Understanding Power Factor and How it Affects Your Electric Bill. Presented by Scott Peele PE

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Understanding Power Factor and How it Affects Your Electric Bill. Presented by Scott Peele PE"

Transcription

1 Understanding Power Factor and How it Affects Your Electric Bill Presented by Scott Peele PE

2 Understanding Power Factor Definitions kva, kvar, kw, Apparent Power vs. True Power Calculations Measurements Power Factor Correction Capacitors System Impacts I 2 R losses, Chapter 9 NEC Equipment sizing Power Factor Charges Problems with adding Caps Harmonic resonance Volt rise Power Factor vs Load Factor

3 What is Power Factor Power Factor is the cosine of the phase angle between current and voltage. Power Factor is the ratio of true power to apparent power.

4 Magnitude Voltage Level Understanding Alternating Current AC volts 120 Volts RMS One Cycle seconds 60 Hertz/second Duration Time

5 Magnitude Voltage Level Phase Angle o 120 Volts RMS 180 o One Cycle o 360 o Duration Degrees

6 Three Basic Circuits or Loads Resistive Inductive Capacitive Or any combination Resistive Inductive Inductive Capacitive Resistive Capacitive Resistive Inductive Capacitive

7 Types of Loads Resistive Incandescent Lamp Resistance heat Inductive Motors Contactor Coils Relays (coils) Capacitive Capacitors Start Capacitors Run Capacitors Power Factor Correction Capacitors

8 Magnitude Level Resistive Loads In Phase Duration Time

9 Magnitude Level Inductive Loads Lagging Duration Time

10 Magnitude Level Capacitive Loads Leading Duration Time

11 What is Power Power is measured in Watts. Volts X Amps X Power Factor = Watts Watts only equals Volts X Amps when the Power Factor is 1 or unity. Most of the time the Power Factor is less than 1. Power = Watts : True Power Volts X Amps = VA : Apparent Power

12 A= Side Opposite Understanding Right Triangles θ B= Side Adjacent Right Angle 90 0

13 A= Side Opposite Power Triangle Power Factor = True power Apparent power Cos = θ Adjacent side Hypotenuse Power Factor = Cos θ θ B= Side Adjacent

14 A= Reactive Side Opposite Power Power Factor = True power Apparent power θ B= Side True Adjacent Power Right Angle 90 0

15 A= Reactive Power VAR, kvar Reactance Understanding Power Triangle θ B= True Power Watts, KW, Power

16 Inductive Reactance Graphical representation of resistance, reactance, and impedance Inductive Motors X θ R Resistance

17 Capacitive Reactance Graphical representation of resistance, reactance, and impedance Resistance θ R X Capacitors

18 Imaginary Inductive Motors θ Cosine of θ POWER FACTOR Real - WATTS kw (KWH over Time) True Power kvar Reactance Imaginary Capacitive Capacitors

19 10 HP 460 Volt 4 Pole Motor Transformer Conductor Load Power Factor VA Amps Watts VAR Amps Reactive Amps Resistive 125% % % % % % min load Motor = KW Load (resistive) = KVAR Load (reactive)

20 A= Reactive Power VAR = HP Energy Flow Transformer Conductor Power Factor =.79 Measured Amps = 13.6 Reactive Amps = 8.3 Resistive Amps = 10.8 Motor θ B= True Power Watts =8592 = KW Load (resistive) = KVAR Load (reactive)

21 A= Reactive Power VAR = 6593 VAR = 1 10 HP Adding Capacitance Transformer Conductor Measured Amps = 10.8 VA =8595 Watts =8592 Measured Amps = 8.3 θ B= True Power Watts =8592 Motor Measured Amps = 13.6 = KW Load (resistive) = KVAR Load (reactive)

22 10 HP Energy Savings Transformer Conductor 200 Feet of #12 Gauge wire Saving are calculated on I 2 R losses. Using a # 12 gauge wire from Table 9 in the NEC I 2 X R = Watts X.5 = X 3.92 = the resistance is 2 ohms per 1000 feet. 2 Ohms/1000 is.5 ohms. Using this the total saving will be approx watts. NOTE: This is only if the capacitor is at the motor. Motor = KW Load (resistive) = KVAR Load (reactive)

23 10 HP Capacitor Sizing Transformer Conductor Utility Meter I 2 R Savings Losses Capacitor to large then var flow in both directions and one may increase cost. Motor = KW Load (resistive) = KVAR Load (reactive)

24 Based on one month operation at 8 hours a day Example of Power Factor Charge PF Charge Factor NC Charge $0.40 kw Charge $10.25 Max Billing kw kwh Charge $ Power Factor 0.79 Calc kva kw 8.6 Calc kvar kwh 2064 Less than.85 then a $0.40 charge For kvar (kw X.62) PF Charge $0.54 In this Case $0.54 kw Charge $88.15 kwh Charge $79.55 Total Charge $168.23

25 10 Horse Power Motor VA Watts VAR VA Watts VAR % 115% 100% 75% % 25% Min Power Factor

26 Power Factor vs Amps Volts Amps VA kw Power Factor VAR Amps Reactive Amps Resistive

27 Power Factor vs Amps kw Amps Power Factor

28 Transformer 10 HP Voltage Rise Conductor 200 Feet of #12 Gauge wire kvar * X source /kva/100 = Voltage Rise % Note This does not include the wire inductance that will cause some additional rise in voltage. Note: With this voltage rise an increase in kw and kwh can occur. Motor = KW Load (resistive) = KVAR Load (reactive)

