Chem Lecture 8 Lipids and Cell Membranes

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Chem 452 - Lecture 8 Lipids and Cell Membranes 111111"

Transcription

1 Chem Lecture 8 Lipids and Cell Membranes Like carbohydrates, lipids are one of the four major classes of biomolecules, which also include the proteins, carbohydrates and nucleic acids. Lipids are grouped not according to a chemical structure, as is the case for the other four classes, but rather they are grouped according to a physical property. Lipids comprise the molecules in a cell that can be extracted into non-polar solvents, which means they are non-polar, hydrophobic molecules. We will see that this does not mean that they do not contain hydrophilic functional groups, but all lipids molecules do contain large, hydrophobic regions. With cells being made up of largely water, this produces some very interesting and important cellular structure, not the least of which are the cell membranes.

2 Lipids are the components of a cell that can be extracted with organic solvents. 2

3 Lipids are the components of a cell that can be extracted with organic solvents. 2

4 Lipids are the components of a cell that can be extracted with organic solvents. Sterols 2

5 Lipids are the components of a cell that can be extracted with organic solvents. 3

6 Lipids Are the water-insoluble molecules found in a living cell. Roles for these molecules include Fuel fatty acids and ketone bodies Long term storage Triacylglycerides (fat) Messengers in signal transduction Steroids Diacylglycerol Components of membranes 4

7 Biological membranes define the boundary of a cell. Cellular communications with the surroundings are mediated by cell membrane Membranes are dynamics structures in which proteins float in a sea of lipids. 5

8 Biological membranes define the boundary of a cell. Cellular communications with the surroundings are mediated by cell membrane Membranes are dynamics structures in which proteins float in a sea of lipids. 5

9 Biological membranes define the boundary of a cell. Cellular communications with the surroundings are mediated by cell membrane Membranes are dynamics structures in which proteins float in a sea of lipids. 5

10 Membranes distinguish eukaryotic cells from prokaryotic cells. 6

11 Membranes play important roles. Energy Storage Information Transduction Compartmentalization Membranes are hydrophobic environments that separate two hydrophilic environments. 7

12 Regulation by Covalent Modification Protein Kinase A (PKA) is involved in the flight or fight response. This response is triggered by the release of the hormone epinephrine (adrenalin) by the adrenal glands. Chem 452, Lecture 6 - Regulatory Strategies 8

13 Features of membranes: They are sheet-like structures that form compartments. They are composed of lipids and proteins. Membrane lipids are amphipathic (both hydrophilic and hydrophobic) and form the sheetlike structure The proteins serve as the pumps, channels, receptors, energy transducers and enzymes. Membranes are non-covalent, fluid, asymmetric, assemblies Membranes are electrically polarized. 9

14 Features of membranes: They are sheet-like structures that form compartments. They are composed of lipids and proteins. Membrane lipids are amphipathic (both hydrophilic and hydrophobic) and form the sheetlike structure The proteins serve as the pumps, channels, receptors, energy transducers and enzymes. Membranes are non-covalent, fluid, asymmetric, assemblies Membranes are electrically polarized. 9

15 Features of membranes: They are sheet-like structures that form compartments. They are composed of lipids and proteins. Membrane lipids are amphipathic (both hydrophilic and hydrophobic) and form the sheetlike structure The proteins serve as the pumps, channels, receptors, energy transducers and enzymes. Membranes are non-covalent, fluid, asymmetric, assemblies Membranes are electrically polarized. 9

16 Fatty Acids Fatty acids are one of the major groups of lipids. 10

17 Fatty Acids Fatty acids are one of the major groups of lipids. 11

18 Fatty Acids Fatty acids are one of the major groups of lipids. 12

19 Fatty Acids Fatty acids are one of the major groups of lipids. 13

20 Fatty Acids 14

21 Fatty Acids Melting points are affected by chain length and the presense of cis double bonds. 15

22 Fatty Acids Melting points are affected by chain length and the presense of cis double bonds. 16

23 Next up Unit IV, Lecture 8 - Lipids and Cell Membranes, con d. (Chapter 12) 17

A membrane s structure and functions are determined by its constituents: lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates.

