOR ARTICULATION Muskegon Community College Electronics

Student Name Instructor Name. High School or Vocational Center Grade. COMPETENCY RECORD FOR ARTICULATION Muskegon Community College Electronics Student Name Instructor Name High School or Vocational Center Grade COMPETENCY RECORD FOR ARTICULATION Muskegon Community College Electronics Please check below each skill the student has mastered as described,

More information

Capacitor Voltage Transformer. Answers for energy.

Capacitor Voltage Transformer. Answers for energy. Capacitor Voltage Transformer Answers for energy. Capacitor Voltage Transformer Siemens Capacitor Voltage Transformers are based on technology from Trench, a recognized world leader in the design and manufacture

More information

Instrument Transformers By: Kiran Kelapure

Instrument Transformers By: Kiran Kelapure Yadav Measurements Pvt. Ltd. Instrument Transformers By: Kiran Kelapure A specifically designed programme for Da Afghanistan Breshna Sherkat (DABS) Afghanistan 1 Electricity Metering technologies and systems

More information

Functions, variations and application areas of magnetic components

Functions, variations and application areas of magnetic components Westring 18 3314 Büren Germany T +49 951 60 01 0 F +49 951 60 01 3 www.schaffner.com energy efficiency and reliability 1.1 Transformers The transformer is one of the traditional components of electrical

More information

Capacitor Voltage Transformers

Capacitor Voltage Transformers Capacitor Voltage Transformers Capacitor Voltage Transformer Introduction Trench is a recognized world leader in the design and manufacture of high voltage equipment for application on electric utility

More information

Last time : energy storage elements capacitor.

Last time : energy storage elements capacitor. Last time : energy storage elements capacitor. Charge on plates Energy stored in the form of electric field Passive sign convention Vlt Voltage drop across real capacitor can not change abruptly because

More information

Lab #4 Capacitors and Inductors. Capacitor and Inductor Transient Response

Lab #4 Capacitors and Inductors. Capacitor and Inductor Transient Response Capacitor and Inductor Transient Response Capacitor Theory Like resistors, capacitors are also basic circuit elements. Capacitors come in a seemingly endless variety of shapes and sizes, and they can all

More information

Earth Fault Detection Basics in Theory

Earth Fault Detection Basics in Theory Earth Fault Detection Basics in Theory Author: Dipl.-Ing. Ingo Kühnen Woodward Power Solutions Krefelder Weg 47 47906 Kempen, Germany Kempen, 16.04.2010 Earth_Fault_Detection_20100416.doc page 1 1. Star

More information

Properties of electrical signals

Properties of electrical signals DC Voltage Component (Average voltage) Properties of electrical signals v(t) = V DC + v ac (t) V DC is the voltage value displayed on a DC voltmeter Triangular waveform DC component Half-wave rectifier

More information

VOLTAGE REGULATOR AND PARALLEL OPERATION

VOLTAGE REGULATOR AND PARALLEL OPERATION VOLTAGE REGULATOR AND PARALLEL OPERATION Generator sets are operated in parallel to improve fuel economy and reliability of the power supply. Economy is improved with multiple paralleled generators by

More information

ACCURACY OF POTENTIALTRANSFORMERS

ACCURACY OF POTENTIALTRANSFORMERS 8 VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS Two types of voltage transformer are used for protective-relaying purposes, as follows: (1) the "instrument potential transformer," hereafter to be called simply "potential transformer,"

More information

CT Application Guide for the 489 Generator Management Relay

CT Application Guide for the 489 Generator Management Relay g GE Power Management Technical Notes CT Application Guide for the 489 Generator Management Relay GE Publication No. GET-8402 Copyright 2002 GE Power Management Introduction A protection scheme operates

More information

Generator Stator Protection, under/over voltage, under /over frequency and unbalanced loading. Ramandeep Kaur Aujla S.NO 250447392

Generator Stator Protection, under/over voltage, under /over frequency and unbalanced loading. Ramandeep Kaur Aujla S.NO 250447392 1 Generator Stator Protection, under/over voltage, under /over frequency and unbalanced loading By Ramandeep Kaur Aujla S.NO 250447392 ES 586b: Theory and applications of protective relays Department of