29 Power Plant Generator MVAR MW System VAR Requirements (Met by Power Plant Generator) Transmission Circuit T/D Substatio n KVAR KW Distribution Circuit L L L Substation Capacitor Bank Industrial Load Commercial Load Residential Load = KW Load (resistive) = KVAR Load (reactive)

30 Power Plant Generator MW System VAR Requirements (Met by Power T/D Substation) Transmission Circuit T/D Substatio n KVAR KW Distribution Circuit Substation Capacitor Bank L L L Industrial Load Commercial Load Residential Load = KW Load (resistive) = KVAR Load (reactive)

31 Power Plant Generator MW System VAR Requirements (Met by T/D Sub and Feeder Capacitors) Transmission Circuit T/D Substation KVAR KW Distribution Circuit Substation Capacitor Bank L Capacitor L L Industrial Load Feeder Bank Commercial Load Residential Load = KW Load (resistive) = KVAR Load (reactive)

32 Things We have Talked About And Other Things to Talk About Phase Angle Power Factor I 2 R Loss Power Factor Penalty Voltage Rise Harmonic resonance Load Factor --- Power Factor

33 Harmonic Resonance X Source Equivalent Circuit 3 PHASE AC INPUT X T X Source X T X C Harmonic Source

34 Harmonic Filters L 1 X F X C L 2 L 3 L 1 L 2 L 3

35 Power Factor Vs Load Factor They have no relation Load Factor is kw at 100% operation Yielding so many kwh vs. Actual kwh Example Hours in a Month = 30 X 24 = 720 Hours Load is at 8 kw 8 X 720 = 5760 kwh Actual kwh by load is 3240 Load Factor then is 3240/5760 Load Factor =.56

36 BOTTOM LINE ON Understanding Power Factor and How it Affects Your Electric Bill Very small charge with penalty most customer have no Power Factor Penalty None or very small savings or possible increase cost when using Power Factor Correction Devices

37 Questions

Chapt ha e pt r e r 12 RL Circuits

Chapt ha e pt r e r 12 RL Circuits Chapter 12 RL Circuits Sinusoidal Response of RL Circuits The inductor voltage leads the source voltage Inductance causes a phase shift between voltage and current that depends on the relative values of

More information

Three phase circuits

Three phase circuits Three phase circuits THREE PHASE CIRCUITS THREE-PHASE ADVANTAGES 1. The horsepower rating of three-phase motors and the kva rating of three-phase transformers are 150% greater than single-phase motors

More information

Power Factor Correction for Power Systems First Semester Report Spring Semester 2007

Power Factor Correction for Power Systems First Semester Report Spring Semester 2007 Power Factor Correction for Power Systems First Semester Report Spring Semester 2007 by Pamela Ackerman Prepared to partially fulfill the requirements for EE401 Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

More information

Module Title: Electrotechnology for Mech L7

Module Title: Electrotechnology for Mech L7 CORK INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY INSTITIÚID TEICNEOLAÍOCHTA CHORCAÍ Autumn Examinations 2012 Module Title: Electrotechnology for Mech L7 Module Code: ELEC7007 School: School of Mechanical, Electrical and Process

More information

Chapter 24. Three-Phase Voltage Generation

Chapter 24. Three-Phase Voltage Generation Chapter 24 Three-Phase Systems Three-Phase Voltage Generation Three-phase generators Three sets of windings and produce three ac voltages Windings are placed 120 apart Voltages are three identical sinusoidal

More information

Basics of Electricity

Basics of Electricity Basics of Electricity Power Flow on AC Transmission Lines PJM State & Member Training Dept. Objectives Describe the basic make-up and theory of an AC transmission line Given the formula for real power

More information

Chapter 12. RL Circuits. Objectives

Chapter 12. RL Circuits. Objectives Chapter 12 RL Circuits Objectives Describe the relationship between current and voltage in an RL circuit Determine impedance and phase angle in a series RL circuit Analyze a series RL circuit Determine

More information

Motor Efficiency and Power Factor ME 416/516

Motor Efficiency and Power Factor ME 416/516 Motor Efficiency and Power Factor Motivation More than half of all electric energy generated goes to power electric motors. Electric motor converts electric power into shaft power. In thermodynamics terms,

More information

Basic Electrical Theory

Basic Electrical Theory Basic Electrical Theory Power Principles and Phase Angle PJM State & Member Training Dept. PJM 2014 10/24/2013 Objectives At the end of this presentation the learner will be able to; Identify the characteristics

More information

In this article, I provide an overview

In this article, I provide an overview QA Quality Assurance Reactive Power Primer In this article, I provide an overview of the three types of electrical power in ac circuits: real power, reactive power and apparent power. I also explain how

More information

GENERATOR SELECTION. a. Three phase - 120/208V, 3 phase, 4W wye; 277/408, 3 phase, 4W wye; * 120/240V 3 phase, 4W Delta

GENERATOR SELECTION. a. Three phase - 120/208V, 3 phase, 4W wye; 277/408, 3 phase, 4W wye; * 120/240V 3 phase, 4W Delta GENERATOR SELECTION Generators must be sized to handle their load based on the continuous KW, kilowatt load, and KVA, kilovoltamp load, and the worst case starting load KW + KVA. They must be derated for

More information

Power Factor The Basics

Power Factor The Basics Power Factor The Basics OK. I ve heard a lot about this power factor stuff. What exactly is it? We hope to give you an easy explanation of what power factor is, and to answer the following most asked questions:

More information

ON CONSTANT CURRENT REGULATORS

ON CONSTANT CURRENT REGULATORS EFFECTS OF LED NAVAIDS ON CONSTANT CURRENT REGULATORS 2015 PENN STATE AIRPORTS CONFERENCE MARCH 2-4, 2015 HERSHEY, PA TODAY S AGENDA LED-based Airfield Lighting 1. Discussion of the problems observed.

