1 Power Quality Issues, Impacts, and Mitigation for Industrial Customers By Kevin Olikara, Power and Energy Management Products Rockwell Automation, Inc. Now, more than ever, electronic equipment and computing devices are used in all types of industrial processes. This has been pivotal in making these processes more productive, efficient, and safe. However, this trend also makes manufacturing processes and equipment more vulnerable to real-world power quality conditions. Power quality is related to fluctuations in the electrical supply in the form of momentary interruptions, voltage sags or swells, transients, harmonic distortion, electrical noise, and flickering lights, among others. The electrical power grid is designed for delivering power reliably, namely maximizing power availability to customers. However, power quality events are largely untracked, and as a result, can take out a process as many as 20 to 30 times a year, costing industrial customers millions of dollars. To minimize these costs, it is critical for industrial customers to understand how power quality is impacting their system and how to mitigate its effects.
2 2 Power Quality Issues, Impacts, and Mitigation for Industrial Customers Costs show up in the form up plant downtime, lost work in process, additional labor, and possibly missed shipment dates. Industrial customers are becoming more aware of the direct costs associated with the electrical energy consumed by their machines and processes as it shows up every month on their utility bill. However, the indirect costs associated with poor power quality, or voltage quality to be more precise, while just as significant, are less obvious. These costs show up in the forms of plant downtime, equipment replacement, lost work in process, additional labor, and possibly missed shipment dates. Without the ability to monitor and gain a comprehensive understanding of the impact power quality has on industrial processes, these costs will continue to go unaddressed. However, with the knowledge to identify and mitigate power quality events, process reliability can be significantly improved. Sags The utility is responsible for the reliability of power, not the quality of power. The supplied power by the utility generally does not have an ideal sinusoidal voltage, and the customer is responsible for protecting their sensitive equipment at their own expensive. Moreover, the electrical equipment and machinery within the plant floor can worsen the quality of power being distributed. There are numerous types of power quality problems; however, the three types that impact industrial customers the most are voltage sags, harmonics, and transients. Voltage sags are an RMS voltage reduction by at least 10% of the nominal voltage that lasts between half a cycle and a minute. IEEE 1159, Recommended Practice for Monitoring Electric Power Quality, classifies sags as instantaneous (0.5 cycles to 30 cycles), momentary (30 cycles to 3 seconds), and temporary (>3 seconds to 1 minute). In a study done by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), an average of 66 voltage sags was experienced by industrial customers per year. Example 60% sag with What are the causes and effects of sags? a duration of 4 cycles (Instantaneous) A common cause of sags for industrial customers is turning on large loads such as large motors. If using an across-the-line motor starter, the current draw when turning on a motor can be six times or more of its normal running current. The large and sudden current draw results in downstream voltage drops. Weather factors, such as lightning, wind, and ice, are also significant
3 3 Power Quality Issues, Impacts, and Mitigation for Industrial Customers contributors to voltage sags. From an electric utility perspective, a fault on the transmission system can produce a sag to electricity users downstream of that location, and depending on the system topology, users upstream or even on connected distribution circuits can be affected as well. Depending on the ride through capability of a variable frequency drive, a sag can create an undervoltage condition on a drive s DC bus, tripping the drive and potentially stopping critical process lines. Often times, process controls use 120 VAC relays in the emergency stop circuit of control circuits. Sags can contribute up to 20 shutdowns a year by tripping these relays. Programmable logic controllers (PLC) and other industrial computers can be very susceptible to voltage sags. All computing equipment requires a power supply to provide a low DC voltage in order to operate. Without sufficient ride through capability, computing equipment can be disrupted during sags, severely impacting industrial controls and causing data corruption. Moreover, if using digital I/O, a logical high can be read by the PLC as a logical low if the input voltage drops significantly, potentially causing process disruption. How do I mitigate sags? Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS) is the most common solution for all types of RMS voltage variations (sags, swells, undervoltages, overvoltages, and interruptions). A UPS uses stored energy in a battery to provide load power when the normal power supply falls outside a defined voltage range. If the sags a customer is experiencing are largely in the instantaneous or momentary classification, an alternative to a UPS is an Electronic Sag Compensator. An electronic sag compensator uss a capacitor instead of a battery for energy storage. As a result, electronic sag compensators are lower maintenance and have higher rated lifetimes. In addition, electronic sag compensators are generally more lightweight. However, electronic sag compensators don t have the same ride-through capability as a UPS for longer duration sags. Voltage sags can also be addressed by using constant voltage transformers (CVT), which are generally suited for constant, low power loads. By saturating the transformer core with magnetic flux, differing from most transformer applications, a relatively constant output voltage is maintained. Sags that result from the starting of large motor loads can be addressed by using drives or soft starters to minimize in-rush current at start-up. Harmonics Harmonics are a form of voltage or current waveform distortion. A harmonic refers to a component of a waveform of a frequency that is a multiple of the fundamental, general 50 or 60Hz. For example, the third harmonic for US electrical distribution systems would be 3 * 60Hz = 180 Hz. Harmonics are a relatively steady state condition, unlike momentary conditions such as sags or transients. A common measurement of the cumulative amount of harmonic distortion is Total Harmonic Distortion (THD), which is calculated by IEEE as follows: % = + + +, where is the magnitude of the nth harmonic as a percentage of the fundamental frequency. IEC calculates THD in a similar fashion, except represents the percentage of the true RMS magnitude.