More information

Power Supplies. 1.0 Power Supply Basics. www.learnabout-electronics.org. Module

Power Supplies. 1.0 Power Supply Basics. www.learnabout-electronics.org. Module Module 1 www.learnabout-electronics.org Power Supplies 1.0 Power Supply Basics What you ll learn in Module 1 Section 1.0 Power Supply Basics. Basic functions of a power supply. Safety aspects of working

More information

DIMENSIONING OF CURRENT TRANSFORMERS FOR PROTECTON APPLICATION

DIMENSIONING OF CURRENT TRANSFORMERS FOR PROTECTON APPLICATION ÿþ üûúùø öõöôùóùõò CT Dimensioning DIMENSIONING OF CURRENT TRANSFORMERS FOR PROTECTON APPLICATION Application note GER3973 1 CT Dimensioning ÿþ üûúùø öõöôùóùõò GER-3973 Application note ÿþ üûúùø öõöôùóùõò

More information

Power Quality Issues, Impacts, and Mitigation for Industrial Customers

Power Quality Issues, Impacts, and Mitigation for Industrial Customers Power Quality Issues, Impacts, and Mitigation for Industrial Customers By Kevin Olikara, Power and Energy Management Products Rockwell Automation, Inc. Now, more than ever, electronic equipment and computing

More information

Slide 1 / 26. Inductance. 2011 by Bryan Pflueger

Slide 1 / 26. Inductance. 2011 by Bryan Pflueger Slide 1 / 26 Inductance 2011 by Bryan Pflueger Slide 2 / 26 Mutual Inductance If two coils of wire are placed near each other and have a current passing through them, they will each induce an emf on one

More information

Equipment: Power Supply, DAI, Transformer (8341), Variable resistance (8311), Variable inductance (8321), Variable capacitance (8331)

Equipment: Power Supply, DAI, Transformer (8341), Variable resistance (8311), Variable inductance (8321), Variable capacitance (8331) Lab 5: Single-phase transformer operations. Objective: to examine the design of single-phase transformers; to study the voltage and current ratios of transformers; to study the voltage regulation of the

More information

The full wave rectifier consists of two diodes and a resister as shown in Figure

The full wave rectifier consists of two diodes and a resister as shown in Figure The Full-Wave Rectifier The full wave rectifier consists of two diodes and a resister as shown in Figure The transformer has a centre-tapped secondary winding. This secondary winding has a lead attached

More information

2. A conductor of length 2m moves at 4m/s at 30 to a uniform magnetic field of 0.1T. Which one of the following gives the e.m.f. generated?

2. A conductor of length 2m moves at 4m/s at 30 to a uniform magnetic field of 0.1T. Which one of the following gives the e.m.f. generated? Extra Questions - 2 1. A straight length of wire moves through a uniform magnetic field. The e.m.f. produced across the ends of the wire will be maximum if it moves: a) along the lines of magnetic flux

More information

Instrument and control transformers: applications and selection

Instrument and control transformers: applications and selection 15 15/529 Instrument and control transformers: applications and selection Contents 15.1 Introduction 15/531 15.2 Types of transformers 15/531 15.2.1 Voltage transformers (VTs) 15/531 15.2.2 Current transformers

More information

Impedance Matching and Matching Networks. Valentin Todorow, December, 2009

Impedance Matching and Matching Networks. Valentin Todorow, December, 2009 Impedance Matching and Matching Networks Valentin Todorow, December, 2009 RF for Plasma Processing - Definition of RF What is RF? The IEEE Standard Dictionary of Electrical and Electronics Terms defines

More information

12. Transformers, Impedance Matching and Maximum Power Transfer

12. Transformers, Impedance Matching and Maximum Power Transfer 1 1. Transformers, Impedance Matching and Maximum Power Transfer Introduction The transformer is a device that takes AC at one voltage and transforms it into another voltage either higher or lower than

More information

INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEM PROTECTION. Hands-On Relay School 2012

INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEM PROTECTION. Hands-On Relay School 2012 INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEM PROTECTION Hands-On Relay School 2012 CONGRATULATIONS On choosing the field of system protection. It is an exciting, challenging profession. System protection has changed considerably

More information

Tamura Closed Loop Hall Effect Current Sensors

Tamura Closed Loop Hall Effect Current Sensors Tamura Closed Loop Hall Effect Current Sensors AC, DC, & Complex Currents Galvanic Isolation Fast Response Wide Frequency Bandwidth Quality & Reliability RoHs Compliance Closed Loop Hall Effect Sensors

