Station #1: Cell Structure and Function, Cell Membrane and Cell Division

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1 Station #1: Cell Structure and Function, Cell Membrane and Cell Division Cell Structure and Function Cell Pictures A,B,C, Celery in 100ml salt water Celery in 100 ml fresh water Read the Cells and Cell Structure study guide. Answer the following questions after completing your reading. 1. What cell organelle produces energy (ATP) for an apple tree to grow? a. Mitochondrion b. Cytoplasm c. Ribosome d. Nucleus 2. The function of the chloroplast is to a. Convert light energy to chemical energy in both plants and animals b. Convert light energy to chemical energy in plants c. Convert chemical energy into glucose in plants d. Convert chemical energy into mechanical energy 3. The main function of the cell wall is to a. Maintain homeostasis b. Allow for the transport of ions against the concentration gradient c. Provide rigidity and support for the cell d. Allow for cell to cell communication 4. When a cell contains a large amount of ribosomes, that cell likely specializes in the production of a. Lipids b. Proteins c. Hormones d. Ions 5. If a blue stain that stains DNA were injected into a cell, which organelle would appear blue? a. Lysosome b. Golgi Body c. Nucleus d. Ribosome 6. Cell organelles are located within the of the cell. a. Nucleus b. Chloroplast c. Cell membrane d. Lysosomes 7. What is the function of the vacuole? a. To break down waste b. To store food or water c. To make protein d. To allow for cell to cell communication 8. The function of chromosomes in a cell is to a. synthesize proteins b. break down lipids c. store genetic information

2 d. maintain homeostasis Do This 1. Observe the three microscopic pictures of cells A, B, and C. Fill in the table below: Cell A Cell B Cell C Plant or Animal Cell? Evidence to support if cell is plant or animal based on what you see 1. Below are a list of organelles that you may not be able to see that this level of magnification. Determine if these organelles exist in a plant or animal cell and then describe the function of these organelles in the table below. Nucleus Cell Part Cell Membrane Chloroplast Mitochondria Ribosome Plant or Animal Cell? Function of this organelle in the cell Cell Membrane Read the Cell Transport and Homeostasis study guide. Answer the following questions after completing your reading. 9. If a red blood cell is placed in a solution of salt water, the cell will a. stay the same size b. gain water and get larger c. lose water and get smaller d. nothing 10. An animal cell membrane lacking embedded proteins would likely be impaired of which function? a. transporting large molecules across the cell membrane b. enzyme production c. maintaining fluidity of the phospholipid bilayer d. send out spindle fibers from the centrioles 11. Salmonberry plant roots absorb minerals. What cellular process moves minerals across root cell membranes from an area of low mineral concentration to an area of high mineral concentration? a. Facilitated diffusion b. Passive transport c. Active transport d. Osmosis

3 12. Membrane transport that occurs without the input of extra energy can be classified as what type of transport? a. passive b. active c. catalytic d. inhibitory 13. Chamber A contains 40% helium and Chamber B contains 20% helium. Chambers are connected by a tube the molecules are free to cross. Which of the following will occur? a. some helium will move from chamber A to chamber B b. some helium will move from chamber B to chamber A c. helium will remain concentrated in chamber A d. all of the helium will move into chamber B 14. The cell membrane composed primarily of what two biological molecules? a. sugars and lipids b. carbohydrates and proteins c. proteins and lipids d. sugars and proteins 15. The cell membrane is important for which of the following biological processes? a. stabilization of electromagnetic cellular impulses b. delayed response to stimuli c. maintenance of body temperature d. regulation of the flow of materials into and out of the cell