A membrane s structure and functions are determined by its constituents: lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates. A membrane s structure and functions are determined by its constituents: lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates. The general design of membranes is known as the fluid mosaic model. Phospholipids form a continuous

More information

BIOLOGICAL MEMBRANES: FUNCTIONS, STRUCTURES & TRANSPORT

BIOLOGICAL MEMBRANES: FUNCTIONS, STRUCTURES & TRANSPORT BIOLOGICAL MEMBRANES: FUNCTIONS, STRUCTURES & TRANSPORT UNIVERSITY OF PNG SCHOOL OF MEDICINE AND HEALTH SCIENCES DISCIPLINE OF BIOCHEMISTRY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BMLS II / B Pharm II / BDS II VJ Temple

More information

Carbohydrates, proteins and lipids

Carbohydrates, proteins and lipids Carbohydrates, proteins and lipids Chapter 3 MACROMOLECULES Macromolecules: polymers with molecular weights >1,000 Functional groups THE FOUR MACROMOLECULES IN LIFE Molecules in living organisms: proteins,

More information

Chem 452 - Lecture 8 Lipids and Cell Membranes Part 3

Chem 452 - Lecture 8 Lipids and Cell Membranes Part 3 Chem 452 - Lecture 8 Lipids and Cell Membranes Part 3 Question of the Day: What role do proteins play in biological membranes? Form vs. Function The membrane lipids give form to the cell membranes The

More information

Unit 2: Cells, Membranes and Signaling CELL MEMBRANE. Chapter 5 Hillis Textbook

Unit 2: Cells, Membranes and Signaling CELL MEMBRANE. Chapter 5 Hillis Textbook Unit 2: Cells, Membranes and Signaling CELL MEMBRANE Chapter 5 Hillis Textbook HOW DOES THE LAB RELATE TO THE NEXT CHAPTER? SURFACE AREA: the entire outer covering of a cell that enables materials pass.

More information

Proteins. Molecular Physiology: Enzymes and Cell Signaling. Binding. Protein Specificity. Enzymes. Enzymatic Reactions

Proteins. Molecular Physiology: Enzymes and Cell Signaling. Binding. Protein Specificity. Enzymes. Enzymatic Reactions Proteins Molecular Physiology: Enzymes and Cell Signaling Polymers of amino acids Have complex 3D structures Are the basis of most of the structure and physiological function of cells Binding Much of protein

More information

3.3 Cell Membrane (p. 81)

3.3 Cell Membrane (p. 81) Name Bio PreAP/GT 3.3 Cell Membrane (p. 81) Cell Membranes are composed of two phospholipid layers. The cell membrane, or the membrane, forms a boundary between a cell and the outside environment and controls

More information

BSC 2010 - Exam I Lectures and Text Pages. The Plasma Membrane Structure and Function. Phospholipids. I. Intro to Biology (2-29) II.

BSC 2010 - Exam I Lectures and Text Pages. The Plasma Membrane Structure and Function. Phospholipids. I. Intro to Biology (2-29) II. BSC 2010 - Exam I Lectures and Text Pages I. Intro to Biology (2-29) II. Chemistry of Life Chemistry review (30-46) Water (47-57) Carbon (58-67) Macromolecules (68-91) III. Cells and Membranes Cell structure

More information

The Cell Membrane Lecture Outline Introduction The Fluid Mosaic Model of the Cell Membrane

The Cell Membrane Lecture Outline Introduction The Fluid Mosaic Model of the Cell Membrane The Cell Membrane Lecture Outline Introduction The Fluid Mosaic Model of the Cell Membrane Structure of Phospholipids - The Amphipathic Nature of Phospholipids Asymmetry of Lipid Bilayer Micelles: An Alternative

More information

24.7 Structure of Cell Membranes

24.7 Structure of Cell Membranes 24.7 Structure of Cell Membranes Phospholipids provide the basic structure of cell membranes, where they aggregate in a closed, sheet-like structure the lipid bilayer. The bilayer is formed by two parallel

More information

Chemical Basis of Life Module A Anchor 2

Chemical Basis of Life Module A Anchor 2 Chemical Basis of Life Module A Anchor 2 Key Concepts: - Water is a polar molecule. Therefore, it is able to form multiple hydrogen bonds, which account for many of its special properties. - Water s polarity

More information

The Lipid Bilayer Is a Two-Dimensional Fluid

The Lipid Bilayer Is a Two-Dimensional Fluid The Lipid Bilayer Is a Two-Dimensional Fluid The aqueous environment inside and outside a cell prevents membrane lipids from escaping from bilayer, but nothing stops these molecules from moving about and

More information

Lesson Overview. Carbon Compounds. Lesson Overview 2.3

Lesson Overview. Carbon Compounds. Lesson Overview 2.3 Lesson Overview 2.3 The Chemistry of Carbon Carbon atoms can form strong covalent bonds with many other elements. Molecules containing carbon are called organic. Living organisms are composed of molecules

More information

Keystone Review Practice Test Module A Cells and Cell Processes. 1. Which characteristic is shared by all prokaryotes and eukaryotes?

Keystone Review Practice Test Module A Cells and Cell Processes. 1. Which characteristic is shared by all prokaryotes and eukaryotes? Keystone Review Practice Test Module A Cells and Cell Processes 1. Which characteristic is shared by all prokaryotes and eukaryotes? a. Ability to store hereditary information b. Use of organelles to control

More information

CELL MEMBRANES and TRANSPORT. Regular Biology Mr. Wilbrandt

CELL MEMBRANES and TRANSPORT. Regular Biology Mr. Wilbrandt CELL MEMBRANES and TRANSPORT Regular Biology Mr. Wilbrandt 1 Targets I will be able to.. Identify the parts of the cell or plasma membrane Compare and contrast how the different parts of the membrane work.

