Organic Functional Groups Chapter 7. Alcohols, Ethers and More

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Organic Functional Groups Chapter 7. Alcohols, Ethers and More"

Transcription

1 Organic Functional Groups Chapter 7 Alcohols, Ethers and More 1

2 What do you do when you are in Pain? What do you do when you are in a lot of pain? 2

3 Functional Groups A functional group is an atom, groups of atoms, or bond that gives a molecule a particular set of chemical properties. Each family of organic compounds is defined by the functional group that its members contain. 3

4 C-O Containing Functional Groups 4

5 Alcohols All alcohols contain a hydroxyl (-OH) functional group that is attached to an alkane-type carbon atom. 5

6 Alcohols Classification of alcohols is based on the degree of substitution of the carbon they are attached to. Reactivity of alcohols is based on access. 6

7 Drop the e ending on the name of the corresponding hydrocarbon replacing with ol. The position of the -OH group must be specified with a number similar to the double bond. CH 3 Naming Alcohols H 3 C H 3 C OH CH 3 Is 2-methylcyclohexanol a primary, secondary or tertiary alcohol? 7

8 Properties of Alcohols Type of Intermolecular Forces present? Solubility in water? Boiling Point? a. CH 3 CH 2 OH b. HO-CH 2 CH 2 OH c.. CH 3 CH 3 d. CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 OH 8

9 Polarity vs Chain Length Octanol is insoluble in water due to the long nonpolar chain. Methanol, ethanol and the propanols are soluble in water due to the polar -OH.

10 Properties of Alcohols 10

11 Ethers An oxygen squeezed between carbons. The simplest will be having two methyl groups attached. To name ethers: For simple ones name the groups in alphabetical order followed by the word ether. When other functional groups are present the OR group has the ending oxy as a substituent. -OCH 3 is methoxy. Solubility: Hydrophobic or hydrophilic? Polar or nonpolar? 11

12 Carbonyl Containing Functional Groups 12

13 The carbonyl group is an oxygen double bonded to a carbon. The carbon is connected to two groups or atoms. One of these may be an R group and the other may be either an R group, a hydrogen or a heteroatom. The carbonyl group is not a functional group, but is a component of functional groups shown on the following slide. THE CARBONYL GROUP Electronic Geometry?

14 CARBONYL-CONTAINING GROUPS All are polar. Identify what is at each side of the carbonyl. Which ones have Hydrogen bond? Solubility in water?

15 Aldehydes and Ketones 15

16 Naming Aldehydes and Ketones When naming aldehydes and ketones the carbonyl (C=O) must be part of the parent chain and receive the lowest number. Since the carbonyl of an aldehyde is always in position number 1, its position is not specified. For ketones, however, the position of the carbonyl must be given, unless the molecule is small enough that there is no question as to carbonyl placement. Parent chains are named by dropping the final e from the name of the corresponding hydrocarbon and adding al for aldehydes or one for ketones. 16

17 Aldehydes and Ketones 17

18 What is the name? O CH 3 H 3 C CH 3 a. 5-pentanone b. 2-pentanone c. 2-heptanal d. 3-ethylpentanone e. 3-ethyl-2-pentanone 18

19 Aldehydes and ketones have much lower boiling points than alcohols with a similar molecular weight. The differences in boiling points is due to the fact that alcohols can form hydrogen bonds while aldehydes and ketones cannot. The C=O is slightly polar, which allows an aldehyde or ketone to interact with one another through dipole-dipole forces. 19

20 The polarity of the carbonyl group and its ability to form hydrogen bonds with water molecules allows small aldehydes and ketones to be highly water soluble ( like dissolves like ). 20

21 21

22 CARBOXYLIC ACIDS 22

23 Carboxylic acids contain a carboxyl functional group, which is the combination of a hydroxyl (-OH) group and a carbonyl (C=O) group. 23

24 Naming All the rules learned with the ending -oic acid. Carboxylic acids have priority number one in naming. H 3 C O H 3 C OH CH 3 24

25 IONIZATION OF CARBOXYLIC ACIDS The carboxylic acid group may lose a proton (H + ) in solution to form the carboxylate ion. The name of the ion ends in ate ion, as indicated. Carboxylate ions are also much more soluble in water than their carboxylic acid counterparts. What type of intermolecular force will be present?