More information

Chapter 16. Current Transformer Design. Copyright 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Chapter 16. Current Transformer Design. Copyright 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 16 Current Transformer Design Table of Contents 1. Introduction 2. Analysis of the Input Current Component 3. Unique to a Current Transformer 4. Current Transformer Circuit Applications 5. Current

More information

Product Data Bulletin

Product Data Bulletin Product Data Bulletin Power System Harmonics Causes and Effects of Variable Frequency Drives Relative to the IEEE 519-1992 Standard Raleigh, NC, U.S.A. INTRODUCTION This document describes power system

More information

Design Considerations for an LLC Resonant Converter

Design Considerations for an LLC Resonant Converter Design Considerations for an LLC Resonant Converter Hangseok Choi Power Conversion Team www.fairchildsemi.com 1. Introduction Growing demand for higher power density and low profile in power converter

More information

Coupled Inductors. Introducing Coupled Inductors

Coupled Inductors. Introducing Coupled Inductors Coupled Inductors From power distribution across large distances to radio transmissions, coupled inductors are used extensively in electrical applications. Their properties allow for increasing or decreasing

More information

ES250: Electrical Science. HW7: Energy Storage Elements

ES250: Electrical Science. HW7: Energy Storage Elements ES250: Electrical Science HW7: Energy Storage Elements Introduction This chapter introduces two more circuit elements, the capacitor and the inductor whose elements laws involve integration or differentiation;

More information

Application Note. So You Need to Measure Some Inductors?

Application Note. So You Need to Measure Some Inductors? So You Need to Measure Some nductors? Take a look at the 1910 nductance Analyzer. Although specifically designed for production testing of inductors and coils, in addition to measuring inductance (L),

More information

HARMONICS - Understanding the Facts - Part 3 Richard P. Bingham

HARMONICS - Understanding the Facts - Part 3 Richard P. Bingham HARMONICS - Understanding the Facts - Part 3 Richard P. Bingham Abstract Understanding what is important to know about harmonics can be challenging for those without extensive electrical engineering backgrounds.

More information

Understanding Power Impedance Supply for Optimum Decoupling

Understanding Power Impedance Supply for Optimum Decoupling Introduction Noise in power supplies is not only caused by the power supply itself, but also the load s interaction with the power supply (i.e. dynamic loads, switching, etc.). To lower load induced noise,

More information

UNDERSTANDING AND CONTROLLING COMMON-MODE EMISSIONS IN HIGH-POWER ELECTRONICS

UNDERSTANDING AND CONTROLLING COMMON-MODE EMISSIONS IN HIGH-POWER ELECTRONICS Page 1 UNDERSTANDING AND CONTROLLING COMMON-MODE EMISSIONS IN HIGH-POWER ELECTRONICS By Henry Ott Consultants Livingston, NJ 07039 (973) 992-1793 www.hottconsultants.com hott@ieee.org Page 2 THE BASIC

More information

Practice Problems - Chapter 33 Alternating Current Circuits

Practice Problems - Chapter 33 Alternating Current Circuits Multiple Choice Practice Problems - Chapter 33 Alternating Current Circuits 4. A high-voltage powerline operates at 500 000 V-rms and carries an rms current of 500 A. If the resistance of the cable is

More information

PHASOR DIAGRAMS HANDS-ON RELAY SCHOOL WSU PULLMAN, WA. RON ALEXANDER - BPA

PHASOR DIAGRAMS HANDS-ON RELAY SCHOOL WSU PULLMAN, WA. RON ALEXANDER - BPA PHASOR DIAGRAMS HANDS-ON RELAY SCHOOL WSU PULLMAN, WA. RON ALEXANDER - BPA What are phasors??? In normal practice, the phasor represents the rms maximum value of the positive half cycle of the sinusoid

More information

Substation Commissioning

Substation Commissioning Substation Commissioning Topics Project Overview Review Work Plan Substation Equipment Testing Power Circuit Breakers Power Transformers Capacitors Project Overview Reviewing the Work Plan Planning and

More information

ATTACHMENT F. Electric Utility Contact Information Utility Name. For Office Use Only