More information

Lecture Notes 1. Organ Systems in Review Integumentary Musculoskeletal Respiratory Digestive Urinary Reproductive Circulatory Nervous

Lecture Notes 1. Organ Systems in Review Integumentary Musculoskeletal Respiratory Digestive Urinary Reproductive Circulatory Nervous Lecture Notes 1 Chapter 1 Introduction to Physiology Physiology is an integrative science Function and mechanism Themes in physiology Homeostasis Control systems and homeostasis The science of physiology

More information

Lipids (Biologie Woche 1 und 2; Pages 81 and 82)

Lipids (Biologie Woche 1 und 2; Pages 81 and 82) Lipids (Biologie Woche 1 und 2; Pages 81 and 82) Lipids Features Have oily, greasy or waxy consistency Relatively insoluble in water Protein and carbohydrates may be converted into lipids by enzymes an

More information

Six major functions of membrane proteins: Transport Enzymatic activity

Six major functions of membrane proteins: Transport Enzymatic activity CH 7 Membranes Cellular Membranes Phospholipids are the most abundant lipid in the plasma membrane. Phospholipids are amphipathic molecules, containing hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions. The fluid mosaic

More information

Proteins and Nucleic Acids

Proteins and Nucleic Acids Proteins and Nucleic Acids Chapter 5 Macromolecules: Proteins Proteins Most structurally & functionally diverse group of biomolecules. : o Involved in almost everything o Enzymes o Structure (keratin,

More information

1. The lipid layer that forms the foundation of cell membranes is primarily composed of molecules called.

1. The lipid layer that forms the foundation of cell membranes is primarily composed of molecules called. Cell Membranes 1. The lipid layer that forms the foundation of cell membranes is primarily composed of molecules called. 2. Due to the repellent nature of the polar water molecules, the tails of the phospholipids

More information

CELL MEMBRANES, TRANSPORT, and COMMUNICATION. Teacher Packet

CELL MEMBRANES, TRANSPORT, and COMMUNICATION. Teacher Packet AP * BIOLOGY CELL MEMBRANES, TRANSPORT, and COMMUNICATION Teacher Packet AP* is a trademark of the College Entrance Examination Board. The College Entrance Examination Board was not involved in the production

More information

Cell Biology - Part 2 Membranes

Cell Biology - Part 2 Membranes Cell Biology - Part 2 Membranes The organization of cells is made possible by membranes. Membranes isolate, partition, and compartmentalize cells. 1 Membranes isolate the inside of the cell from the outside

More information

Elements in Biological Molecules

Elements in Biological Molecules Chapter 3: Biological Molecules 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids Elements in Biological Molecules Biological macromolecules are made almost entirely of just 6 elements: Carbon (C)

More information

Lecture Overview. Hydrogen Bonds. Special Properties of Water Molecules. Universal Solvent. ph Scale Illustrated. special properties of water

Lecture Overview. Hydrogen Bonds. Special Properties of Water Molecules. Universal Solvent. ph Scale Illustrated. special properties of water Lecture Overview special properties of water > water as a solvent > ph molecules of the cell > properties of carbon > carbohydrates > lipids > proteins > nucleic acids Hydrogen Bonds polarity of water

More information

Introduction to Cell Signaling Cell Signaling Overview

Introduction to Cell Signaling Cell Signaling Overview Introduction to Cell Signaling-6244 An Overview That You May Overlook or Have Forgotten 授課教師 : 陳洵一 Instructor: Dr. Chen Shuen-Ei Dept. of Animal Sci. Introduction Cell-to-cell communication is absolutely

More information

macromolecule: monomer: polymer: a. The elements found in carbohydrates occur in a specific ratio. Describe that ratio.

macromolecule: monomer: polymer: a. The elements found in carbohydrates occur in a specific ratio. Describe that ratio. NAME: DATE: Biological Macromolecule Poster Project HOUR: BIOLOGY You and your table mates will be researching and creating an informational poster on one of four biological macromolecules: carbohydrates,

More information

Molecular Cell Biology

Molecular Cell Biology Harvey Lodish Arnold Berk Paul Matsudaira Chris A. Kaiser Monty Krieger Matthew P. Scott Lawrence Zipursky James Darnell Molecular Cell Biology Fifth Edition Chapter 2: Chemical Foundations Copyright 2004

More information

Introduction, Noncovalent Bonds, and Properties of Water

Introduction, Noncovalent Bonds, and Properties of Water Lecture 1 Introduction, Noncovalent Bonds, and Properties of Water Reading: Berg, Tymoczko & Stryer: Chapter 1 problems in textbook: chapter 1, pp. 23-24, #1,2,3,6,7,8,9, 10,11; practice problems at end

More information

Fatty Acids. Classification of Lipids. Some Fatty Acids. ω-3 Fatty Acids. CHEM464 / Medh,J.D.