26 FATTY ACIDS AND SOAP Remember that Fatty acids are long hydrocarbon chains containing the carboxylic acid group. Soaps are the carboxylate form of fatty acids. The fatty acid portion of soap dissolves into greasy materials, while the carboxylate portion attracts water, explaining the cleaning action of soap.

27 HYDROGEN BONDING Carboxylic acids easily form hydrogen bonds with water or other similar compounds. Small chains will be soluble in water. Their hydrogen bonds also increase their boiling points. What has the lowest boiling point? a. CH 3 OCH 3 b. CH 3 CH 2 OH c. CH 3 CH 2 COOH d. CH 3 COCH 3

28 Functional Groups 28

29 CARBOXYLIC ACID DERIVATIVES Carboxylic acid derivatives resemble carboxylic acids in that they have a heteroatom connected to the carbonyl group.

30 ESTERS and THIOESTERS Esters are similar to carboxylic acids except that OR replaces OH. Thioesters are similar with an S instead of the oxygen linking.

31 Identify all functional groups present 31

32 This image cannot currently be displayed. AMIDES Amides consist of a nitrogen bonded to a carbonyl carbon. The nitrogen could have up to two hydrogens or R groups attached. Naming: Count the carbons and use the ending anamide. If the nitrogen is substituted named them as substituent starting with the letter (N-) to indicate the position. N-methylethanamide

33 SOME COMMON AMIDES Proteins and oligopeptides contain the amide group. Penicillin is also an amide.

34 OTHER FUNCTIONAL GROUPS Amines and Phosphates 34

35 AMINES Amines are derived from ammonia (NH 3 ) when hydrogens are substituted by carbon compounds (R). What is the electronic geometry of ammonia? Molecular geometry? Amines are classified by the level of substitution:

36 AMINES ARE NOT AMIDES! Amines do not have a carbonyl group directly attached to the N. This makes their properties entirely different. One property of amines is that they form ions; amides cannot do this.

37 NAMING AMINES Each R group is treated like a usual substituent, and each ends with a yl. Following the substituent names in alphabetical order is the term amine.

38 PHARMACOLOGICALLY ACTIVE NAMES Many amines have active biological properties. Amines derived from plants are called alkaloids. Some alkaloids are shown below.

39 HYDROGEN BONDING AND AMINES Amines easily form hydrogen bonds. As before, these determine physical properties such as boiling point and solubility.

40 AMINES COULD FORM IONS The nonbonding electrons on an amine nitrogen may attract a proton to give the nitrogen a fourth bond. The resulting positively-charged polyatomic ion is analogous to the ammonium ion. These are soluble and nature. common in

41 AMINO ACIDS Amino acids contain both the amino group and the carboxylic acid group. In neutral solution, both are charged. Amino acids are found in all proteins.

42 PHOSPHATES Phosphate esters are compounds derived from phosphoric acid. All contain a P=O double bond and three P-O single bonds. The oxygens in a phosphate ester are joined to up to three R groups, replacing H s. The phosphate is usually present as a polyatomic ion with up to three negative charges.

43 CLASSES OF PHOSPHATE ESTERS The types of phosphate esters depend on the number of R groups present. In the di- or tri-phosphate esters, the phosphate group is also attached to an oxygen of the next phosphate. This structure is termed a phosphoanhydride.

44 ATP ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is an example of a triphosphate ester. It is the energy currency of the cell, used as an intermediate in energy transfers. Note the presence of two phosphoanhydrides in ATP.

45 CHAPTER 7: Organic Functional Groups PRACTICE PROBLEM Epinephrine (adrenaline) is a hormone secreted when the body is under stress. Illicit drugs that are structurally similar to epinephrine are highly addictive stimulants. For example, the illegal and addictive drug methamphetamine is similar in structure to epinephrine. However, pseudoephedrine, which is structurally similar to epinephrine, is a decongestant and sold over the counter in pharmacies. a. Circle and label all the amine functional groups in these molecules. b. In what way is methamphetamine structurally similar to pseudoephedrine? How is it different? c. In the body, the amine in epinephrine is in its ionic form. Write the structure of the ionic form of epinephrine.