ATTACHMENT F. Electric Utility Contact Information Utility Name. For Office Use Only ATTACHMENT F CATEGORY 2 GENERATOR INTERCONNECTION APPLICATION FOR ALL PROJECTS WITH AGGREGATE GENERATOR OUTPUT OF MORE THAN 20 KW BUT LESS THAN OR EQUAL TO 150 KW Also Serves as Application for Category

More information

Circulating Current Relay. Type IRXm

Circulating Current Relay. Type IRXm Circulating Current Relay Type IRXm ABB a global technology leader ABB is a global leader in Power and Automation technologies that enable utility and industry customers to improve performance while lowering

More information

Power Quality paper #4

Power Quality paper #4 THE BEHAVIOUR OF CONTACTORS DURING VOLTAGE DIPS by: IT De Villiers SYNOPSIS Electrically held-in contactors may drop out during voltage depressions. The time that contactors take to drop out depends on

More information

Measuring Telecommunication Transformers

Measuring Telecommunication Transformers Measuring Telecommunication Transformers Rapid expansion of the Internet and Mobile Communications has driven the need to transmit digital information at high frequencies. This need has put new requirements

More information

AC Generators. Basic Generator

AC Generators. Basic Generator AC Generators Basic Generator A basic generator consists of a magnetic field, an armature, slip rings, brushes and a resistive load. The magnetic field is usually an electromagnet. An armature is any number

More information

The Different Types of UPS Systems

The Different Types of UPS Systems The Different Types of UPS Systems By Neil Rasmussen White Paper #1 Revision 5 Executive Summary There is much confusion in the marketplace about the different types of UPS systems and their characteristics.

More information

Measurement of Inductor Q with the MSA Sam Wetterlin 3/31/11. Equation 1 Determining Resonant Q from Inductor Q and Capacitor Q

Measurement of Inductor Q with the MSA Sam Wetterlin 3/31/11. Equation 1 Determining Resonant Q from Inductor Q and Capacitor Q Measurement of Inductor with the MSA Sam Wetterlin 3/31/11 The of an inductor, which is its reactance divided by its internal series resistance, is used as an indication of how well it will perform at

More information

1. Title Electrical fundamentals II (Mechanics Repair and Maintenance)

1. Title Electrical fundamentals II (Mechanics Repair and Maintenance) 1. Title Electrical fundamentals II (Mechanics Repair and Maintenance) 2. Code EMAMBG429A 3. Range The knowledge is needed for a wide range of aircraft repair and maintenance works,e.g. applicable to aircrafts,

More information

CHAPTER 2B: DIODE AND APPLICATIONS. D.Wilcher

CHAPTER 2B: DIODE AND APPLICATIONS. D.Wilcher CHAPTER 2B: DIODE AND APPLICATIONS D.Wilcher 1 CHAPTER 2B: OBJECTIVES Analyze the operation of 3 basic types of rectifiers Describe the operation of rectifier filters and IC regulators Analyze the operation

More information

Typical Data Requirements Data Required for Power System Evaluation

Typical Data Requirements Data Required for Power System Evaluation Summary 66 Carey Road Queensbury, NY 12804 Ph: (518) 792-4776 Fax: (518) 792-5767 www.nepsi.com sales@nepsi.com Harmonic Filter & Power Capacitor Bank Application Studies This document describes NEPSI

More information

Single Transistor FM Transmitter Design

Single Transistor FM Transmitter Design Single Transistor FM Transmitter Design In telecommunications, frequency modulation (FM) conveys information over a carrier wave by varying its frequency. FM is commonly used at VHF radio frequencies for

More information

Selecting Current Transformers Part 1 By Darrell G. Broussard, P.E.

Selecting Current Transformers Part 1 By Darrell G. Broussard, P.E. By Darrell G. Broussard, P.E. Introduction: As engineers, we are aware that electrical power systems have grown. How much have they grown? When was the last time you specified a 2400-volt system, a 4160-volt

More information

Capacitors and Inductors

Capacitors and Inductors P517/617 ec2, P1 Capacitors and Inductors 1) Capacitance: Capacitance (C) is defined as the ratio of charge (Q) to voltage () on an object. Define capacitance by: C = Q/ = Coulombs/olt = Farad. Capacitance

More information

Introduction. Harmonics and IEEE 519 Page 1 of 19

Introduction. Harmonics and IEEE 519 Page 1 of 19 Introduction In an ideal power system, the voltage supplied to customer equipment, and the resulting load current are perfect sine waves. In practice, however, conditions are never ideal, so these waveforms