Fatty Acids. Classification of Lipids. Some Fatty Acids. ω-3 Fatty Acids. CHEM464 / Medh,J.D. Classification of Lipids Fatty acids: are long chain linear (unbranched) hydrocarbon carboxylic acids Triglycerides: are fatty acid esters of glycerol Phospholipids: are lipids that contain one or more

More information

Allows certain materials and of the cell. The cell membrane is selectively permeable

Allows certain materials and of the cell. The cell membrane is selectively permeable Overview The cell membrane forms a barrier around the cell and separates it from the outside environment What is the main function of the cell membrane? Allows certain materials and of the cell The cell

More information

BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES OF LIFE

BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES OF LIFE BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES OF LIFE C A R B O H Y D R A T E S, L I P I D S, P R O T E I N S, A N D N U C L E I C A C I D S The Academic Support Center @ Daytona State College (Science 115, Page 1 of 29) Carbon

More information

Ch24_PT MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Ch24_PT MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Ch24_PT MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Substances originating in plant or animal material and soluble in non-polar organic solvents

More information

1.4: Carbohydrates and Lipids pg. 29 38

1.4: Carbohydrates and Lipids pg. 29 38 UNIT 1: Biochemistry 1.4: Carbohydrates and Lipids pg. 29 38 Carbohydrates Function, primary energy source for the cell, can also be a structural component of cells and organisms. Carbohydrates are the

More information

Unit 1: Chemistry of Life Guided Reading Questions (70 pts total)

Unit 1: Chemistry of Life Guided Reading Questions (70 pts total) AP Biology Biology, Campbell and Reece, 10th Edition Adapted from chapter reading guides originally created by Lynn Miriello Name: Unit 1: Chemistry of Life Guided Reading Questions (70 pts total) Chapter

More information

MEMBRANE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION. Membrane phospholipids form a bilayer. In membranes, phospholipids form a bilayer

MEMBRANE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION. Membrane phospholipids form a bilayer. In membranes, phospholipids form a bilayer MEMBRANE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION Membranes organize the chemical activities of cells Membranes provide structural order for metabolism Form most of the cell's organelles Compartmentalize chemical reactions

More information

7-3 Cell Boundaries. Diffusion Through Cell Boundaries

7-3 Cell Boundaries. Diffusion Through Cell Boundaries Diffusion Through Cell Boundaries Every living cell exists in a liquid environment. The cell membrane regulates movement of dissolved molecules from the liquid on one side of the membrane to the liquid

More information

Preliminary MFM Quiz

Preliminary MFM Quiz Preliminary MFM Quiz 1. The major carrier of chemical energy in all cells is: A) adenosine monophosphate B) adenosine diphosphate C) adenosine trisphosphate D) guanosine trisphosphate E) carbamoyl phosphate

More information

4. Biology of the Cell

4. Biology of the Cell 4. Biology of the Cell Our primary focus in this chapter will be the plasma membrane and movement of materials across the plasma membrane. You should already be familiar with the basic structures and roles

More information

Chapter 3 Molecules of Cells

Chapter 3 Molecules of Cells Bio 100 Molecules of cells 1 Chapter 3 Molecules of Cells Compounds containing carbon are called organic compounds Molecules such as methane that are only composed of carbon and hydrogen are called hydrocarbons

More information

Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules

Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules Name Period Concept 5.1 Macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers 1. The large molecules of all living things fall into just four main classes. Name them. 2. Circle the three classes that are called

More information

The Molecules of Life - Overview. The Molecules of Life. The Molecules of Life. The Molecules of Life

The Molecules of Life - Overview. The Molecules of Life. The Molecules of Life. The Molecules of Life The Molecules of Life - Overview The Molecules of Life The Importance of Carbon Organic Polymers / Monomers Functions of Organic Molecules Origin of Organic Molecules The Molecules of Life Water is the

More information

Biochemistry of Cells

Biochemistry of Cells Biochemistry of Cells 1 Carbon-based Molecules Although a cell is mostly water, the rest of the cell consists mostly of carbon-based molecules Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds Carbon

More information

BIOC*3560. Structure and Function in Biochemistry. Winter 2015

BIOC*3560. Structure and Function in Biochemistry. Winter 2015 BIOC*3560 Structure and Function in Biochemistry Winter 2015 Instructors Dr. Steffen Graether SSC 2255 Ext. 56457 Dr. Matthew Kimber SSC 2254 Ext. 54590 E-mail: bioc356w@uoguelph.ca Please do not send

More information

ATP. Division Avenue High School Regents Biology. Types of cells. Cells & Cell Organelles. Why study cells? Cell size comparison

ATP. Division Avenue High School Regents Biology. Types of cells. Cells & Cell Organelles. Why study cells? Cell size comparison Types of cells bacteria cells Prokaryote - no organelles Cells & Cell Organelles The Building Blocks of Life AP Biology 2008-2009 animal cells Eukaryotes - organelles Cell size comparison Animal cell Bacterial

More information

Disaccharides consist of two monosaccharide monomers covalently linked by a glycosidic bond. They function in sugar transport.