46 46

47 47

48 48

49 Compared to hydrocarbons with a similar molecular weight, alcohols have relatively high boiling points. 49

50 50

Chapter 2: Structure and Properties of Organic Molecules

Chapter 2: Structure and Properties of Organic Molecules Chapter 2: Structure and Properties of Organic Molecules Atomic Orbitals (2.1-2.5) Wave functions that represent the probability of finding electrons in a specific region of space s, p, d, f orbitals In

More information

Chapter 13 Carboxylic Acids, Esters, Amines, and Amides. Carboxylic Acids. Names and Sources of Some Carboxylic Acids. IUPAC Names

Chapter 13 Carboxylic Acids, Esters, Amines, and Amides. Carboxylic Acids. Names and Sources of Some Carboxylic Acids. IUPAC Names Chapter 13 Carboxylic Acids, Esters, Amines, and Amides 13.1 Carboxylic Acids Carboxylic Acids A carboxylic acid contains a carboxyl group, which is a carbonyl group (C=) attached to a hydroxyl group (

More information

(Woods) Chem-131 Lec-15 09-4 Carboxyllic acid 1. Carboxylic Acid Derivatives Esters, Acid Anhydrides, Amides, and Acid Halides

(Woods) Chem-131 Lec-15 09-4 Carboxyllic acid 1. Carboxylic Acid Derivatives Esters, Acid Anhydrides, Amides, and Acid Halides (Woods) Chem-131 Lec-15 09-4 Carboxyllic acid 1 Carboxylic Acid Derivatives Esters, Acid Anhydrides, Amides, and Acid Halides The oxidation state of carbon in a carboxylic acid is the highest of the organic

More information

Unit Vocabulary: o Organic Acid o Alcohol. o Ester o Ether. o Amine o Aldehyde

Unit Vocabulary: o Organic Acid o Alcohol. o Ester o Ether. o Amine o Aldehyde Unit Vocabulary: Addition rxn Esterification Polymer Alcohol Ether Polymerization Aldehyde Fermentation Primary Alkane Functional group Saponification Alkene Halide (halocarbon) Saturated hydrocarbon Alkyne

More information

Chapter 25 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Chemistry. 25.1 Some General Characteristics of Organic Molecules

Chapter 25 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Chemistry. 25.1 Some General Characteristics of Organic Molecules Chapter 25 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Chemistry general characteristics of organic molecules introduction to hydrocarbons alkanes unsaturated hydrocarbons functional groups: alcohols and ethers compounds

More information

Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life

Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life Chapter 4 Objectives Explain how carbon s electron configuration accounts for its ability to form large, complex, and diverse organic molecules. Describe how

More information

Chapter 5 Classification of Organic Compounds by Solubility

Chapter 5 Classification of Organic Compounds by Solubility Chapter 5 Classification of Organic Compounds by Solubility Deductions based upon interpretation of simple solubility tests can be extremely useful in organic structure determination. Both solubility and

More information

Chapter 2 - Families of Carbon Compounds

Chapter 2 - Families of Carbon Compounds Andrew Rosen Chapter 2 - Families of Carbon Compounds 2.1 - Hydrocarbons: Representative Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes, and Aromatic Compounds - Hydrocarbons are compounds that contain only hydrogen and carbon

More information

Organic Chemistry Questions

Organic Chemistry Questions Organic Chemistry Questions 1 Molecules of 1-propanol and 2-propanol have different (1) percentage compositions (2) molecular masses (3) molecular formulas (4) structural formulas 2 Which compound is an

More information

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter Fourteen 1

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter Fourteen 1 An alcohol has an OH bonded to an alkyl group; a phenol has an OH bonded directly to an aromatic ring; and an ether has an O bonded to two organic groups. Chapter Fourteen 1 Ethyl alcohol, dimethyl ether,

More information

Slide 1. In this lesson, we will give you a general introduction to some of the organic molecules. Slide 2. Slide 3

Slide 1. In this lesson, we will give you a general introduction to some of the organic molecules. Slide 2. Slide 3 Slide 1 In this lesson, we will give you a general introduction to some of the organic molecules. At the end of this lesson, you should be able to, Slide 2 Describe carbon bonding and organic compounds