4 4 Power Quality Issues, Impacts, and Mitigation for Industrial Customers IEEE 519, IEEE Recommended Practices and Requirements for Harmonic Control in Electric Power Systems, is the standard for harmonics in North America. Within this standard, recommended limits are provided for individual harmonics and total distortion. This standard aims to limit harmonics at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC), defined as the utility/customer connection point, focusing on current distortion limits for the user and on voltage distortion limits for the supplying utility. [Harmonics] over time can result in increased power demand, system loss, and shorter equipment lifetime. What are the causes and effects of harmonics? Harmonics are caused by non-linear loads in the electrical system, meaning that the loads draw non-sinusoidal current from a sinusoidal voltage source. Examples of non-linear loads that produce harmonics are AC or DC motor drives, electric arc furnaces, static VAR compensators, inverters, and switch-mode power supplies, such as those found in computers, lighting ballasts, and industrial electronic gear. Industrial customers are increasingly using drives for more precise motor control and to improve energy efficiency. Consequently, the potential for greater harmonic distortion rises. For example, the AC current at the input to a rectifier begins to resemble a square wave as opposed to a sine wave. Dependent on the system impedances, corresponding voltage harmonics are generated as a result of current harmonics. Variable frequency drives also produce harmonic content at the output of the inverter, seen by the motor. Sometimes, interharmonics, which are non-multiple frequencies of the fundamental, can be present at the input or the output of the drive. High levels of harmonic distortion can result in increased transformer, capacitor, motor, or generator heating. In addition, electronic equipment that relies on voltage zero crossing detection, or is sensitive to voltage wave shape, can malfunction. Other potential effects include incorrect readings on meters, misoperation of protective relays, and interference. Devices in parallel with harmonic sources will see a distorted voltage waveform, and consequently, these electronic devices can trip, potentially causing plant shutdown. Moreover, harmonic currents produce additional efficiency losses, and consequently, system components such as cables, circuit breakers, and transformers may have to be oversized. In a 3- phase wye system, triplen harmonics, defined as odd harmonics that are multiples of three (i.e. 3, 9, 15, 21, etc), sum together in the neutral conductor, creating a large neutral current. This can result in efficiency losses and requires an oversized neutral conductor. Typical 6-Pulse Rectifier Input Current Waveform The probability of these effects increases dramatically when the harmonic frequency coincides with a power system natural frequency, known as a resonant condition. This condition sometimes occurs when combining drives with power factor correction capacitors. Resonance results in substantial amplification of the harmonic current and can lead to a blown capacitor fuse or transformer overheating. The negative impact of harmonics may not be immediately evident, but over time can result in increased power demand, system loss, and shorter equipment lifetimes. How do I mitigate harmonic distortion?
