# Student Exploration: Electron Configuration

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1 Name: Date: Student Exploration: Electron Configuration Vocabulary: atomic number, atomic radius, Aufbau principle, chemical family, diagonal rule, electron configuration, Hund s rule, orbital, Pauli exclusion principle, period, level, spin, sublevel 1. Elvis Perkins, a rather shy fellow, is getting on the bus shown at right. Which seat do you think he will probably sit in? Mark this seat with an E. 2. Marta Warren gets on the bus after Elvis. She is tired after a long day at work. Where do you think she will sit? Mark this seat with an M. 3. In your experience, do strangers getting on a bus like to sit with other people if there is an empty seat available? Just like passengers getting on a bus, electrons orbit the nuclei of atoms in particular patterns. This worksheet has been design to assist you with the discovery of these patterns and how electrons sometimes act like passengers boarding a bus. To begin, find Lithium is selected on the PERIODIC TABLE. 1. The atomic number is equal to the number of protons in an atom. How many protons are in a lithium atom? 2. A neutral atom has the same number of electrons and protons. How many electrons are in a neutral lithium atom? 3. Write the electron configuration notation for Lithium. A. How many electrons does Lithium have on its first energy level? B. How many electrons are on its second energy level?

2 ACTIVITY A Introduction: Electrons are arranged in orbitals, sublevels, and levels. Boxes are used to represent orbitals and the number of orbitals in each sublevel will vary. A s-sublevel has one orbital, a p-sublevel has three orbitals, a d-sublevel has five and a f-sublevel has 7. Electrons are also organized on levels and the number of sublevels on each level is equal to the level number. For example level one has one sublevel, s, and level two has two sublevels, s and p, and level 3 has three sublevels, s, p, d. The following is an orbital diagram for a neon atom. the arrows are used to represent the electrons. The arrows pointing in opposite to directions to indicate that the electrons are spinning in opposite direction. The electron configuration notation for neon is 2 2s 2 2p 6. 2s 2p 2p 2p Question: How are electrons arranged in elements with atomic numbers 1 through 10? 1. Infer: Based on its atomic number, how many electrons does a hydrogen atom have? 2. Arrange: The Aufbau principle states that electrons occupy the lowest-energy orbital. Draw an orbital diagram to show the arrangement of the hydrogen electrons. What is the electron configuration of hydrogen? 3. Arrange: Draw an orbital diagram of the electrons in a helium atom. Remember the arrows represent the spin of the electron and electrons in the same orbital spin in opposite directions. The Pauli exclusion principle states that electrons sharing an orbital have opposite spins. 4. What is the electron configuration of helium? 5. Arrange: Create orbital diagrams for lithium, beryllium, and boron. Lithium: Beryllium: Boron: What is the electron configuration for each atom? 6. Arrange: Hund s rule states that electrons will occupy an empty orbital when it is available in that sublevel. Create an orbital diagram for carbon. Arrange the electrons within the 2p sublevel according to Hund s rule. (Activity A continued on next page)

3 Activity A (continued from previous page) 7. Compare: How are the electrons in the 2p subshell similar to passengers getting on a bus? 8. Practice: In the spaces below, write electron configurations and complete the orbital diagrams for the next four elements: nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, and neon. Nitrogen configuration: 2s 2p Oxygen configuration: 2s 2p Fluorine configuration: 2s 2p Neon configuration: 2s 2p 9. Apply: Atoms are most stable when their outermost level is full. If their outermost level is not full, atoms tend to gain, lose, or share electrons until the level fills up. While doing this, atoms react and form chemical bonds with other atoms. Based on this, what can you infer about the reactivity of helium and neon? 10. Think and discuss: Look at the second row, or period, of the periodic table. How does this row reflect the sublevels of the second level?

5 Activity B (continued from previous page) 6. Elements in the same column of the periodic table are called chemical families, or groups. How do you think the size of atoms will change from top to bottom within a chemical family? 7. Test: Hydrogen, lithium, and sodium are all in the same chemical family. Find the atomic radius of each, and list them below. Hydrogen radius: Lithium radius: Sodium radius: 8. Analyze: How does the atomic radius change as you go from the top to the bottom of a chemical family? 9. Challenge: Think about the factors that control atomic radius and the patterns you ve seen. A. Why does the atomic radius decrease as electrons are added to a level? B. Why does the atomic radius increase as you go from the top to the bottom of a chemical family? 10. Think and discuss: Compare the electron configurations of hydrogen, lithium, and sodium. Why do you think these elements are grouped in the same family?

6 Activity C: The diagonal rule Introduction: Beyond argon, it is a bit tricky to determine which sublevel gets filled next. There are several rules that scientists use to determine the electron configurations of larger atoms. Question: How are the electron configurations of elements beyond argon determined? 1. Arrange: Write the correct electron configuration for argon. 2. Rearrange: The 4s sublevel is a lower-energy sublevel than 3d, so it is filled first. Before we put an electron in the 3d sublevel we must complete the 4s sublevel. Write the electron configuration for potassium. 3. What is the electron configuration for calcium? 4. What is the electron configuration for scandium? 5. Observe: Scandium is the first element to contain electrons in the d subshell. How many orbitals does the d sublevel have, and how many electrons can fit in the d sublevel? 6. Infer: The middle section of the table is a chemical family called the transition metals. Why do you think this section is ten columns wide? (Activity C continued on next page)

7 Activity C (continued from previous page) 7. Make a rule: The diagonal rule explains which sublevel will be filled next. To follow the diagonal rule, move down along an arrow until you reach the end of the arrow. Then move to the start of the next arrow to the right. A. Which sublevel is filled after 4p? B. Which sublevel is filled after 6s? C. Which sublevel is filled after 5d? 8. Practice: Determine the electron configurations of the following elements. Element Atomic number Electron configuration Cobalt (Co) 27 Germanium (Ge) 32 Yttrium (Y) 39 Neodymium (Nd) 60 Gold (Au) Infer: Earlier you saw that the transition metals represent the filling of the d subshells. Now locate the lanthanides and actinides on the bottom rows of the periodic table. A. How many elements are in the in the lanthanides series? B. Which sublevel is represented by the lanthanides family? C. Which sublevel is represented by the actinides family? D. In general, how is the shape of the periodic table related to electron configurations? (If necessary, continue your answer on another sheet of paper.)

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