More information

BSNL TTA Question Paper-Instruments and Measurement Specialization 2007

BSNL TTA Question Paper-Instruments and Measurement Specialization 2007 BSNL TTA Question Paper-Instruments and Measurement Specialization 2007 (1) Instrument is a device for determining (a) the magnitude of a quantity (b) the physics of a variable (c) either of the above

More information

Current Transformers. Bonneville Power Administration. Steve Laslo For the Hands On Relay School (3-12) Revision 1.1. February 21, 2012 1

Current Transformers. Bonneville Power Administration. Steve Laslo For the Hands On Relay School (3-12) Revision 1.1. February 21, 2012 1 Current Transformers Bonneville Power Administration Steve Laslo For the Hands On Relay School (3-12) Revision 1.1 February 21, 2012 1 Basic Theory: CT as a Voltage Transformer February 21, 2012 2 CT as

More information

Design of an Auxiliary Power Distribution Network for an Electric Vehicle

Design of an Auxiliary Power Distribution Network for an Electric Vehicle Design of an Auxiliary Power Distribution Network for an Electric Vehicle William Chen, Simon Round and Richard Duke Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering University of Canterbury, Christchurch,

More information

EE301 Lesson 14 Reading: 10.1-10.4, 10.11-10.12, 11.1-11.4 and 11.11-11.13

EE301 Lesson 14 Reading: 10.1-10.4, 10.11-10.12, 11.1-11.4 and 11.11-11.13 CAPACITORS AND INDUCTORS Learning Objectives EE301 Lesson 14 a. Define capacitance and state its symbol and unit of measurement. b. Predict the capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor. c. Analyze how

More information

Capacitors. We charge a capacitor by connecting the two plates to a potential difference, such as a battery:

Capacitors. We charge a capacitor by connecting the two plates to a potential difference, such as a battery: RC Circuits PHYS 1112L Capacitors A capacitor is an electrical component that stores charge. The simplest capacitor is just two charged metal plates separated by a non-conducting material: In the diagram

More information

Drive circuit basics + V. τ e. Industrial Circuits Application Note. Winding resistance and inductance

Drive circuit basics + V. τ e. Industrial Circuits Application Note. Winding resistance and inductance ndustrial Circuits Application Note Drive circuit basics For a given size of a stepper motor, a limited space is available for the windings. n the process of optimizing a stepper motor drive system, an

More information

RLC Resonant Circuits

RLC Resonant Circuits C esonant Circuits Andrew McHutchon April 20, 203 Capacitors and Inductors There is a lot of inconsistency when it comes to dealing with reactances of complex components. The format followed in this document

More information

TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIERS AET 8. First Transistor developed at Bell Labs on December 16, 1947

TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIERS AET 8. First Transistor developed at Bell Labs on December 16, 1947 AET 8 First Transistor developed at Bell Labs on December 16, 1947 Objective 1a Identify Bipolar Transistor Amplifier Operating Principles Overview (1) Dynamic Operation (2) Configurations (3) Common Emitter

More information

An9931. An9931 Unity Power Factor LED Lamp Driver

An9931. An9931 Unity Power Factor LED Lamp Driver An9931 Unity Power Factor LED Lamp Driver Features Constant output current Large step-down ratio Unity power factor Low input current harmonic distortion Fixed frequency or fixed off-time operation Internal

More information

Apprentice Electrical Technician Test (ETT) Preparation Guide

Apprentice Electrical Technician Test (ETT) Preparation Guide Apprentice Electrical Technician Test (ETT) Preparation Guide APPRENTICE ELECTRICAL TECHNICIAN TEST (ETT) About the Test There are 40 questions with a maximum time limit of three hours. This is a closed

More information

Chapter 12 Driven RLC Circuits

Chapter 12 Driven RLC Circuits hapter Driven ircuits. A Sources... -. A ircuits with a Source and One ircuit Element... -3.. Purely esistive oad... -3.. Purely Inductive oad... -6..3 Purely apacitive oad... -8.3 The Series ircuit...