5 5 Power Quality Issues, Impacts, and Mitigation for Industrial Customers Harmonic mitigation can result in roughly a 15% Capital Expenditure (CAPEX) reduction and a 10% Operational Expenditure (OPEX) reduction. Harmonic filters, passive or active, can be added to the system to suppress harmonic frequencies. Passive filters are tuned to filter a specific frequency or group of frequencies. While this is a lower cost option, passive filters have diminishing benefit for varying loads. Active filters measure the harmonic currents present in the system and generate opposite harmonics to cancel those produced by the harmonic sources. [Transients] can result in data loss or even physical damage to equipment. If the problems arising are a result of harmonic resonance, it could be worthwhile adding or subtracting a small level of power factor correction capacitance to shift the overall system natural frequency. When looking to reduce the harmonic distortion that is the result of a variable frequency drive, options include using a rectifier with a higher pulse than 6. While a 6-pulse rectifier will produce roughly 25% current THD, a 12-pulse rectifier will produce about 12% THD, and an 18-pulse rectifier will produce about 5% THD. Another method is to place AC line reactors in series with the incoming AC power line, which, along with the DC link chokes, help to smooth out the flow of current to the drive. Reduced harmonic distortion can also be achieved by using a Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) rectifier that uses switching devices instead of diodes. PWM rectifiers can use control algorithms to minimize the current distortion produced at the drive input. Transients Transients are sub-cycle disturbances in the AC waveform and can be categorized as either impulsive or oscillatory. Transients are possibly the most damaging type of voltage disturbance. What are the causes and effects of transients? Impulsive transients are frequently referred to as surges. The most common cause of impulsive transients is lightning strikes. Other causes include electrostatic discharge (ESD), poor grounding, switching of inductive loads, switching of power factor correction capacitors, and utility fault clearing. This can result in a large amount of energy transfer with very short rise and decay times. IEEE 1159, Recommended Practice for Monitoring Electric Power Quality, further categorizes impulsive transients by the speed at which they occur. Fast transients can have a 5 ns rise time and have duration of less than 50 ns. An impulsive transient can damage a wide variety of equipment that s not rated for such high voltage levels, with computing equipment being especially vulnerable. Even if the amplitude of the transient isn t very high, the rise and fall rate of voltage can damage solid-state equipment. Moreover, repeated transients can have a cumulative impact on electronic equipment, leading to failure in time with no evident cause. Consequently, the damage from impulsive transients can lead to data loss and process faults. Capacitive or inductive load switching is the most common cause of oscillatory transients. Often times for active power factor correction, capacitors will switch on or off, changing the steady state of the electrical system. Oscillatory transients can also occur by abruptly turning off a motor load. In these situations, the system voltage will oscillate at a high frequency that decays within an electric cycle. IEEE 1159 further classifies oscillatory transients by its frequency content, ranging from less than 5 khz as low frequency and
6 6 Power Quality Issues, Impacts, and Mitigation for Industrial Customers between 0.5 and 5 MHz as high frequency. The voltage overshoot that is a product of the oscillation can affect equipment such as variable speed drives. In addition, the oscillation in the AC voltage can impact the voltage level of a drive s DC bus, potentially causing it to exceed its overvoltage trip point. How do I mitigate transients? Equipment can be protected from impulsive transients by removing sources of potential ESD and using surge suppression devices (SPD). SPDs use metal oxide varistors (MOV) to suppress impulsive transients, swells, and other high voltage conditions, and can be used in conjunction with circuit breakers to help protect equipment. The MOV has the ability to dissipate a large amount of the energy from an impulsive transient and clamps its voltage to a level that doesn t damage equipment. MOVs can degrade with usage, so it s important for the SPD to have the ability to break the circuit if the MOV is unable to function as expected. Good wiring practices can also help reduce the impact of impulsive transients. This includes separating the power, control, and communications wiring, as well as crossing different classes of circuits at 90 degree angles. To help prevent oscillatory transients from impacting variable speed drive performance, a common solution is to install line reactors or chokes that damp the oscillatory transient to a manageable level. High frequency filters can also suppress oscillatory transients. Conclusion The vast majority of power quality issues experienced by industrial customers can be attributed to sags, harmonics, and transients. However, several other power quality conditions can also disrupt processes and equipment, such as swells, undervoltages, overvoltages, interruptions, DC offsets, notching, noise, voltage fluctuations, and frequency variations. Solutions exist for all of these types of conditions, but the biggest step that needs to be taken to reduce the capital and operational expenditures that are a direct result of power quality is to have the capability to measure, detect, and visualize your power quality events and conditions. Power quality monitors are similar to energy monitors in that they measure voltage and current. However, there are much higher processing and computational requirements in order to detect, capture, and measure power quality events that can be of high frequency and sub-cycle duration. Moreover, in order to plan mitigation strategies, visualization software is necessary to view waveforms and analyze the captured data. An orthopedic surgeon is unlikely to take any kind of action without taking an X-ray first. Similarly, in order to know the correct power quality mitigation actions to take, proper measurement is required. Power quality events can last microseconds and happen sporadically, but these same events can be extremely detrimental to the reliability of production. To prescribe a solution, the complete picture is required.
