# Understanding Power Factor and How it Affects Your Electric Bill. Presented by Scott Peele PE

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1 Understanding Power Factor and How it Affects Your Electric Bill Presented by Scott Peele PE

2 Understanding Power Factor Definitions kva, kvar, kw, Apparent Power vs. True Power Calculations Measurements Power Factor Correction Capacitors System Impacts I 2 R losses, Chapter 9 NEC Equipment sizing Power Factor Charges Problems with adding Caps Harmonic resonance Volt rise Power Factor vs Load Factor

3 What is Power Factor Power Factor is the cosine of the phase angle between current and voltage. Power Factor is the ratio of true power to apparent power.

4 Magnitude Voltage Level Understanding Alternating Current AC volts 120 Volts RMS One Cycle seconds 60 Hertz/second Duration Time

5 Magnitude Voltage Level Phase Angle o 120 Volts RMS 180 o One Cycle o 360 o Duration Degrees

6 Three Basic Circuits or Loads Resistive Inductive Capacitive Or any combination Resistive Inductive Inductive Capacitive Resistive Capacitive Resistive Inductive Capacitive

7 Types of Loads Resistive Incandescent Lamp Resistance heat Inductive Motors Contactor Coils Relays (coils) Capacitive Capacitors Start Capacitors Run Capacitors Power Factor Correction Capacitors

8 Magnitude Level Resistive Loads In Phase Duration Time

9 Magnitude Level Inductive Loads Lagging Duration Time

11 What is Power Power is measured in Watts. Volts X Amps X Power Factor = Watts Watts only equals Volts X Amps when the Power Factor is 1 or unity. Most of the time the Power Factor is less than 1. Power = Watts : True Power Volts X Amps = VA : Apparent Power

12 A= Side Opposite Understanding Right Triangles θ B= Side Adjacent Right Angle 90 0

13 A= Side Opposite Power Triangle Power Factor = True power Apparent power Cos = θ Adjacent side Hypotenuse Power Factor = Cos θ θ B= Side Adjacent

14 A= Reactive Side Opposite Power Power Factor = True power Apparent power θ B= Side True Adjacent Power Right Angle 90 0

15 A= Reactive Power VAR, kvar Reactance Understanding Power Triangle θ B= True Power Watts, KW, Power

16 Inductive Reactance Graphical representation of resistance, reactance, and impedance Inductive Motors X θ R Resistance

17 Capacitive Reactance Graphical representation of resistance, reactance, and impedance Resistance θ R X Capacitors

18 Imaginary Inductive Motors θ Cosine of θ POWER FACTOR Real - WATTS kw (KWH over Time) True Power kvar Reactance Imaginary Capacitive Capacitors

19 10 HP 460 Volt 4 Pole Motor Transformer Conductor Load Power Factor VA Amps Watts VAR Amps Reactive Amps Resistive 125% % % % % % min load Motor = KW Load (resistive) = KVAR Load (reactive)

20 A= Reactive Power VAR = HP Energy Flow Transformer Conductor Power Factor =.79 Measured Amps = 13.6 Reactive Amps = 8.3 Resistive Amps = 10.8 Motor θ B= True Power Watts =8592 = KW Load (resistive) = KVAR Load (reactive)

21 A= Reactive Power VAR = 6593 VAR = 1 10 HP Adding Capacitance Transformer Conductor Measured Amps = 10.8 VA =8595 Watts =8592 Measured Amps = 8.3 θ B= True Power Watts =8592 Motor Measured Amps = 13.6 = KW Load (resistive) = KVAR Load (reactive)

22 10 HP Energy Savings Transformer Conductor 200 Feet of #12 Gauge wire Saving are calculated on I 2 R losses. Using a # 12 gauge wire from Table 9 in the NEC I 2 X R = Watts X.5 = X 3.92 = the resistance is 2 ohms per 1000 feet. 2 Ohms/1000 is.5 ohms. Using this the total saving will be approx watts. NOTE: This is only if the capacitor is at the motor. Motor = KW Load (resistive) = KVAR Load (reactive)

23 10 HP Capacitor Sizing Transformer Conductor Utility Meter I 2 R Savings Losses Capacitor to large then var flow in both directions and one may increase cost. Motor = KW Load (resistive) = KVAR Load (reactive)

24 Based on one month operation at 8 hours a day Example of Power Factor Charge PF Charge Factor NC Charge \$0.40 kw Charge \$10.25 Max Billing kw kwh Charge \$ Power Factor 0.79 Calc kva kw 8.6 Calc kvar kwh 2064 Less than.85 then a \$0.40 charge For kvar (kw X.62) PF Charge \$0.54 In this Case \$0.54 kw Charge \$88.15 kwh Charge \$79.55 Total Charge \$168.23

25 10 Horse Power Motor VA Watts VAR VA Watts VAR % 115% 100% 75% % 25% Min Power Factor

26 Power Factor vs Amps Volts Amps VA kw Power Factor VAR Amps Reactive Amps Resistive

27 Power Factor vs Amps kw Amps Power Factor

28 Transformer 10 HP Voltage Rise Conductor 200 Feet of #12 Gauge wire kvar * X source /kva/100 = Voltage Rise % Note This does not include the wire inductance that will cause some additional rise in voltage. Note: With this voltage rise an increase in kw and kwh can occur. Motor = KW Load (resistive) = KVAR Load (reactive)

29 Power Plant Generator MVAR MW System VAR Requirements (Met by Power Plant Generator) Transmission Circuit T/D Substatio n KVAR KW Distribution Circuit L L L Substation Capacitor Bank Industrial Load Commercial Load Residential Load = KW Load (resistive) = KVAR Load (reactive)

30 Power Plant Generator MW System VAR Requirements (Met by Power T/D Substation) Transmission Circuit T/D Substatio n KVAR KW Distribution Circuit Substation Capacitor Bank L L L Industrial Load Commercial Load Residential Load = KW Load (resistive) = KVAR Load (reactive)

31 Power Plant Generator MW System VAR Requirements (Met by T/D Sub and Feeder Capacitors) Transmission Circuit T/D Substation KVAR KW Distribution Circuit Substation Capacitor Bank L Capacitor L L Industrial Load Feeder Bank Commercial Load Residential Load = KW Load (resistive) = KVAR Load (reactive)

32 Things We have Talked About And Other Things to Talk About Phase Angle Power Factor I 2 R Loss Power Factor Penalty Voltage Rise Harmonic resonance Load Factor --- Power Factor

33 Harmonic Resonance X Source Equivalent Circuit 3 PHASE AC INPUT X T X Source X T X C Harmonic Source

34 Harmonic Filters L 1 X F X C L 2 L 3 L 1 L 2 L 3

35 Power Factor Vs Load Factor They have no relation Load Factor is kw at 100% operation Yielding so many kwh vs. Actual kwh Example Hours in a Month = 30 X 24 = 720 Hours Load is at 8 kw 8 X 720 = 5760 kwh Actual kwh by load is 3240 Load Factor then is 3240/5760 Load Factor =.56

36 BOTTOM LINE ON Understanding Power Factor and How it Affects Your Electric Bill Very small charge with penalty most customer have no Power Factor Penalty None or very small savings or possible increase cost when using Power Factor Correction Devices

37 Questions

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