More information

Direct versus Alternating Current Things We Can Measure

Direct versus Alternating Current Things We Can Measure Phil Sherrod W4PHS Direct versus Alternating Current Things We Can Measure Direct Current (DC) Alternating Current (AC) Voltage Voltage (peak, RMS) Current Current (peak, effective) Power True power, Apparent

More information

Power Factor in Electrical Energy Management

Power Factor in Electrical Energy Management PDHonline Course E144 (4 PDH) Power Factor in Electrical Energy Management Instructor: A. Bhatia, B.E. 2012 PDH Online PDH Center 5272 Meadow Estates Drive Fairfax, VA 22030-6658 Phone & Fax: 703-988-0088

More information

E2-E3: ELECTRICAL CHAPTER-12 ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM REACTIVE POWER MANAGEMENT

E2-E3: ELECTRICAL CHAPTER-12 ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM REACTIVE POWER MANAGEMENT E2-E3: ELECTRICAL CHAPTER-12 ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM REACTIVE POWER MANAGEMENT BSNL, India For Internal Circulation Only Page: 1 Reactive Power Management 1.0 Introduction : In today s power scenario,

More information

What is a transformer and how does it work?

What is a transformer and how does it work? Why is a transformer needed? A control transformer is required to supply voltage to a load which requires significantly more current when initially energized than under normal steady state operating conditions.

More information

APJ ABDUL KALAM TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY. EE100 Basics of Electrical

APJ ABDUL KALAM TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY. EE100 Basics of Electrical APJ ABDUL KALAM TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY EE100 Basics of Electrical SAMPLE QUESTION PAPER Maximum Marks 100 Part- A (10 questions) Attempt all the questions 10*4=40 1. We have two identical 10 V electromotive

More information

3-Phase AC Calculations Revisited

3-Phase AC Calculations Revisited AN110 Dataforth Corporation Page 1 of 6 DID YOU KNOW? Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) came to the United States in 1884 from Yugosiavia. He arrived during the battle of the currents between Thomas Edison, who

More information

7. Reactive energy compensation

7. Reactive energy compensation 593 7. Reactive energy compensation 594 7. REACTIVE ENERGY COMPENSATION Reactive energy compensation is an important element for reducing the electricity bill and improving the quality of the electrical

More information

AC Power. by Prof. Dr. Osman SEVAİOĞLU Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department

AC Power. by Prof. Dr. Osman SEVAİOĞLU Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department by Prof. Dr. Osman SEVAİOĞLU Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAİOĞLU, Page 1 Voltage Waveform Consider the

More information

Power Factor Correction - The Easiest, Biggest, Green Initiative

Power Factor Correction - The Easiest, Biggest, Green Initiative Authors: Power Factor Correction - The Easiest, Biggest, Green Initiative Chris Halliday - Electrical Consulting and Training Pty Ltd Email: chris@elect.com.au Mr Leith Elder Country Energy Email: Leith.Elder@countryenergy.com.au

More information

Circuits with inductors and alternating currents. Chapter 20 #45, 46, 47, 49

Circuits with inductors and alternating currents. Chapter 20 #45, 46, 47, 49 Circuits with inductors and alternating currents Chapter 20 #45, 46, 47, 49 RL circuits Ch. 20 (last section) Symbol for inductor looks like a spring. An inductor is a circuit element that has a large

More information

(3 )Three Phase Alternating Voltage and Current

(3 )Three Phase Alternating Voltage and Current EEE 2015 EECTRCS (3) Monophase 1 Three phase Three phase electric power is a common method of alternating current electric power generation, transmission, and distribution. t is a type of polyphase system

More information

Power factor correction. An introduction to technology and techniques

Power factor correction. An introduction to technology and techniques Power factor correction An introduction to technology and techniques 2 Contents Understanding power factor 03 Power factor correction 05 Implementing power factor correction techniques 06 Glossary 07 Further

More information

615xx, 616xx, 617xxx, 646x, 64xx, 65xx Series Programmable AC source

615xx, 616xx, 617xxx, 646x, 64xx, 65xx Series Programmable AC source Chroma Systems Solutions, Inc. AC Power Definitions 615xx, 616xx, 617xxx, 646x, 64xx, 65xx Series Programmable AC source Keywords: Peak, RMS, Phase, Inrush Current, Power Factor, Crest Factor, Apparent

More information

FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING (FE) EXAMINATION

FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING (FE) EXAMINATION January 8, 008 1:55 Appc Sheet number 1 Page number 77 magenta black A P P E N D I X C FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING (FE) EXAMINATION C.1 INTRODUCTION The Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) examination 1 is