7 7 Power Quality Issues, Impacts, and Mitigation for Industrial Customers Resources Please contact the following people for more information. Rockwell Automation Sean Schmelzer Portfolio Manager, Supply of Power Rockwell Automation Phil Bush Product Manager, PEM Products Rockwell Automation Sarah Larson Commercial Program Manager, Industrial Control Components Publication POWER-WP002A-EN-P September 2015 Copyright 201% Rockwell Automation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Printed in XXX.
A Reference Guide to Causes, Effects and Corrective Measures AN ALLEN-BRADLEY SERIES OF ISSUES AND ANSWERS By: Robert G. Ellis, P. Eng., Rockwell Automation Medium Voltage Business CONTENTS INTRODUCTION...
Hartford Steam Boiler One State Street P.O. Box 5024 Hartford, CT 06102-5024 Tel: (800) 472-1866 www.munichre.com/hsb June 2015 Background Power quality is a general term used to describe the quality of
Product Data Bulletin Power System Harmonics Causes and Effects of Variable Frequency Drives Relative to the IEEE 519-1992 Standard Raleigh, NC, U.S.A. INTRODUCTION This document describes power system
Introduction Adjustable frequency drives have become the standard method of control for heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems due to precise control and very significant energy savings.
Rectiverter Wiki The RECTIVERTER is a technology created by Eltek. The Rectiverter is a three port module with an AC input port, an AC output port, and a bidirectional DC port. It is intended for the use
Product Data Bulletin Bulletin No. 7460PD9501R8/95 August, 1995 Oshkosh, WI, USA (Replaces 7460PD9501 dated March 1995) DRIVE ISOLATION TRANSFORMERS SOLUTIONS TO POWER QUALITY Introduction The increased
Introduction In an ideal power system, the voltage supplied to customer equipment, and the resulting load current are perfect sine waves. In practice, however, conditions are never ideal, so these waveforms
White Paper 18 Revision 1 by Joseph Seymour > Executive summary Many of the mysteries of equipment failure, downtime, software and data corruption, are the result of a problematic supply of power. There
Line Reactors and AC Drives Rockwell Automation Mequon Wisconsin Quite often, line and load reactors are installed on AC drives without a solid understanding of why or what the positive and negative consequences
Harmonic Design Considerations Michael Leporace Specification Engineer, GE Consumer & Industrial ABSTRACT Power quality can be defined as the comparison of voltage and current waveforms to their fundamental
Harmonics Made Simple Just because harmonics is becoming a more prevalent problem, that doesn t mean the subject is getting any easier to understand Welding equipment is one of several sources of harmonics
HARMONICS - Understanding the Facts - Part 3 Richard P. Bingham Abstract Understanding what is important to know about harmonics can be challenging for those without extensive electrical engineering backgrounds.