4 New Zealand Mud Snails Directions: Use the following information to answer questions 1 through 6 The New Zealand Mud snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum) was accidentally introduced into Capitol Lake in the fall of Since then several native species of snails have become endangered. Right now, the city of Olympia is trying to figure out how to get rid of this invasive species. Celeste and Aaron know that freshwater snails cannot survive for very long in salt water. To determine if flushing capital Lake with salt water would be a possible way to get rid of New Zealand Mud Snails in Capital Lake, Celeste and Aaron investigated the effect of different concentrations of saltwater on the number of deaths of New Zealand Mud Snails. Question: What is the effect of different saltwater solutions on the number of mud snail deaths in one week? Prediction: As the salinity (percent saltwater) increases, more mud snails will die. Materials: 20 New Zealand Mud snails 4 test tubes 0.5% saltwater solution 1.5% saltwater solution 2.5% saltwater solution 3.5% saltwater solution Investigation Setup Test tube A: 0.5% salt Test tube B: 1.5% salt Test tube C: 2.5% salt Test Tube D: 3.5% salt Procedure: 1. Label four test tubes, one for each saltwater concentration A-D. 2. Put 10 ml of 0.5% saltwater into test tube A, 10 ml of 1.5% saltwater into test tube B, 10 ml of 2.5% saltwater into test tube C, and 10 ml of 3.5% saltwater into test tube D. 3. Add 5 New Zealand Mud Snails to each test tube. 4. Leave the New Zealand Mud Snails in the test tubes for 1 week. 5. Monitor the room temperature to make sure the temperature remains the same throughout the investigation 6. Count and record how many snails die in each test tube at the end of the week. 7. Clean all test tubes and obtain new snails. 8. Repeat steps 1-4 three times for trials 2 and Calculate and record the average number of snail deaths for each salt concentration. 1. Celeste and Aaron now wonder if the temperature of fresh water will affect the number of New Zealand Mud Snail deaths per week. Write a procedure for them to answer the question in the box. You may use any materials in your procedure. Be sure your procedure includes logical steps to do the experiment

5 two controlled (kept the same) variables one manipulated (independent) variable one responding (dependent) variable how often measurements should be taken and recorded Question: What is the effect of different temperatures of fresh water on the number of New Zealand Mud Snail deaths in one week? Procedure:

6 Do This 1. Observe the two celery stalks. One has been sitting overnight in 100 ml of saltwater and the other overnight in fresh water. Sketch the 2 celery stalks below. Use arrows in your drawing to show the direction of water movement at the cellular level. Celery in Water Celery in Salt Water 16. Provide a scientific explanation as to why they appear different. Use each of the following terms in your explanation: osmosis, plasma membrane, lower concentration, higher concentration, salt, water, equilibrium

7 Cell Division Blue and red crayon pencils, cell cards Meiosis and Fertilization diagram Read Cell Division & Cell Cycle and Reproduction & Meiosis study guides. Answer the questions below after completing the reading. 1. Mitosis is the process a. In which the genetic information is copied and each of two new cells receive chromosomes that vary in comparison to the parent. b. ensures that cells form with half the original DNA c. that creates two cells each the same number of chromosomes as the original cell d. changes DNA from cell to cell 2. Typical animal cells contain a. 46 chromosomes b. the ability to change their DNA c. two sets of chromosomes, one set from each parent d. one set of chromosomes 3. Meiosis produces a. Egg or sperm cells with one set of chromosomes b. Egg or sperm cells with two sets of chromosomes c. Egg or sperm cells identical to the parent cell d. A cell with the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell. 4. Salmonberry leaf cells contain 14 chromosomes. How many chromosomes will a new leaf cell contain after mitosis? Write your answer in the box. chromosomes. 5. Why are the offspring of flowering plants genetically different from the parent plants? a. Sexual reproduction produces offspring with new combinations of genes. b. Sexual reproduction produces offspring with half the number of genes. c. Asexual reproduction produces offspring with twice as many genes. d. Asexual reproduction produces offspring with a variety of genes. 6. During the process of fertilization a. A parent cell is divided into genetically unique offspring b. Two identical cells are produced c. An egg and sperm cell combine to restore the number of chromosomes from the original parent cell d. Homologous chromosomes exchange genetic information producing unique offspring 7. Independent assortment, crossing over during meiosis, and random fertilization are all process that contribute to. a. DNA replication b. asexual reproduction c. the production of clones d. genetic variation among offspring 8. What best describes the reason that siblings often look similar though distinctly different from each other? a. both parents have dominant genes b. they have the exact same DNA

8 Do This: c. similar recombination of genes from the same parent d. the same egg was fertilized 9. The Jack Jumper Ant has only 2 chromosomes; therefore its diploid number is 2. Its sex cells are represented in this activity. Review the diagram titled Meiosis and Fertilization. Place the cell cards in the correct location on the diagram. Once completed, fill in the flow chart below indicating the correct number of chromosomes that exist in each cell. Based on how you placed the cell cards, color in with the blue and/or red crayon pencil what the zygote s genes would look like in the cell provided below. Mother (# of chromosomes) Meiosis Father (# of chromosomes) Meiosis egg (# of chromosomes) sperm (# of chromosomes) Fertilization zygote (# of chromosomes) Mitosis Embryo (# of chromosomes) Zygote s Genes Mitosis Baby (Jack Jumper Ant) (# of chromosomes) 1. Fill in the Venn diagram below, comparing and contrasting meiosis and mitosis. Meiosis Mitosis

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