More information

The electrical energy is almost exclusively

The electrical energy is almost exclusively CHAPTER CHAPTER 6 Power Factor Improvement 6.1 Power Factor 6.2 Power Triangle 6.3 Disadvantages of Low Power Factor 6.4 Causes of Low Power Factor 6.5 Power Factor Improvement 6.6 Power Factor Improvement

More information

RISH EM 3490 DS Dual Source Energy Meter RISH EM 3490 DS. Application : Product Features:

RISH EM 3490 DS Dual Source Energy Meter RISH EM 3490 DS. Application : Product Features: Application : RISH Master 3490 DS measures important electrical parameters of Utility (in normal mode) & Generators (in Power back up) in three phase and single phase Network & replaces the multiple analog

More information

Basic AC Reactive Components IMPEDANCE

Basic AC Reactive Components IMPEDANCE Basic AC Reactive Components Whenever inductive and capacitive components are used in an AC circuit, the calculation of their effects on the flow of current is important. EO 1.9 EO 1.10 EO 1.11 EO 1.12

More information

First Year (Electrical & Electronics Engineering)

First Year (Electrical & Electronics Engineering) Z PRACTICAL WORK BOOK For The Course EE-113 Basic Electrical Engineering For First Year (Electrical & Electronics Engineering) Name of Student: Class: Batch : Discipline: Class Roll No.: Examination Seat

More information

Equipment: Power Supply, DAI, Variable resistance (8311), Variable inductance (8321)

Equipment: Power Supply, DAI, Variable resistance (8311), Variable inductance (8321) Lab 4: 3-phase circuits. Objective: to study voltage-current relationships in 3-phase circuits; to learn to make delta and Y connections; to calculate and measure real, apparent, and reactive powers. Equipment:

More information

EE 221 AC Circuit Power Analysis. Instantaneous and average power RMS value Apparent power and power factor Complex power

EE 221 AC Circuit Power Analysis. Instantaneous and average power RMS value Apparent power and power factor Complex power EE 1 AC Circuit Power Analysis Instantaneous and average power RMS value Apparent power and power factor Complex power Instantaneous Power Product of time-domain voltage and time-domain current p(t) =

More information

At Load Power Factor Correction Phase 2: Refrigerated Vending Machines

At Load Power Factor Correction Phase 2: Refrigerated Vending Machines At Load Power Factor Correction Phase 2: Refrigerated Vending Machines A Pilot Project to determine the feasibility and economics of small scale At Load Power Factor Correction Richard Ellenbogen, MEE

More information

HOW HARMONICS HAVE CONTRIBUTED TO MANY POWER FACTOR MISCONCEPTIONS

HOW HARMONICS HAVE CONTRIBUTED TO MANY POWER FACTOR MISCONCEPTIONS White Paper: MIRUS-TP003-A January 15, 2014 HOW HARMONICS HAVE CONTRIBUTED TO MANY POWER FACTOR MISCONCEPTIONS Prepared by: Anthony (Tony) Hoevenaars, P. Eng President and CEO Mirus International Inc.

More information

Alternating Current. Asist. Prof. Dr. Aytaç Gören Asist. Prof. Dr. Levent Çetin

Alternating Current. Asist. Prof. Dr. Aytaç Gören Asist. Prof. Dr. Levent Çetin Asist. Prof. Dr. Aytaç Gören Asist. Prof. Dr. Levent Çetin 30.10.2012 Contents Alternating Voltage Phase Phasor Representation of AC Behaviors of Basic Circuit Components under AC Resistance, Reactance

More information

Module 3 Voltage Regulation. By: Dr. Hamid Jaffari

Module 3 Voltage Regulation. By: Dr. Hamid Jaffari Module 3 Voltage Regulation By: Dr. Hamid Jaffari Primary Voltage Considerations Transmission Voltage Impacts the distribution bus voltage Amount of load current peak, high, normal, light Type of conductor

More information

Basic Electrical Theory

Basic Electrical Theory Basic Electrical Theory Impedance PJM State & Member Training Dept. PJM 2014 10/24/2013 Objectives Identify the components of Impedance in AC Circuits Calculate the total Impedance in AC Circuits Identify

More information

Reactive Power and Importance to Bulk Power System OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY ENGINEERING SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY DIVISION

Reactive Power and Importance to Bulk Power System OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY ENGINEERING SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY DIVISION Reactive Power and Importance to Bulk Power System OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY ENGINEERING SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY DIVISION Outline What is Reactive Power and where does it come from? Why is it important?