More information

DC-DC Converter Basics

DC-DC Converter Basics Page 1 of 16 Free Downloads / Design Tips / Java Calculators / App. Notes / Tutorials / Newsletter / Discussion / Components Database / Library / Power Links / Software / Technical Articles / On-Line Textbook

More information

Power supplies. EE328 Power Electronics Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mutlu BOZTEPE Ege University, Dept. of E&E

Power supplies. EE328 Power Electronics Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mutlu BOZTEPE Ege University, Dept. of E&E Power supplies EE328 Power Electronics Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mutlu BOZTEPE Ege University, Dept. of E&E EE328 POWER ELECTRONICS Outline of lecture Introduction to power supplies Modelling a power transformer

More information

T 3000. Substation Maintenance and Commissioning Test Equipment

T 3000. Substation Maintenance and Commissioning Test Equipment T 3000 Substation Maintenance and Commissioning Test Equipment Multi function system for testing substation equipment such as: current, voltage and power transformers, all type of protection relays, energy

More information

100% Stator Ground Fault Detection Implementation at Hibbard Renewable Energy Center. 598 N. Buth Rd 3215 Arrowhead Rd

100% Stator Ground Fault Detection Implementation at Hibbard Renewable Energy Center. 598 N. Buth Rd 3215 Arrowhead Rd 100% Stator Ground Fault Detection Implementation at Hibbard Renewable Energy Center Introduction Roger Hedding Steven Schoenherr, P.E. ABB Inc. Minnesota Power 598 N. Buth Rd 3215 Arrowhead Rd Dousman,

More information

FIT TIER 2 Application

FIT TIER 2 Application FIT TIER 2 Application Application Information The below information Auto-Fills from your registration information: Building Permit Application Date: Project Completion Date: Name: Address: City: State:

More information

RF POWER AMPLIFIERS - TANK CIRCUITS & OUTPUT COUPLING

RF POWER AMPLIFIERS - TANK CIRCUITS & OUTPUT COUPLING 1 of 6 RF POWER AMPLIFIERS - TANK CIRCUITS & OUTPUT COUPLING by Lloyd Butler VK5BR The output tuning and coupling of the final RF amplifier is an important part of the transmitter. It is designed to load

More information

X2 Z1 X1 Z2 E+ E- 0V R 438 A.V.R. R 438. Installation and maintenance

X2 Z1 X1 Z2 E+ E- 0V R 438 A.V.R. R 438. Installation and maintenance X2 Z1 X1 Z2 E+ E- 0V 110 220 380 This manual concerns the alternator which you have just purchased. We wish to draw your attention to the contents of this maintenance manual. SAFETY MEASURES Before using

More information

CAPACITOR BANK TESTING SWP

CAPACITOR BANK TESTING SWP 1. PURPOSE AND SCOPE The purpose of this Standard Work Practice (SWP) is to standardise and prescribe the method for testing Capacitor Banks including capacitors, tuning reactors and inrush limiting reactors.

More information

New alternatives aid medium voltage automatic transfer for critical power systems

New alternatives aid medium voltage automatic transfer for critical power systems POWER MONITORING SYSTEMS CAN RESOLVE GROUND RELAY TRIPPING New alternatives aid medium voltage automatic transfer for critical power systems By Reza Tajali, P.E. Power Systems Engineering, Square D Company

More information

Back to the Basics Current Transformer (CT) Testing

Back to the Basics Current Transformer (CT) Testing Back to the Basics Current Transformer (CT) Testing As test equipment becomes more sophisticated with better features and accuracy, we risk turning our field personnel into test set operators instead of

More information

= V peak 2 = 0.707V peak

= V peak 2 = 0.707V peak BASIC ELECTRONICS - RECTIFICATION AND FILTERING PURPOSE Suppose that you wanted to build a simple DC electronic power supply, which operated off of an AC input (e.g., something you might plug into a standard

More information

EMTP STUDIES PERFORMED TO INSERT LONG AC CABLES IN THE FRENCH GRID

EMTP STUDIES PERFORMED TO INSERT LONG AC CABLES IN THE FRENCH GRID Tension (kv) Impedance (Ohms) EMTP STUDIES PERFORMED TO INSERT LONG AC CABLES IN THE FRENCH GRID frequency (Hz) Simon DESCHANVRES Yannick VERNAY RTE, CNER, Substations Department t (ms) EMTP-RV Users Group

More information

An equivalent circuit of a loop antenna.

