ATOMS AND THE PERIODIC TABLE

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1 ATOMS AND THE PERIODIC TABLE Physical Science 2nd Semester NAME: CLASS PERIOD: TEACHER: ASSIGNMENT/PAGE NUMBERS DUE DATE POINTS EARNED Periodic Table of Elements pg. 1 Atomic Structure Learning Targets pg. 2-3 Scientific Contributions pg. 4 Atomic Structure Worksheet pg. 5 Bohr Models pg. 6 Periodic Practice Worksheet pg. 7 Periodic Family Notes pg. 8-9 Atoms and the Periodic Table Review pg Total Points

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3 Learning Targets: 1 Below Standard 2 Approaching Standard 3 At Standard 4 Above Standard A: I can describe the relative charges, masses, What are the relative charges of protons, neutrons, and What are the relative masses of protons, neutrons, and Draw a picture of an atom, labeling where electrons, Describe how electrons move around the nucleus of an atom. and locations of the protons, neutrons, and electrons in an atom. electrons? electrons? What units are used for these masses? neutrons, and protons are found. Activities/Evidence: B: I can explain what happens to an atom when you change the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons. Activities/Evidence: If a neutral atom has 5 protons, how many electrons will it have? How are atomic number, mass number, and atomic mass different? What is the atomic number of Carbon? What is the mass number of carbon if it has 7 neutrons? Using the atomic mass, what is the most common isotope of Oxygen? How many neutrons and protons are present in this isotope? 2

4 C: I can identify the mass number, number of protons, number of neutrons, and identity of an atom using the periodic table. Activities/Evidence: Element # Protons Fill out the following table. Fill out the following table. Fill out the following table When do isotopes become unstable? Is it the same throughout the whole periodic table? Copper (Cu) Gold (Au) Barium (Ba) 19 3 Mass # # p + #n Element # p + #n 0 C-13 F-18 Ta-182 H-2 D: I can predict the chemical properties of an element based on its valence electrons. Activities/Evidence: How many valence electrons do most atoms want? Which of the following atoms have the same number of valence electrons: calcium, sodium, fluorine, chlorine, sulfur. How does reactivity change as you move across the periodic table? Why are alkali metals so reactive? Which is the most reactive? E: I can explain the arrangement of the periodic table, including significant relationship among elements in a given column or row. Activities/Evidence: Elements in the periodic table are arranged based on increasing. What are the columns called? Rows? What do each of the periods in a periodic table represent? What subatomic particle do they correspond to? How does atomic radii change across a period? How does reactivity change down a group? Why are halogens so reactive? Why are noble gases inert? (Be sure to mention electrons) 3

5 Scientific Contributions Cartoon Hmmm I wonder if I could keep cutting this in half forever?... Probably not, before long it would be too small to see. It would become invisible. Ah Ha! Invisible, indivisible The Atom Scientists and their contributions: Date: Scientist: 2 important contributions to the Atomic Theory: Date: Scientist: An Atom must be much like a miniature solar system with electons in orbit about the nucleus, much like our planets orbit our sun. 3 important contributions to the Atomic Theory: Date: Scientist: 2 important contributions to the Atomic Theory: To my great astonishment I have discovered that the atom is mostly empty space. It seems to be occupied by a small dense positive force surrounded by negatively charged particles. And so all elements are made of atoms. 1. Atoms are invisible, indivisible particles 2. Atoms of the same element are identical 3. Atoms of different elements are dissimilar 4. When two or more elements chemically combine they form a compound Date: Scientist: 4 important contributions to the Atomic Theory: These are the critical parts of MY Atomic Theory! Date: Scientist: My research has led me to believe that there are both positive and negative forces at work within the atom. 2 important contributions to the Atomic Theory: 4

6 1. What are the three main particles that make up an atom? List their charges and masses. Particle: Charge: Mass: 2. Which of those particles make up the nucleus? 3. In the neutral atom, the number of always equals the number of. 4. The number of plus the number of always equals the mass number of an element. 5. When the # of neutrons change within the same element, the end result is a(n). 6. A is a chemical combination of two or more elements. 7. Calculate how many protons and neutrons are in the following isotopes: Isotope Protons Neutrons Chlorine -35 Chlorine-37 Neon-20 Neon-22 Oxygen-16 Oxygen-17 Oxygen Complete the following table: Element Symbol Atomic # Mass # Protons Neutrons Electrons Mn-55 Tin Pb Sodium