Interpretation and Analysis of Power Quality Measurements Christopher J. Melhorn Electrotek Concepts, Inc. Knoxville, Tennessee Mark F. McGranaghan Electrotek Concepts, Inc. Knoxville, Tennessee ABSTRACT
Transformerless UPS systems and the 9900 By: John Steele, EIT Engineering Manager Introduction There is a growing trend in the UPS industry to create a highly efficient, more lightweight and smaller UPS
998-2095-10-17-13AR0 by Heu Vang and Marco Chiari Executive summary When electric motors are connected with Variable Speed Drives, some precautions must be taken. Motor cable length can create short time
ETASR - Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research Vol. 3, No. 4, 2013, 467-472 467 Design Practices in Harmonic Analysis Studies Applied to Industrial Electrical Power Systems S. F. Mekhamer Faculty
Power Quality Surge Suppressors What is Surge Protection A surge suppressor can be the first and best defense against the instant or gradual destruction of electrical equipment. Compared to the replacement
Voltage Transformers VT - Voltage Transformer, also know as Potential Transformer (PT) CVT - Capacitive Voltage Transformer also know as CCVT (Capacitive Coupled VT) BPD - Bushing Potential Device also
Pacific Gas and Electric Company Power System Harmonics What are power system harmonics? Ideally, voltage and current waveforms are perfect sinusoids. However, because of the increased popularity of electronic
International Seminar on the Application of Science & Mathematics 2011 ISASM 2011 DEVELOPMENT OF ON-LINE SINGLE PHASE UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLY (UPS) FOR LOW POWER APPLICATION Asmarashid Ponniran 1,
Specifying a Variable Frequency Drive s Put on by Bruce Reeves and Jeremy Gonzales Dykman Electrical Covering the Western US For all of your VFD and Soft Start and Motor Needs How To Specify a Variable
Table of Contents Introduction The importance of power quality to customers and a summary of the material to be found in this booklet.........................................................2 About the
APPLICATION NOTE - 017 PWM Motor Drives Theory and Measurement Considerations Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) power electronic techniques represent a large and increasing proportion of modern power electronics.
Harmonics in your electrical system What they are, how they can be harmful, and what to do about them Abstract Harmonic currents, generated by non-linear electronic loads, increase power system heat losses
Transforming The Future Of Power Technology 312 Rising Sun Rd. Bordentown, NJ 08505 phone: 800-742-5695 fax: 609-298-1982 e-mail: email@example.com www.nwl.com Consult factory with detail requirements
Harmonics mitigation and solutions Summary I. Introduction II. Harmonics mitigation solution III. Case study lv.conclusion Schneider Electric 2 I. Introduction II. Harmonic mitigation solution III. Case
The Facts About Harmonics and Power Factor Power Quality: Harmonics & Power Factor Correction 1 Agenda I. Harmonic Basics II. Harmonic Mitigation Methods III. Active Harmonic Filters IV. Applications V.
Understanding Adjustable Speed Drive Common Mode Problems and Effective Filter Solutions September 22, 2014 Todd Shudarek, Principal Engineer MTE Corporation N83 W13330 Leon Road Menomonee Falls WI 53051
VFD 101 Lesson 3 Parts of a Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) This lesson covers the parts that make up the Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) and describes the basic operation of each part. Here is the basics
Measurement & Analysis of Harmonics & Flicker Part 1: Harmonics Mandatory Requirements and Premises Tom Moyer Amplifier Research firstname.lastname@example.org 1. Origin and Effects 1.1 Definition: HARMONICS Harmonics
UNDERSTANDING POWER FACTOR AND INPUT CURRENT HARMONICS IN SWITCHED MODE POWER SUPPLIES WHITE PAPER: TW0062 36 Newburgh Road Hackettstown, NJ 07840 Feb 2009 Alan Gobbi About the Author Alan Gobbi Alan Gobbi
Survey of Harmonics Measurements in Electrical Distribution Systems Leon M. Tolbert, Member, IEEE Oak Ridge National Laboratory* P.O. Box 28, Bldg Oak Ridge, TN 3783-6334 Alexandria, VA 2235-3862 Phone:
Power Quality Methods for Mitigating Voltage Sag Impact on Variable-Frequency Drives Background Thanks to the precise controllability of motor speed and to the energy savings potentials, applications of