Disaccharides consist of two monosaccharide monomers covalently linked by a glycosidic bond. They function in sugar transport. 1. The fundamental life processes of plants and animals depend on a variety of chemical reactions that occur in specialized areas of the organism s cells. As a basis for understanding this concept: 1.

More information

CHEM 121. Chapter 19, Name: Date:

CHEM 121. Chapter 19, Name: Date: CHEM 121. Chapter 19, Name: Date: 1. A lipid is any substance of biochemical origin that is A) soluble in water but insoluble in nonpolar solvents B) insoluble in both water and nonpolar solvents C) insoluble

More information

Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins 3.2

Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins 3.2 Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins 3.2 Organic vs. Inorganic compounds Organic compounds contain carbon and are found in living organisms Exceptions: hydrocarbonates, carbonates, oxides of carbon. Inorganic

More information

Chapter 2 - Chemical Foundations

Chapter 2 - Chemical Foundations Chapter 2 - Chemical Foundations I. Introduction By weight, cells are about 70% water, about 1% ions, about 6% small organic molecules (including amino acids, sugars, nucleotides), and about 23% macromolecules.

More information

Biology Content Standards

Biology Content Standards Biology Content Standards 1. The Chemistry of Life Broad Concept: Chemical elements form organic molecules that interact to perform the basic functions of life. 1.1 Recognize that biological organisms

More information

Fight or Flight Response: Play-by-Play

Fight or Flight Response: Play-by-Play One of the most remarkable examples of cell communication is the fight or flight response. When a threat occurs, cells communicate rapidly to elicit physiological responses that help the body handle extraordinary

More information

I. Chapter 5 Summary. II. Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids. III. Lipids

I. Chapter 5 Summary. II. Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids. III. Lipids I. Chapter 5 Summary A. Simple Sugars (CH 2 O) n : 1. One C contains a carbonyl (C=O) rest contain - 2. Classification by functional group: aldoses & ketoses 3. Classification by number of C's: trioses,

More information

WEEK ONE VOCABULARY. Adhesion- the attraction between water molecules and other molecules

WEEK ONE VOCABULARY. Adhesion- the attraction between water molecules and other molecules WEEK ONE VOCABULARY Acid- hydrogen donors; acids increase the hydrogen ion concentration in solution Adhesion- the attraction between water molecules and other molecules Alpha (α) helix- secondary protein

More information

1.1.2. thebiotutor. AS Biology OCR. Unit F211: Cells, Exchange & Transport. Module 1.2 Cell Membranes. Notes & Questions.

1.1.2. thebiotutor. AS Biology OCR. Unit F211: Cells, Exchange & Transport. Module 1.2 Cell Membranes. Notes & Questions. thebiotutor AS Biology OCR Unit F211: Cells, Exchange & Transport Module 1.2 Cell Membranes Notes & Questions Andy Todd 1 Outline the roles of membranes within cells and at the surface of cells. The main

More information

The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules by Dr. Ty C.M. Hoffman

The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules by Dr. Ty C.M. Hoffman The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules by Dr. Ty C.M. Hoffman Slide 1 All of the biological macromolecules are built from smaller subunits. Each subunit features - H and - OH substituents

More information

The Molecules of Cells

The Molecules of Cells The Molecules of Cells I. Introduction A. Most of the world s population cannot digest milk-based foods. 1. These people are lactose intolerant because they lack the enzyme lactase. 2. This illustrates

More information

the nature and importance of biomacromolecules in the chemistry of the cell: synthesis of biomacromolecules through the condensation reaction lipids

the nature and importance of biomacromolecules in the chemistry of the cell: synthesis of biomacromolecules through the condensation reaction lipids the nature and importance of biomacromolecules in the chemistry of the cell: synthesis of biomacromolecules through the condensation reaction lipids and their sub-units; the role of lipids in the plasma

More information

Basic Characteristics of Cells. Cell Structure and Function. Each Cell Has Three Primary Regions. Basic Characteristics of Cells. The Plasma Membrane

Basic Characteristics of Cells. Cell Structure and Function. Each Cell Has Three Primary Regions. Basic Characteristics of Cells. The Plasma Membrane Basic Characteristics of Cells Cell Structure and Function Chapter 3 Smallest living subdivision of the human body Diverse in structure and function Small Basic Characteristics of Cells Each Cell Has Three

More information

Homeostasis & Cell Transport

Homeostasis & Cell Transport In order to maintain life, organisms must regulate the balance of materials inside and outside of the cell. This is accomplished by the transport of materials through the plasma membrane. Homeostasis &

More information

Atoms Atom smallest part of an element that has the characteristics of that element. Each element has a distinct atom based on structure.

