Metabolism. Metabolism. Total of all chemical reactions that occur in the body. Bioenergetics. 1. Anabolic reactions Synthesis of molecules

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1 Metabolism Metabolism Total of all chemical reactions that occur in the body 1. Anabolic reactions Synthesis of molecules 2. Catabolic reactions Breakdown of molecules Bioenergetics Converting foodstuffs (fats, proteins, carbohydrates) into harnessed energy ATP Food O 2 Food O 2 Uncontrolled oxidation of food outside the body (burning) Controlled oxidation of food inside the body Explosive release of energy as heat ATP Energy harnessed as ATP ATP ATP Energy released as heat Partly used to maintain body temperature Excess heat eliminated to the environment Figure 2.14 Page 41 1

2 Metabolism rates are determined by Enzymes Function as Biological Catalysts Enzymes speed up chemical reactions without altering the energy release of that reaction Determine which energy pathways are best for the particular cellular activity Food breakdown Jogging Sprinting Enzymes make it easier for reactions to occur! Where do we get our energy? Carbs, Proteins, Fats What is the form of energy we use in our bodies? ATP What do we do with the energy we don t use? Expend it as heat 2

3 ATP & Energy Systems Energy currency of the body Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Consists of adenine, ribose, and three linked phosphates Formation ADP + P i ATP Addition of P i ; Phosphorylation Breakdown ATP ATPase ADP + P i + Energy ATP splitting; Hydrolysis 3-ways: ATP Regeneration 1. Interaction of ADP and PC ADP = adenosine diphosphate PC = creatine phosphate or phosphocreatine (CrP) 2. Anaerobic respiration in cell cytoplasm Not using O 2 3. Aerobic respiration in mitochondria Using O 2 3

4 Anaerobic Energy Systems 1. Phosphagen systems 2. Glycolysis Anaerobic Energy Systems 1) Phosphagen System (in cytosol): Immediate energy sources Creatine Kinase CrP + ADP + H + Creatine + ATP ADP Adenylate Kinase + ADP ATP + AMP Concentrations will drive reaction ~ 10 seconds worth of energy AMP build-up stimulates gylcolysis Anaerobic Energy Systems (cont.) 2) Glycolysis (in cytosol): Prepares glucose to enter next stage of metabolism Glucose to Pyruvate 10 or 11 step process (for 1 glucose molecule) Begins with glucose (11) or glycogen (10) Occurs in Cytoplasm From liver, muscle or blood Facilitated diffusion across muscle membrane 4

5 HK GLYCOGEN PFK 2 ATP Formed 2 Pyruvic Acid Molecules What to know about Glycolysis 1. Anaerobic energy system (in cytosol) No O (glycogen) or 11 (glucose) steps: Rate of glycolysis may increase or decrease depending on: Amount of available ATP Amount of available glycogen or glucose HK and PFK 3. End result = 2 ATP, 2 Pyruvic Acid Pyruvic acid either enters mitochondria or turned into lactic acid 5

6 Aerobic Energy Systems 1. Citric acid cycle 2. Electron transport chain Aerobic Energy System Phosphagen Systems Glycolysis Glycolysis to the Mitochondria Pyruvate can either: Form lactic acid Selectively transported into the mitochondria 2 major events: 1) H + picked up by NAD 2) Formation of Acetyl CoA 6

7 Acetyl CoA enters the Citric Acid Cycle Citric Acid Cycle (Krebs or TCA) produces 8 step process after pyruvate turned into Acetyl CoA 2 CO 2 3 H + picked up by NAD 1 H + picked up by FAD 1 ATP produced and used immediately in cell No O 2 used, but requires presences of O 2 to operate Electron Transport Chain A.K.A. ~ Oxidative phosphorylation Citric acid cycle prepares H + carriers for ETC NADH and FADH enter ETC Major source of energy! Electrons held by NAD and FAD are high energy Transferred through a series of steps from one electron carrier to another 7

8 Electron carriers in mitochondria: Electrons (from NAD & FAD) fall to successively lower energy levels with each step Throughout process electrons release energy Used to create ATP End by binding with O 2 and forming water Entire process creates 32 ATP molecules In Summary Anaerobic conditions Glycolysis Glucose Pyruvic acid 2 ATP No O 2 available Lactic acid } Mitochondrial outer and inner membranes Aerobic conditions Glycolysis Glucose Pyruvic acid 2 ATP Citric acid cycle O 2 available Electron transport chain 34 ATP + CO 2 + H 2O Cytosol Mitochondrion Figure 2.15 Page 41 Cellular Respiration Energy transfer Food to ATP Aerobic or Anaerobic Major nutrients serve as fuel substrates Carbohydrates Glucose Fats (Triglycerides) Free fatty acids Proteins Amino acids 8

9 Fat & Protein Breakdown Questions? 9

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