No Harmony in Harmonics Common causes, implications and resolutions for problematic harmonic distortion in your electrical system Abstract Harmonic currents generated by non-linear electronic loads increase
Power Quality for Information Technology System ITS OBVIOUS THE TOLERANCE IS DIFFRENT But What isn t Tobvious? HOW MANY OF YOU HAVE : A COMPUTER AT HOME? = Computers are not screens and Keyboards COMPUTERS
Engineering Recommendation No.1 of the Electricity Distribution Code Limits for s in the Electricity Supply System Version 1.0 30th November 2005 Prepared by: Abu Dhabi Distribution Company, Al Ain Distribution
Harmonic Distortion and Variable Frequency Drives Definitions Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs); sometimes referred to as variable speed drives. Harmonic Distortion is a measure of the amount of deviation
A Review of Harmonic Mitigation Techniques By: Gonzalo Sandoval & John Houdek, 2005 Abstract: This paper provides an explanation of the various harmonic mitigation techniques available to solve harmonic
Power Quality Voltage Sag Ride-through Mitigation in Sequence by Increasing Cost A voltage sag is defined as a decrease in voltage magnitude below 90% of nominal, but not a complete interruption. The typical
January 2012 Protecting AC Output SSRs against voltage transient phenomena valves, etc.), distribution equipment placed on the electrical supply (micro power cut, etc.). These phenomena exist on all industrial
Unrivalled in its class. Modular Active Harmonic Filters The Need for Harmonic Mitigation Harmonics are additional frequencies beyond the fundamental frequency (50Hz) and their presence in an electrical
Technical Comparison of On-line vs. Line-interactive UPS designs By Jeffrey Samstad Michael Hoff White Paper #79 Executive Summary UPS systems below 5000VA are available in two basic designs: line-interactive
Voltage Influence on Typical Protection and Controls for Motors, Power Electronics, and Other Common Loads Presentation to: WECC Modeling and Validation Work Group March 3, 2011 John Kueck The Study Examines
SECTION 16289 TRANSIENT VOLTAGE SURGE SUPPRESSION PART 1 - GENERAL 1.1 DESCRIPTION A. This section describes the materials and installation requirements for Surge Protective Devices (SPDs) and includes
A Review on Basic Concepts and Important Standards of Power Quality in Power System M. Ramachandran Renganayagi Varatharaj College of Engineering, Sivakasi, India A. Mariya Chithra Mary M. Muthukumaran
IMMUNITY TESTING TO IEC SPECIFICATIONS by Thomas C. Moyer, Amplifier Research SUMMARY The European Union of 15 member countries has a population of 370 million people and it represented 16% of the US exports
COMPARISON OF THE FACTS EQUIPMENT OPERATION IN TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS Afshin LASHKAR ARA Azad University of Dezfoul - Iran A_lashkarara@hotmail.com Seyed Ali NABAVI NIAKI University of Mazandaran
VARIABLE FREQUENCY DRIVE OPERATION AND APPLICATION OF VARIABLE FREQUENCY DRIVE (VFD) TECHNOLOGY Carrier Corporation Syracuse, New York October 2005 TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION..........................2
Power Quality For The Digital Age INVERTING SOLAR POWER A N E N V IRONME N TA L P OT E N T I A L S W HI T E PA PER Introduction Heat in the System The modern facility has been revolutionized by advancements
GE Energy Industrial Solutions Ground Fault Protection Digital Specification Program Latin America Ground Fault. I. Introduction In the electrical systems always exists the possibility of having shutdowns
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS AND CONTROL (IJESC) Vol. 3, No. 1, Jan-June 2011, pp. 33 38 Conducted EMI Measurement and Analysis for VFD. Tejas Y. Dalal 1 and M.N. Bhusavalwala 2 Abstract:
Harmonic Mitigation, Power Factor Correction & Energy Saving with Proper Transformer & Phase Shifting Techniques Abstract Harmonics in electrical distribution systems are created from a number of sources
FINAL DRAFT EUROPEAN pr ETS 300 132-1 TELECOMMUNICATION May 1996 STANDARD Source: ETSI TC-EE Reference: DE/EE-02001.1 ICS: 33.020 Key words: interface, power supply Equipment Engineering (EE); Power supply
Title: Australian Guidelines for grid connection of energy systems via inverters. Foreword 28 April, 1998 The guidelines have been developed by a group of utility, photovoltaic and inverter industry experts