More information

Carbon and the Chapter Molecular 4 Diversity of Life

Carbon and the Chapter Molecular 4 Diversity of Life Overview: Carbon: The Backbone of Life Carbon and the Chapter Molecular 4 Diversity of Life Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life Living organisms consist mostly of carbon-based compounds Carbon is

More information

Mr. Kent s Organic Chemistry Unit Notes I Basic Concepts

Mr. Kent s Organic Chemistry Unit Notes I Basic Concepts Mr. Kent s Organic Chemistry Unit Notes I Basic Concepts A. Organic Chemistry-The study of containing compounds. 1. They occur extensively in nature because all living things are made of containing compounds.

More information

Advanced Cell Biology. Lecture 3

Advanced Cell Biology. Lecture 3 Advanced Cell Biology. Lecture 3 Alexey Shipunov Minot State University January 18, 2012 Outline Questions and answers Organic molecules Basics of organic chemistry Outline Questions and answers Organic

More information

Nomenclature International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC)

Nomenclature International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) Nomenclature International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) I. Alkanes A. Alkanes: Simple-Chain Alkanes consist of only hydrogen and carbon molecules and are known to be the simplest type of

More information

Introduction to Organic Molecules And Functional Groups

Introduction to Organic Molecules And Functional Groups Introduction to Organic Molecules And Functional Groups 1 Functional Groups A functional group is an atom or a group of atoms with characteristic chemical and physical properties. It is the reactive part

More information

2.5 Solubility of Alkanes

2.5 Solubility of Alkanes 2.5 Solubility of Alkanes We learned in the chapter on solutions that like dissolves like : polar and ionic compounds are generally soluble in polar solvents like water, but not in non-polar (covalent)

More information

Chapter 10 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes. Organic Chemistry. 10.1 Organic Compounds. Organic vs. Inorganic.

Chapter 10 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes. Organic Chemistry. 10.1 Organic Compounds. Organic vs. Inorganic. Chapter 10 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes 10.1 Organic Compounds Organic Chemistry An organic compound is a compound made from carbon atoms. has one or more C atoms. has many H atoms. may also

More information

Chapter 8 Photosynthesis Name

Chapter 8 Photosynthesis Name Chapter 8 Photosynthesis Name Lab ATP - The Cell s Energy Molecule Introduction Is energy free to slosh around inside living cells? The answer is no. Energy exists in the form of chemical energy. This

More information

Alcohols. and Phenols. Alcohols. Organic compound containing one or more hydroxyl groups, (-OH). General formula R-OH.

Alcohols. and Phenols. Alcohols. Organic compound containing one or more hydroxyl groups, (-OH). General formula R-OH. Alcohols Alcohols and Phenols Organic compound containing one or more hydroxyl groups, (-). General formula R-. Space-filling models for the three simplest unbranched-chain alcohols: methyl alcohol, ethyl

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. CHM 210 Chemistry Homework #6 Alkanes (Ch. 10) Due: MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Compounds that have the same molecular formula

More information

Last Time: Alkanes (C n H 2n+2 ) Last Time: Organic Compounds. Last Time: Intermolecular Forces- BP Increases w/ Increasing Size

Last Time: Alkanes (C n H 2n+2 ) Last Time: Organic Compounds. Last Time: Intermolecular Forces- BP Increases w/ Increasing Size Announcements & Agenda (0/02/07) Welcome Visitors! Please make yourselves comfortable; we will start with a quiz Mid-term grades are only based on lecture I will give you detailed grade sheets on Monday

More information

Monday, September 10th

Monday, September 10th Monday, September 10th Review Chapter 11 iclicker Quiz #1 Chapter 12 Chapter 13(maybe) Group assignment Keep checking the class webpage at www.bhsu.edu/danasunskis. Go to the course tab then CHEM107 Lecture

More information

Topic 13: Organic Chemistry

Topic 13: Organic Chemistry Topic 13: Organic Chemistry Organic Chemistry: is the study of carbon and its compounds. All living things are made up of organic compounds. organic compounds must have carbon (and hydrogen) carbon has