More information

Extra Questions - 1. 1. What current will flow in a 20Ω resistor when it is connected to a 50V supply? a) 0.4A b) 1.6A c) 2.5A

Extra Questions - 1. 1. What current will flow in a 20Ω resistor when it is connected to a 50V supply? a) 0.4A b) 1.6A c) 2.5A Extra Questions - 1 1. What current will flow in a 20Ω resistor when it is connected to a 50V supply? a) 0.4A b) 1.6A c) 2.5A 2. A current of 500mA flows in a resistance of 12Ω. What power is dissipated

More information

EEL303: Power Engineering I - Tutorial 4

EEL303: Power Engineering I - Tutorial 4 1. Determine the voltage at the generating station and the efficiency of the following system (Figure 1): Both transformers have ratio of 2kV/11kV. The resistance on LV side of both Figure 1: transformers

More information

Chapter 10. RC Circuits. Objectives

Chapter 10. RC Circuits. Objectives Chapter 10 RC Circuits Objectives Describe the relationship between current and voltage in an RC circuit Determine impedance and phase angle in a series RC circuit Analyze a series RC circuit Determine

More information

Basic Electrical Technology Dr. L. Umanand Department of Electrical Engineering Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. Lecture - 33 3 phase System 4

Basic Electrical Technology Dr. L. Umanand Department of Electrical Engineering Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. Lecture - 33 3 phase System 4 Basic Electrical Technology Dr. L. Umanand Department of Electrical Engineering Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore Lecture - 33 3 phase System 4 Hello everybody. So, in the last class we have been

More information

POWER FACTOR CORRECTION

POWER FACTOR CORRECTION [CATALOGUE PFC-SFC] POWER FACTOR CORRECTION INDUSTRIAL SWITCHGEAR & AUTOMATION SPECIALISTS A component of nhp s green star solution... www.nhp.com.au Power Factor - What does it mean? Where open electricity

More information

HARMONIC DISTORTION IN THE ELECTRIC SUPPLY SYSTEM

HARMONIC DISTORTION IN THE ELECTRIC SUPPLY SYSTEM Technical Note No.3 March 2000 HARMONIC DISTORTION IN THE ELECTRIC SUPPLY SYSTEM This Technical Note discusses harmonic distortion, its causes and adverse effects, what levels are unacceptable and how

More information

Lecture Notes ELE A6

Lecture Notes ELE A6 ecture Notes EE A6 Ramadan El-Shatshat Three Phase circuits 9/12/2006 EE A6 Three-phase Circuits 1 Three-phase Circuits 9/12/2006 EE A6 Three-phase Circuits 2 Advantages of Three-phase Circuits Smooth

More information

Power Factor Correction

Power Factor Correction ABB Power Quality Products All Energy Power Quality Presentation Power Factor Correction June 6, 2014 Slide 1 Our world is changing Our every day necessities Ever-growing population Energy consumption

More information

UTILITY RATE STRUCTURE

UTILITY RATE STRUCTURE UTILITY RATE STRUCTURE Electricity and Natural Gas Service Residential Commercial Industrial Examples Electricity Use Characteristics Variety of customers with differing use patterns: residential- lighting,

More information

ATTACHMENT F. Electric Utility Contact Information Utility Name. For Office Use Only

ATTACHMENT F. Electric Utility Contact Information Utility Name. For Office Use Only ATTACHMENT F CATEGORY 2 GENERATOR INTERCONNECTION APPLICATION FOR ALL PROJECTS WITH AGGREGATE GENERATOR OUTPUT OF MORE THAN 20 KW BUT LESS THAN OR EQUAL TO 150 KW Also Serves as Application for Category

More information

Chapter 11. Inductors. Objectives

Chapter 11. Inductors. Objectives Chapter 11 Inductors Objectives Describe the basic structure and characteristics of an inductor Discuss various types of inductors Analyze series inductors Analyze parallel inductors Analyze inductive

More information

VOLTAGE REGULATOR AND PARALLEL OPERATION

VOLTAGE REGULATOR AND PARALLEL OPERATION VOLTAGE REGULATOR AND PARALLEL OPERATION Generator sets are operated in parallel to improve fuel economy and reliability of the power supply. Economy is improved with multiple paralleled generators by

More information

Chapter 5 TRANSFORMERS

Chapter 5 TRANSFORMERS Chapter 5 TRANSFORMERS Objective Understand the transformer nameplate Describe the basic construction features of a transformer. Explain the relationship between voltage, current, impedance, and power

More information

Power Quality Standards for Electric Service

Power Quality Standards for Electric Service Power Quality Standards for Electric Service Effective June 1, 2008 A transition period will exist from June 1 through December 31, 2008 in which installations may be approved and connected as long as

More information

Electrical Installation Calculations: Advanced

Electrical Installation Calculations: Advanced Electrical Installation Calculations: Advanced This page intentionally left blank Electrical Installation Calculations: Advanced FOR TECHNICAL CERTIFICATE AND NVQ LEVEL 3 SEVENTH EDITION A. J. WATKINS

More information

AC Generators. Basic Generator

AC Generators. Basic Generator AC Generators Basic Generator A basic generator consists of a magnetic field, an armature, slip rings, brushes and a resistive load. The magnetic field is usually an electromagnet. An armature is any number

More information

Understanding Power Flow and Naming Conventions In Bi-directional Metering Applications

Understanding Power Flow and Naming Conventions In Bi-directional Metering Applications Understanding Power Flow and Naming Conventions In Bi-directional Metering Applications By Michael Bearden Introduction In 1982 Raymond Ray Stevens published a paper Power Flow Direction Definitions for

More information

ε rms ε substation HOMEWORK #11 Chapter 29

ε rms ε substation HOMEWORK #11 Chapter 29 HOMEWOK # hapter 9 5 f the frequency in the circuit in Figure 9-8 is doubled, the capacitive reactance of the circuit will (a) double, (b) not change, (c) halve, (d) quadruple. Determine the oncept The

More information

SECTION 26 09 13 - POWER MONITOR FOR ELECTRICAL, STEAM CONDENSATE, AND WATER PART I - GENERAL

SECTION 26 09 13 - POWER MONITOR FOR ELECTRICAL, STEAM CONDENSATE, AND WATER PART I - GENERAL SECTION 26 09 13 - POWER MONITOR FOR ELECTRICAL, STEAM CONDENSATE, AND WATER PART I - GENERAL 1.1 SUMMARY A. This section describes the requirements for the installation of Power Monitors and associated

More information

Modern Mechanix 2, Now let s try in one hour. Voltage. V=Voltage (Volts) I=Current (Amps) R=Resistance (Ohms) V=IR.