Eaton's Electrical Engineering Services & Systems Solutions Focus Seamless Solutions for Reliable, Efficient and Safe Power Systems Engineering innovation Progressive solutions for today s power systems
Chroma Systems Solutions, Inc. AC Power Definitions 615xx, 616xx, 617xxx, 646x, 64xx, 65xx Series Programmable AC source Keywords: Peak, RMS, Phase, Inrush Current, Power Factor, Crest Factor, Apparent
International Journal of Engineering and Technical Research (IJETR) Wave Shaping Of Current Using PWM Rectifiers Mahasweta Bhattacharya, Ashish Srivastava Abstract The paper presents the modeling and analysis
This paper was presented at the 2009 Brazil Conference for Quality of Electric Energy (CBQEE) 1 Protecting Submersible Motors from the Effects of PWM M. D. Texiera, ARTECHE EDC and J. A. Houdek, ARTECHE
Interpreting IEEE Std 519 and Meeting its Harmonic Limits in VFD Applications Copyright Material IEEE Paper No. PCIC-2003-15 Tony Hoevenaars, P. Eng. Kurt LeDoux, P.E. Matt Colosino Member IEEE Member,
1 What You Need to Know about Surge Protection Curtis McCombs 2015 Course Objectives Upon completion of this course you will be able to: Define the basic principles of a transient surge Identify the causes
Power Management Basics 2. Power Supply Characteristics A power supply s characteristics influence the design of a power management subsystem. Two major characteristics are efficiency and performance over
Harmonics We love them! Eric van Riet Harmonics seminar 1 Welcome Eric van Riet Sr. Technical Sales Manager Fluke Europe B.V. Ing. Electronics 9 years in electronics service & maintenance 15 years in Test
GAP.18.104.22.168 A Publication of Global Asset Protection Services LLC ELECTRIC POWER QUALITY AND RELIABILITY INTRODUCTION Business and the economy depend on reliable and clean electric power. Reliable electric
IMMUNITY TESTING FOR THE CE MARK By Rodger Gensel, Product Line Applications Specialist SUMMARY The European Union (EU) currently has 25 member countries with 2 additional countries to be added in 2007.
Part IV Modern Rectifiers and Power System Harmonics Chapter 15 Chapter 16 Chapter 17 Chapter 18 Power and Harmonics in Nonsinusoidal Systems Line-Commutated Rectifiers The Ideal Rectifier Low Harmonic
POWER METER SERIES KEW 6310 NEW ARRIVAL!! POWER QUALITY ANALYZER TO CONTROL COMPLETELY POWER QUALITY AND POWER CONSUMPTION (ENERGY)! 12 kinds of Power Measurements for Power Control and Applicable to Power
HARMONICS ISSUES THAT LIMIT SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC GENERATION ON DISTRIBUTION CIRCUITS Ketut Dartawan Pterra Consulting, LLC 4 Automation Lane, Ste 250 Albany, NY 12205 USA Email: email@example.com Le
Harmonic Currents Sources, Problems and Solutions Kevin Gaughan 5 November 005 Outline: Mathematical Background Source of Harmonic Currents Total Harmonic Distortion Problems caused by harmonic currents
W H I T E P A P E R Common Power Problems & Power Protection Solutions Executive Summary All systems, from home theaters and office desktops to enterprise IT equipment in data centers, are prone to downtime,
HARMONICS - Understanding the Facts Richard P. Bingham Abstract Understanding what is important to know about harmonics can be challenging for those without extensive electrical engineering backgrounds.
FREQUENCY CONTROLLED AC MOTOR DRIVE 1.0 Features of Standard AC Motors The squirrel cage induction motor is the electrical motor motor type most widely used in industry. This leading position results mainly
Dynamic Harmonic itigation and Power Factor Correction Cesar Chavez, Eng Engineering Dept., Arteche- Inelap S.A. de C.V. Naucalpan, Edo. de éxico, éxico John A. Houdek, ember, IEEE President, Allied Industrial
Quality Uninterruptible Supply In the electrical system environment, power disturbances will occur. These can be caused by faults on the distribution system, the operation of nearby equipment, lightning
595 Southgate Dr., Guelph, ON 1100 Lake Street Canada, N1G 3W6 Baraboo, WI 53913 (888)798-8882 (800)537-0500 www.hammondpowersolutions.com Table of Contents Power Quality INTRODUCTION... 3 ELECTRICAL PROBLEMS
Session 10: General Overview of Interconnection Standards & Grid Codes for High Penetration PV October 21, 2015 Santiago, Chile Michael Coddington National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, Colorado,
[CATALOGUE PFC-SFC] POWER FACTOR CORRECTION INDUSTRIAL SWITCHGEAR & AUTOMATION SPECIALISTS A component of nhp s green star solution... www.nhp.com.au Power Factor - What does it mean? Where open electricity