Atoms Atom smallest part of an element that has the characteristics of that element. Each element has a distinct atom based on structure. Atoms Atom smallest part of an element that has the characteristics of that element. Each element has a distinct atom based on structure. Nucleus- positively charged contains protons (p+), neutrons(n0),

More information

Biological molecules:

Biological molecules: Biological molecules: All are organic (based on carbon). Monomers vs. polymers: Monomers refer to the subunits that, when polymerized, make up a larger polymer. Monomers may function on their own in some

More information

Dept.Anatomy Cytology / Lec 2-chmistry of cell Dr.sarsb

Dept.Anatomy Cytology / Lec 2-chmistry of cell Dr.sarsb Dept.Anatomy Cytology / Lec 2-chmistry of cell Dr.sarsb CHEMICAL ORGANIZATION OF CYTOSOL Chemically, the cytoplasmic matrix is composed of many chemical elements in the form of atoms, ions and molecules.

More information

Name: Hour: Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms

Name: Hour: Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms Name: Hour: Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms Most common elements in living things are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. These four elements constitute about 95% of your body weight. All compounds

More information

AP Biology. The Cell Membrane

AP Biology. The Cell Membrane The Cell Membrane Phospholipids Phosphate head hydrophilic Fatty acid tails hydrophobic Arranged as a bilayer Phosphate attracted to water Fatty acid repelled by water Aaaah, one of those structure function

More information

The structure and function of the plasma membrane

The structure and function of the plasma membrane The structure and function of the plasma membrane Our current view of membrane structure is based on the fluid mosaic model. This model proposes that membranes are not rigid, with molecules locked into

More information

The Structure and Function of Macromolecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids & Phospholipids

The Structure and Function of Macromolecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids & Phospholipids The Structure and Function of Macromolecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids & Phospholipids The FOUR Classes of Large Biomolecules All living things are made up of four classes of large biological molecules: Carbohydrates

More information

Introduction to Organic Molecules And Functional Groups

Introduction to Organic Molecules And Functional Groups Introduction to Organic Molecules And Functional Groups 1 Functional Groups A functional group is an atom or a group of atoms with characteristic chemical and physical properties. It is the reactive part

More information

Biochemistry. B.9.C identify and investigate the role of enzymes

Biochemistry. B.9.C identify and investigate the role of enzymes Biochemistry B.9.A compare the structures and functions of different types of biomolecules, including carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids B.9.D analyze and evaluate the evidence regarding

More information

Transport Across Cell Membranes

Transport Across Cell Membranes Transport Across Cell Membranes CELL MEMBRANE STRUCTURE A phospholipid bilayer makes up the main part of the cell membrane Each phospholipid molecule contains a charged polar head (H 2 O-loving) and non-polar,

More information

Keystone Study Guide Module A: Cells and Cell Processes

Keystone Study Guide Module A: Cells and Cell Processes Keystone Study Guide Module A: Cells and Cell Processes Topic 1: Biological Principles Cells and the Organization of Life Characteristics of Life all living things share the following characteristics:

More information

Chapter 16 Cell Communication

Chapter 16 Cell Communication General Principal of Cell Signaling Chapter 16 Cell Communication Signals that pass between cells are far simpler than the sorts of massages that humans ordinarily exchange. In a typical communication

More information

Ch. 8 - The Cell Membrane

Ch. 8 - The Cell Membrane Ch. 8 - The Cell Membrane 2007-2008 Phospholipids Phosphate head hydrophilic Fatty acid tails hydrophobic Arranged as a bilayer Phosphate attracted to water Fatty acid repelled by water Aaaah, one of those

More information

Membrane Structure and Function

Membrane Structure and Function Membrane Structure and Function -plasma membrane acts as a barrier between cells and the surrounding. -plasma membrane is selective permeable -consist of lipids, proteins and carbohydrates -major lipids

More information

Chapter 5. The Structure and Function of Macromolecule s

Chapter 5. The Structure and Function of Macromolecule s Chapter 5 The Structure and Function of Macromolecule s Most Macromolecules are polymers: Polymer: (poly: many; mer: part) Large molecules consisting of many identical or similar subunits connected together.

More information

Activity 4/5.1 How Can You Identify Organic Macromolecules?