Modern Mechanix 2, Now let s try in one hour. Voltage. V=Voltage (Volts) I=Current (Amps) R=Resistance (Ohms) V=IR. Modern Mechanix 2, 1938 Now let s try in one hour Voltage V=Voltage (Volts) I=Current (Amps) R=Resistance (Ohms) V=IR (Ohm s Law) Voltage The amount of water depends on how much pressure is being applied

More information

6/14/02 Chapter 2: Basic Electrical Power Fundamentals 1/6

6/14/02 Chapter 2: Basic Electrical Power Fundamentals 1/6 Basic Electrical Power Fundamentals LOAD REFERENCE Kilowatts Kilovolt amps Power Factor PF Motors KW KVA USE NEC 430-148 KW < KVA.6-.95 and 430-150 to find current for given HP Indancescant Lighting USE

More information

2. A conductor of length 2m moves at 4m/s at 30 to a uniform magnetic field of 0.1T. Which one of the following gives the e.m.f. generated?

2. A conductor of length 2m moves at 4m/s at 30 to a uniform magnetic field of 0.1T. Which one of the following gives the e.m.f. generated? Extra Questions - 2 1. A straight length of wire moves through a uniform magnetic field. The e.m.f. produced across the ends of the wire will be maximum if it moves: a) along the lines of magnetic flux

More information

Three-phase AC circuits

Three-phase AC circuits Three-phase AC circuits This worksheet and all related files are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, version 1.0. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/1.0/,

More information

Eðlisfræði 2, vor 2007

Eðlisfræði 2, vor 2007 [ Assignment View ] [ Pri Eðlisfræði 2, vor 2007 31. Alternating Current Circuits Assignment is due at 2:00am on Wednesday, March 21, 2007 Credit for problems submitted late will decrease to 0% after the

More information

Inductive and Capacitive Reactance

Inductive and Capacitive Reactance Inductive and Capacitive Reactance Course No: E04-005 Credit: 4 PDH A. Bhatia Continuing Education and Development, Inc. 9 Greyridge Farm Court Stony Point, NY 10980 P: (877) 322-5800 F: (877) 322-4774

More information

Calculations for Electrical Installations - 2

Calculations for Electrical Installations - 2 Calculations for Electrical Installations - 2 Contents Preface vii Use of calculators 1 Simple transposition of formulae 3 SI units 5 Conductor colour identification 7 Alternating current circuit

More information

Transformer circuit calculations

Transformer circuit calculations Transformer circuit calculations This worksheet and all related files are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, version 1.0. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/1.0/,

More information

Power measurement in balanced 3 phase circuits and power factor improvement. 1 Power in Single Phase Circuits. Experiment no 1

Power measurement in balanced 3 phase circuits and power factor improvement. 1 Power in Single Phase Circuits. Experiment no 1 Experiment no 1 Power measurement in balanced 3 phase circuits and power factor improvement 1 Power in Single Phase Circuits Let v = m cos(ωt) = cos(ωt) is the voltage applied to a R-L circuit and i =

More information

Simple Methods for Calculating Short Circuit Current Without a Computer By Dennis McKeown, PE GE Senior System Application Engineer

Simple Methods for Calculating Short Circuit Current Without a Computer By Dennis McKeown, PE GE Senior System Application Engineer Simple Methods for Calculating Short Circuit Current Without a Computer By Dennis McKeown, PE GE Senior System Application Engineer A Short Circuit analysis is used to determine the magnitude of short

More information

7.1 POWER IN AC CIRCUITS

7.1 POWER IN AC CIRCUITS C H A P T E R 7 AC POWER he aim of this chapter is to introduce the student to simple AC power calculations and to the generation and distribution of electric power. The chapter builds on the material

More information

Lesson Plan. Inductive Reactance Electronics

Lesson Plan. Inductive Reactance Electronics Inductive Reactance Electronics Lesson Plan Performance Objective Upon completion of the lesson, students will be able to demonstrate an understanding of inductive reactance through satisfactory completion

More information

LCR Series Circuits. AC Theory. Introduction to LCR Series Circuits. Module 9. What you'll learn in Module 9. Module 9 Introduction

LCR Series Circuits. AC Theory. Introduction to LCR Series Circuits. Module 9. What you'll learn in Module 9. Module 9 Introduction Module 9 AC Theory LCR Series Circuits Introduction to LCR Series Circuits What you'll learn in Module 9. Module 9 Introduction Introduction to LCR Series Circuits. Section 9.1 LCR Series Circuits. Amazing

More information

Electrical Fundamentals - Reactance and Impedance

Electrical Fundamentals - Reactance and Impedance PDHonline Course E239 (4 PDH) Electrical Fundamentals - Reactance and Impedance Instructor: A. Bhatia, B.E. 2012 PDH Online PDH Center 5272 Meadow Estates Drive Fairfax, VA 22030-6658 Phone & Fax: 703-988-0088