An equivalent circuit of a loop antenna. 3.2.1. Circuit Modeling: Loop Impedance A loop antenna can be represented by a lumped circuit when its dimension is small with respect to a wavelength. In this representation, the circuit parameters (generally

More information

Positive Feedback and Oscillators

Positive Feedback and Oscillators Physics 3330 Experiment #6 Fall 1999 Positive Feedback and Oscillators Purpose In this experiment we will study how spontaneous oscillations may be caused by positive feedback. You will construct an active

More information

7.1 POWER IN AC CIRCUITS

7.1 POWER IN AC CIRCUITS C H A P T E R 7 AC POWER he aim of this chapter is to introduce the student to simple AC power calculations and to the generation and distribution of electric power. The chapter builds on the material

More information

Current Transformers Ratio / Polarity / Types

Current Transformers Ratio / Polarity / Types CT1 Current Ratio / Polarity / Types Application Current (CT s) are instrument transformers that are used to supply a reduced value of current to meters, protective relays, and other instruments. CT s

More information

APPLICATION NOTE Innovative shunt design techniques optimise power measurement accuracy

APPLICATION NOTE Innovative shunt design techniques optimise power measurement accuracy APPLICATION NOTE - 012 Innovative shunt design techniques optimise power measurement accuracy Introduction Rapid developments in power conversion technologies combined with a need for better product efficiency

More information

Current and voltage measuring relays

Current and voltage measuring relays Current and voltage measuring relays RXIK 1, RXEEB 1 and Page 1 Issued June 1999 Changed since July 1998 Data subject to change without notice RXIK 1 RXEEB 1 (SE980082) (SE980081) (SE970869) Features Application

More information

ON CONSTANT CURRENT REGULATORS

ON CONSTANT CURRENT REGULATORS EFFECTS OF LED NAVAIDS ON CONSTANT CURRENT REGULATORS 2015 PENN STATE AIRPORTS CONFERENCE MARCH 2-4, 2015 HERSHEY, PA TODAY S AGENDA LED-based Airfield Lighting 1. Discussion of the problems observed.

More information

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Relationship between large subject matter areas H02M APPARATUS FOR CONVERSION BETWEEN AC AND AC, BETWEEN AC AND DC, OR BETWEEN DC AND DC, AND FOR USE WITH MAINS OR SIMILAR POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS; CONVERSION OF DC OR AC INPUT POWER INTO SURGE OUTPUT POWER;

More information

Inrush Current. Although the concepts stated are universal, this application note was written specifically for Interpoint products.

Inrush Current. Although the concepts stated are universal, this application note was written specifically for Interpoint products. INTERPOINT Although the concepts stated are universal, this application note was written specifically for Interpoint products. In today s applications, high surge currents coming from the dc bus are a

More information

Type SA-1 Generator Differential Relay

Type SA-1 Generator Differential Relay ABB Automation Inc. Substation Automation and Protection Division Coral Springs, FL 33065 Instruction Leaflet 41-348.11C Effective: November 1999 Supersedes I.L. 41-348.11B, Dated August 1986 ( ) Denotes

More information

Current Transformers

Current Transformers Tyco Electronics Corporation Crompton Instruments 1610 Cobb International Parkway, Unit #4 Kennesaw, GA 30152 Tel. 770-425-8903 Fax. 770-423-7194 Current Transformers Current transformers (CT's) provide

More information

Homework #11 203-1-1721 Physics 2 for Students of Mechanical Engineering

Homework #11 203-1-1721 Physics 2 for Students of Mechanical Engineering Homework #11 203-1-1721 Physics 2 for Students of Mechanical Engineering 2. A circular coil has a 10.3 cm radius and consists of 34 closely wound turns of wire. An externally produced magnetic field of

More information

Proximity Switches RS (Reed Switch)

Proximity Switches RS (Reed Switch) Proximity Switches RS (Reed Switch) General Pneumatic systems can often be combined with electric control circuits. The position of the piston in the cylinder can then be sensed by means of a proximity

More information

Line to Ground Voltage Monitoring on Ungrounded and Impedance Grounded Power Systems

Line to Ground Voltage Monitoring on Ungrounded and Impedance Grounded Power Systems Line to Ground Voltage Monitoring on Ungrounded and Impedance Grounded Power Systems by Reza Tajali, P.E. Square D Company, Power Systems Engineering Group 295 Tech Park Drive LaVergne, Tennessee 37086

More information