Activity 4/5.1 How Can You Identify Organic Macromolecules? Answers? Activity 4/5.1 ow an You Identify rganic Macromolecules? efer to the figure (Some Simple hemistry) on the next page when doing this activity. Part A. Answer the questions. Then use your answers

More information

First we ll list the basic monomers and polymers, and then discuss and show their properties in more detail.

First we ll list the basic monomers and polymers, and then discuss and show their properties in more detail. BIOMOLECULES. I. (up to proteins) Basic Molecules of Terrestrial Self-Replication (brief version) Theory for origin of life by chemical evolution must explain following: nuclei--->atoms--->molecules--->monomers--->polymers

More information

Cell Membrane Structure and Function. Prof. Dr. Turgut Ulutin

Cell Membrane Structure and Function. Prof. Dr. Turgut Ulutin Cell Membrane Structure and Function Prof. Dr. Turgut Ulutin Why do we need the plasma membrane? Keeping the goods concentrated Keeping harmful materials out Transports substances in and out of the cell

More information

Quick Hit Activity Using UIL Science Contests For Formative and Summative Assessments of Pre-AP and AP Biology Students

Quick Hit Activity Using UIL Science Contests For Formative and Summative Assessments of Pre-AP and AP Biology Students Quick Hit Activity Using UIL Science Contests For Formative and Summative Assessments of Pre-AP and AP Biology Students Activity Title: Quick Hit Goal of Activity: To perform formative and summative assessments

More information

CHAPTER 7 A TOUR OF THE CELL. Section B: A Panoramic View of the Cell

CHAPTER 7 A TOUR OF THE CELL. Section B: A Panoramic View of the Cell CHAPTER 7 A TOUR OF THE CELL Section B: A Panoramic View of the Cell 1. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells differ in size and complexity 2. Internal membranes compartmentalize the functions of a eukaryotic

More information

4. Which carbohydrate would you find as part of a molecule of RNA? a. Galactose b. Deoxyribose c. Ribose d. Glucose

4. Which carbohydrate would you find as part of a molecule of RNA? a. Galactose b. Deoxyribose c. Ribose d. Glucose 1. How is a polymer formed from multiple monomers? a. From the growth of the chain of carbon atoms b. By the removal of an OH group and a hydrogen atom c. By the addition of an OH group and a hydrogen

More information

I. Polymers & Macromolecules Figure 1: Polymers. Polymer: Macromolecule: Figure 2: Dehydration Synthesis

I. Polymers & Macromolecules Figure 1: Polymers. Polymer: Macromolecule: Figure 2: Dehydration Synthesis I. Polymers & Macromolecules Figure 1: Polymers Polymer: Macromolecule: Figure 2: Dehydration Synthesis 1 Dehydration Synthesis: Figure 3: Hydrolysis Hydrolysis: II. Organic Macromolecules Class I: Carbohydrates:

More information

Cytoplasm. Signal transduction pathway. environment. Cellular response. surface receptor. Signal transduction pathway.

Cytoplasm. Signal transduction pathway. environment. Cellular response. surface receptor. Signal transduction pathway. Module 2G: Cell Communication In this module, we will examine how the cells of a multicellular organism communicate with each other. Objective # 41 Explain how cells communicate with each other, and describe

More information

Lipids. Classes of Lipids. Types of Lipids. Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty Acids. Fatty Acids. 15.1 Lipids 15.2 Fatty Acids

Lipids. Classes of Lipids. Types of Lipids. Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty Acids. Fatty Acids. 15.1 Lipids 15.2 Fatty Acids hapter 15 15.1 15.2 Fatty Acids are biomolecules that contain fatty acids or a steroid nucleus. soluble in organic solvents, but not in water. named for the Greek word lipos, which means fat. extracted

More information

The Cell Membrane MEMBRANE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION. Mader: Chapter Membranes are a fluid mosaic of phospholipids and proteins

The Cell Membrane MEMBRANE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION. Mader: Chapter Membranes are a fluid mosaic of phospholipids and proteins The Cell Membrane Mader: Chapter 4 MEMBRANE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION 5.1 Membranes are a fluid mosaic of! Membranes are composed of phospholipids and proteins Membranes are commonly described as a fluid

More information

Sample mid-quarter exam 1 (updated 2/7/14)

Sample mid-quarter exam 1 (updated 2/7/14) Chemistry 256 Sample mid-quarter exam 1 (updated 2/7/14) 1. Which one of the following processes is not stimulated by insulin? a. Glucose uptake in muscle b. Dephosphorylation of glycogen synthase in muscle

More information

Chapter 3: Biological Molecules. 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids

Chapter 3: Biological Molecules. 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids Chapter 3: Biological Molecules 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids Elements in Biological Molecules Biological macromolecules are made almost entirely of just 6 elements: Carbon (C)