More information

Application Guide. Power Factor Correction (PFC) Basics

Application Guide. Power Factor Correction (PFC) Basics Power Factor Correction (PFC) Basics Introduction Power Factor, in simple terms, is a number between zero and one that represents the ratio of the real power to apparent power. Real power (P), measured

More information

Table Temperature Correction Factors for Voltage Drop. Conductor Percent Correction Power Factors %

Table Temperature Correction Factors for Voltage Drop. Conductor Percent Correction Power Factors % .-0 January 003 Ref. No. 0054 Tables Note: Busway voltage drop tables are shown in Section 3 of this catalog. Tables for calculating voltage drop for copper and aluminum conductors, in either magnetic

More information

Chapter 15 10/14/2014

Chapter 15 10/14/2014 Chapter 15 Analyze series and parallel ac circuits to find Voltage Current Power Total impedance, admittance Apply known circuit theories Kirchhoff s current, voltage laws Voltage or current divider rule

More information

APPLICATION NOTE - 018

APPLICATION NOTE - 018 APPLICATION NOTE - 018 Power Transformers Background Power Transformers are used within an AC power distribution systems to increase or decrease the operating voltage to achieve the optimum transmission

More information

Apprentice Electrical Technician Test (ETT) Preparation Guide

Apprentice Electrical Technician Test (ETT) Preparation Guide Apprentice Electrical Technician Test (ETT) Preparation Guide APPRENTICE ELECTRICAL TECHNICIAN TEST (ETT) About the Test There are 40 questions with a maximum time limit of three hours. This is a closed

More information

Line Reactors and AC Drives

Line Reactors and AC Drives Line Reactors and AC Drives Rockwell Automation Mequon Wisconsin Quite often, line and load reactors are installed on AC drives without a solid understanding of why or what the positive and negative consequences

More information

ALTERNATING CURRENTS

ALTERNATING CURRENTS ALTERNATING CURRENTS VERY SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS Q-1. What is the SI unit of? Q-2. What is the average value of alternating emf over one cycle? Q-3. Does capacitor allow ac to pass through it? Q-4. What

More information

Energy in Electrical Systems. Overview

Energy in Electrical Systems. Overview Energy in Electrical Systems Overview How can Potential Energy be stored in electrical systems? Battery Stored as chemical energy then transformed to electrical energy on usage Water behind a dam Water

More information

Single-Phase. Three-Phase

Single-Phase. Three-Phase Three-Phase Transformers When more power is needed - three transformers can be tied together. This is called three-phase. Here s a simple way of comparing single-phase to threephase power. Single-Phase

More information

Step Voltage Regulators

Step Voltage Regulators Step Voltage Regulators Don Wareham Field Application Engineer Today s Agenda Introduction Voltage Regulator theory Voltage Regulator application considerations Installation and proper bypassing Wrap-up/questions

More information

SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES

SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES The geometry of a synchronous machine is quite similar to that of the induction machine. The stator core and windings of a three-phase synchronous machine are practically identical

More information

EDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA UNIT 67 - FURTHER ELECTRICAL PRINCIPLES NQF LEVEL 3 OUTCOME 3 TUTORIAL 1 - SINGLE PHASE AC CIRCUITS

EDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA UNIT 67 - FURTHER ELECTRICAL PRINCIPLES NQF LEVEL 3 OUTCOME 3 TUTORIAL 1 - SINGLE PHASE AC CIRCUITS EDEXCE NATIONA CETIFICATE/DIPOMA UNIT 67 - FUTHE EECTICA PINCIPES NQF EVE 3 OUTCOME 3 TUTOIA - SINGE PHASE AC CICUITS Unit content 3. Understand the behaviour of single-phase alternating current (AC) circuits

More information

Electrician s Math and Basic Electrical Formulas

Electrician s Math and Basic Electrical Formulas UNIT 1 Electrician s Math and Basic Electrical Formulas INTRODUCTION TO UNIT 1 ELECTRICIAN S MATH AND BASIC ELECTRICAL FORMULAS In order to construct a building that will last into the future, a strong

More information

Introduction to Antennas Dipoles Verticals Large Loops. by Marc C. Tarplee Ph.D., NCE N4UFP

Introduction to Antennas Dipoles Verticals Large Loops. by Marc C. Tarplee Ph.D., NCE N4UFP Introduction to Antennas Dipoles Verticals Large Loops Yagi-Uda Arrays by Marc C. Tarplee Ph.D., NCE N4UFP Introduction What is an antenna? An antenna is a device that: Converts RF power applied to its

More information

UNDERSTANDING POWER FACTOR AND INPUT CURRENT HARMONICS IN SWITCHED MODE POWER SUPPLIES

UNDERSTANDING POWER FACTOR AND INPUT CURRENT HARMONICS IN SWITCHED MODE POWER SUPPLIES UNDERSTANDING POWER FACTOR AND INPUT CURRENT HARMONICS IN SWITCHED MODE POWER SUPPLIES WHITE PAPER: TW0062 36 Newburgh Road Hackettstown, NJ 07840 Feb 2009 Alan Gobbi About the Author Alan Gobbi Alan Gobbi