7 BOHR MODELS 6

8 Name Sodium Manganese Lead Symbol Sr-88 Si-28 Hg-201 Atomic # Mass # Protons 83 Neutrons Electrons Group/ Family 14 Period 4 6 7

9 Physical characteristics: Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals Transition Metals Boron Family Chemical characteristics: Location on the periodic chart: Number of valence electrons: Other important characteristics or information: 8

10 Physical characteristics: Carbon Family Nitrogen Family Oxygen Family Halogens Noble Gases Chemical characteristics: Location on the periodic chart: Number of valence electrons: Other important characteristics, or information: 9

11 Matching: Match the terms on the left with the proper definitions on the right. 1. Orbital A. The electrons in an atom have the lowest possible energies 2. Nucleus B. The sum of the protons and neutrons in an atom 3. Atomic Number C. The center of an atom 4. Mass Number D. Region of space around the nucleus where electrons are likely to be found 5. Isotope E. The total number of protons in a nucleus 6. Electron F. Particle with a positive charge 7. Neutron G. Particle with no charge 8. Proton H. Particle with a negative charge 9. Energy levels I. Possible energies of an electron 10. Ground State J. Atoms with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons Fill in the Blank Write the name of the scientist whose contribution to the atomic theory is described. Bohr Thomson Democritus Dalton Rutherford 11. Scientist who discovered the electron. 12. Created an atomic model with a dense center called a nucleus. 13. Developed the plum pudding model. 14. Proposed the idea that matter was made of indivisible particles called atoms. 15. Discovered that the atom was mostly empty space. 16. Proposed that electrons move in spherical orbits at fixed distances from the nucleus, much like planets orbit the sun. 17. Proposed a four-part atomic theory, and concluded that all compounds combine in fixed proportions. Periodic Table Relationships: In each of the following sets of terms, three of the terms are related. One term does not belong. Read each group of terms, identify the characteristic common to three of the terms, and then circle the term that does not belong. 18. Period 5, Group 5, Atomic number 41, Halogen 19. Sodium, Alkali metal, Unreactive, Group Vertical column, group, period, family 21. Technetium, gas, 43, Metal 22. Sodium, Aluminum, Sulfur, Fluorine Identifying Unknown Elements 23. This element is in the same family as lead, and it has fewer protons than sodium 24. This Element has an atomic number that is one greater than platinum 25. This element has the most protons of any element in Group This element has more than 50 but less than 75 protons in Group This element has more valence electrons than oxygen, fewer valence electrons than neon, more protons than sodium, but fewer protons than argon 10

12 Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 28. Which particle is the least massive? a. Proton b. Electron 29. Which of the following identifies an element? a. Mass number b. Atomic number 30. The nucleus a. Is the center of the atom b. Contains proton and neutrons 31. Which statement about subatomic particles is NOT true? a. Protons and neutrons have almost the same mass. b. Protons and electrons have opposite charges. c. Unlike protons and electrons, neutrons have no charge. d. Protons and neutrons have the same charge. c. Nucleus d. Neutron 32. This Group 2 element has fewer protons than bromine, but no more protons than sulfur. a. Potassium b. Strontium 33. Suppose an atom has a mass number of 23. Which statement is true beyond any doubt? a. The atom has an odd number of neutrons. b. The atomic number is less than 11. c. The atom is not an isotope. d. The number of protons in the nucleus does not equal the number of neutrons 34. Which statement is true about oxygen-17 and oxygen-18 isotopes? a. They do not have the same number of neutrons. b. They do not have the same number of electrons. c. They do not have the same number of protons. d. They have the same mass number 35. The family of elements contains all of the elements that are inert. c. Number of neutrons d. Valence Number c. Accounts for 99.9% of the mass of the atom d. All of the above c. Magnesium d. Calcium a. Halogens c. Alkaline Earth Metals b. Transition Metals d. Noble Gases 36. Why are atoms neutral? a. They have the same number of neutrons as electrons b. They do not contain charged particles c. They have the same number of protons as electrons d. They have different isotopes 37. This contribution to the atomic theory is used to describe the possible locations of electrons around the nucleus. The cloud is denser in places where the probability of finding an electron is high. a. Electron cloud model b. Plum pudding model c. Planetary model d. Gold foil model Use your knowledge of the periodic table to fill in the missing information in the diagram below: Element Symbol Atomic # Mass # Protons Neutrons Electrons Ca-40 Zinc Bromine 26 Draw Bohr Models for the following Elements: Mg-26 F-20 Ne-20 11

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