More information

Cells, Membranes, Tissues and Skin

Cells, Membranes, Tissues and Skin Session Objectives. What you will cover Basic cell organelles Plasma membrane structure Basic function of membrane proteins Tissues Skin Cells, Membranes, Tissues and Skin Your objectives are List the

More information

Transmembrane proteins span the bilayer. α-helix transmembrane domain. Multiple transmembrane helices in one polypeptide

Transmembrane proteins span the bilayer. α-helix transmembrane domain. Multiple transmembrane helices in one polypeptide Transmembrane proteins span the bilayer α-helix transmembrane domain Hydrophobic R groups of a.a. interact with fatty acid chains Multiple transmembrane helices in one polypeptide Polar a.a. Hydrophilic

More information

Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms

Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms Name: Date: Per: Table # Elements & Macromolecules in rganisms Most common elements in living things are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. These four elements constitute about 95% of your body weight.

More information

Homeostasis and Transport Module A Anchor 4

Homeostasis and Transport Module A Anchor 4 Homeostasis and Transport Module A Anchor 4 Key Concepts: - Buffers play an important role in maintaining homeostasis in organisms. - To maintain homeostasis, unicellular organisms grow, respond to the

More information

Lecture 2 The plasma membrane

Lecture 2 The plasma membrane Lecture 2 The plasma membrane Plasma membranes: 1. Lipid composition of cell membranes 2. Singer and Nicolson fluid mosaic model 3. Proteins associated with the plasma membrane can be integral or peripheral

More information

Chapter 16. Cell Signaling. Chapter 16. Cell Signaling. Chapter 16. Cell Signaling

Chapter 16. Cell Signaling. Chapter 16. Cell Signaling. Chapter 16. Cell Signaling http://www.zi.biologie.uni-muenchen.de/zoologie/dicty/dicty.html 1 D. discoideum/ D. mucoroides species specific sorting. (D. discoideum: green, D. mucoroides: red) 2 http://www.zi.biologie.uni-muenchen.de/zoologie/dicty/dicty.html

More information

A disaccharide is formed when a dehydration reaction joins two monosaccharides. This covalent bond is called a glycosidic linkage.

A disaccharide is formed when a dehydration reaction joins two monosaccharides. This covalent bond is called a glycosidic linkage. CH 5 Structure & Function of Large Molecules: Macromolecules Molecules of Life All living things are made up of four classes of large biological molecules: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic

More information

FIGURE 2.18. A. The phosphate end of the molecule is polar (charged) and hydrophilic (attracted to water).

FIGURE 2.18. A. The phosphate end of the molecule is polar (charged) and hydrophilic (attracted to water). PLASMA MEMBRANE 1. The plasma membrane is the outermost part of a cell. 2. The main component of the plasma membrane is phospholipids. FIGURE 2.18 A. The phosphate end of the molecule is polar (charged)

More information

Lecture 5. The Cell The cell membrane and Membrane Proteins

Lecture 5. The Cell The cell membrane and Membrane Proteins Lecture 5 The Cell The cell membrane and Membrane Proteins The cell Ameoba- single celled organism A single human cell The Cell is the simplest collec4on of ma9er that can live Cells 4ssue organ The cell

More information

Biological cell membranes

Biological cell membranes Unit 14: Cell biology. 14 2 Biological cell membranes The cell surface membrane surrounds the cell and acts as a barrier between the cell s contents and the environment. The cell membrane has multiple

More information

Chapter 5 The Plasma Membrane and Transport

Chapter 5 The Plasma Membrane and Transport Chapter 5 The Plasma Membrane and Transport State Standard Standard 1.a. Membrane Function 1, Forms a boundary between living cells and their surroundings. 2. Controls the movement of molecules into and

More information

NO CALCULATORS OR CELL PHONES ALLOWED

NO CALCULATORS OR CELL PHONES ALLOWED Biol 205 Exam 1 TEST FORM A Spring 2008 NAME Fill out both sides of the Scantron Sheet. On Side 2 be sure to indicate that you have TEST FORM A The answers to Part I should be placed on the SCANTRON SHEET.

More information

The Structure and Function of Cells

The Structure and Function of Cells The Structure and Function of Cells The Cell is the basic functional unit of ALL living things. There are 2 basic types of cells: 1. Eukaryotic Cells = contain plasma membrane (cell membrane), organelles,

More information

15.2. Objectives At the end of this lecture, you should be able to

15.2. Objectives At the end of this lecture, you should be able to Lecture 15: Molecular Structure of the Cell Membrane 15.1. Introduction Welcome to this lecture on molecular structure of the cell membrane. In this lecture, we are going to look at the molecules that

More information

Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms

Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms Elements & Macromolecules in rganisms Most common elements in living things are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. These four elements constitute about 95% of your body weight. All compounds can be

More information