More information

Chapter L Power factor correction and harmonic filtering

Chapter L Power factor correction and harmonic filtering Chapter L Power factor correction and 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Contents Reactive energy and power factor 1.1 The nature of reactive energy L2 1.2 Equipment and appliances requiring reactive energy L2 1.3 The

More information

PQ03. Using Test Equipment to Detect and Measure Power Quality Issues

PQ03. Using Test Equipment to Detect and Measure Power Quality Issues PQ03 Using Test Equipment to Detect and Measure Power Quality Issues Power Quality Related Presentations: PQ01 Harmonic Solutions for VFD s PQ02 - Power Quality and Monitoring with isense/igrid/dysc &

More information

EXPERIMENT 4:- MEASUREMENT OF REACTANCE OFFERED BY CAPACITOR IN DIFFERENT FREQUENCY FOR R-C CIRCUIT

EXPERIMENT 4:- MEASUREMENT OF REACTANCE OFFERED BY CAPACITOR IN DIFFERENT FREQUENCY FOR R-C CIRCUIT Kathmandu University Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering BASIC ELECTRICAL LAB (ENGG 103) EXPERIMENT 4:- MEASUREMENT OF REACTANCE OFFERED BY CAPACITOR IN DIFFERENT FREQUENCY FOR R-C CIRCUIT

More information

Guideline for Energy Efficient Electrical systems for building. Presentation by TERI

Guideline for Energy Efficient Electrical systems for building. Presentation by TERI Guideline for Energy Efficient Electrical systems for building Presentation by TERI Objective of study The study highlights how BBMP can implement energy efficiency measures in building in co-ordination

More information

Volt/VAR Control at Progress Energy Carolinas Past, Present and Future

Volt/VAR Control at Progress Energy Carolinas Past, Present and Future Volt/VAR Control at Progress Energy Carolinas Past, Present and Future IEEE PES General Meeting Minneapolis, Minn. July 27, 2010 Glenn Lampley, P.E. Project Manager, Smart Grid-DSDR Raleigh, North Carolina

More information

EDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA UNIT 5 - ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC PRINCIPLES NQF LEVEL 3 OUTCOME 4 - ALTERNATING CURRENT

EDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA UNIT 5 - ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC PRINCIPLES NQF LEVEL 3 OUTCOME 4 - ALTERNATING CURRENT EDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA UNIT 5 - ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC PRINCIPLES NQF LEVEL 3 OUTCOME 4 - ALTERNATING CURRENT 4 Understand single-phase alternating current (ac) theory Single phase AC

More information

PacifiCorp Original Sheet No. 476 FERC Electric Tariff, Substitute 6 th Rev Volume No. 11 APPENDIX 2 TO SGIP

PacifiCorp Original Sheet No. 476 FERC Electric Tariff, Substitute 6 th Rev Volume No. 11 APPENDIX 2 TO SGIP PacifiCorp Original Sheet No. 476 APPENDIX 2 TO SGIP SMALL GENERATOR INTERCONNECTION REQUEST (Application Form) Transmission Provider: Designated Contact Person: Address: Telephone Number: An Interconnection

More information

Prof. Anchordoqui Problems set # 11 Physics 169 May 5, 2015

Prof. Anchordoqui Problems set # 11 Physics 169 May 5, 2015 rof. Anchordoqui roblems set # hysics 69 May 5, 5. A semicircular conductor of radius.5 m is rotated about the axis A at a constant rate of rev/min (Fig. ). A uniform magnetic field in all of the lower

More information

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Vol. I - Direct Current and Alternating Current Systems - N. Rajkumar DIRECT CURRENT AND ALTERNATING CURRENT SYSTEMS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Vol. I - Direct Current and Alternating Current Systems - N. Rajkumar DIRECT CURRENT AND ALTERNATING CURRENT SYSTEMS DIRECT CURRENT AND ALTERNATING CURRENT SYSTEMS N. Rajkumar, Research Fellow, Energy Systems Group, City University Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB, UK Keywords: Electrical energy, direct current, alternating

More information

Current and Temperature Ratings

Current and Temperature Ratings Document 361-1 Current and Temperature Ratings Introduction This application note describes: How to interpret Coilcraft inductor current and temperature ratings Our current ratings measurement method and

More information

Chapter 11. Inductors ISU EE. C.Y. Lee

Chapter 11. Inductors ISU EE. C.Y. Lee Chapter 11 Inductors Objectives Describe the basic structure and characteristics of an inductor Discuss various types of inductors Analyze series inductors Analyze parallel inductors Analyze inductive

More information

Line to Ground Voltage Monitoring on Ungrounded and Impedance Grounded Power Systems

Line to Ground Voltage Monitoring on Ungrounded and Impedance Grounded Power Systems Line to Ground Voltage Monitoring on Ungrounded and Impedance Grounded Power Systems by Reza Tajali, P.E. Square D Company, Power Systems Engineering Group 295 Tech Park Drive LaVergne, Tennessee 37086

More information

GPS Interfacing of Banediya Feeder (M.P) Using MI Power Software

GPS Interfacing of Banediya Feeder (M.P) Using MI Power Software GPS Interfacing of Banediya Feeder (M.P) Using MI Power Software Swati Paliwal 1, V.K Tayal 2, H.P Singh 3 Assistant professor, Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Northern India Engineering

More information