More information

Organic Compounds. Carbon can form a wide variety of compounds with many unique and distinct properties because:

Organic Compounds. Carbon can form a wide variety of compounds with many unique and distinct properties because: Organic Compounds Organic compounds covalently bonded compounds usually containing the element carbon. EXCEPTION: carbonates and oxides are inorganic compounds. Carbon can form a wide variety of compounds

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Ch14_PT MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Compounds with the -OH group attached to a saturated alkane-like carbon are known as A)

More information

Amides and Amines: Organic Nitrogen Compounds

Amides and Amines: Organic Nitrogen Compounds Chapter 25 Amides and Amines: Organic Nitrogen Compounds Nylon is one of the materials used to give these colorful sails their strength and durability. Introduction to General, Organic, and Biochemistry,

More information

Chemical Bonds and Groups - Part 1

Chemical Bonds and Groups - Part 1 hemical Bonds and Groups - Part 1 ARB SKELETS arbon has a unique role in the cell because of its ability to form strong covalent bonds with other carbon atoms. Thus carbon atoms can join to form chains.

More information

CHAPTER 7: Organic Functional Groups

CHAPTER 7: Organic Functional Groups CHAPTER 7: Organic Functional Groups PRACTICE PROBLEM Epinephrine (adrenaline) is a hormone secreted when the body is under stress. Illicit drugs that are structurally similar to epinephrine are highly

More information

Alcohols An alcohol contains a hydroxyl group ( OH) attached to a carbon chain. A phenol contains a hydroxyl group ( OH) attached to a benzene ring.

Alcohols An alcohol contains a hydroxyl group ( OH) attached to a carbon chain. A phenol contains a hydroxyl group ( OH) attached to a benzene ring. Chapter : rganic Compounds with xygen Alcohols, Ethers Alcohols An alcohol contains a hydroxyl group ( H) attached to a carbon chain. A phenol contains a hydroxyl group ( H) attached to a benzene ring.

More information

Chapter: Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes

Chapter: Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes Chapter: Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes Organic Chemistry An organic compound is a compound made from carbon atoms. has one or more C atoms. has many H atoms. may also contain O, S, N, and

More information

Class XII Chemistry Chapter: Alcohols, Phenols And Ethers

Class XII Chemistry Chapter: Alcohols, Phenols And Ethers 1 Class XII Chemistry Chapter: Alcohols, Phenols And Ethers Top concepts: 1. Structure of alcohols, phenols and ethers: 2. Preparation of alcohols: 3. Preparation of phenols: 2 4. Physical properties of

More information

Chem101 General Chemistry

Chem101 General Chemistry hem101 General hemistry Lecture 12, Phenols and Ethers are ganic molecules containing a hydroxy functional group - 1. The hydroxy group is composed of an oxygen and a hydrogen atom ( ) hydroxy group 3

More information

2. Organic Compounds: Alkanes and Cycloalkanes. Based on McMurry s Organic Chemistry, 6 th edition, Chapter 3

2. Organic Compounds: Alkanes and Cycloalkanes. Based on McMurry s Organic Chemistry, 6 th edition, Chapter 3 2. Organic Compounds: Alkanes and Cycloalkanes Based on McMurry s Organic Chemistry, 6 th edition, Chapter 3 Families of Organic Compounds Organic compounds can be grouped into families by their common

More information

Name: Date: Block: Molecular Modeling

Name: Date: Block: Molecular Modeling Name: Date: Block: Molecular Modeling Background: In biology, the four most important elements found in living things are: H hydrogen (1 valence electron) O oxygen (2 valence electrons) N nitrogen (3 valence

More information

Chapter 4 Lecture Notes

Chapter 4 Lecture Notes Chapter 4 Lecture Notes Chapter 4 Educational Goals 1. Given the formula of a molecule, the student will be able to draw the line-bond (Lewis) structure. 2. Understand and construct condensed structural

More information

Atoms. Chapter 2: Fundamentals of Chemistry. The main subatomic particles Atomic Model. Isotopes. Building blocks of matter

Atoms. Chapter 2: Fundamentals of Chemistry. The main subatomic particles Atomic Model. Isotopes. Building blocks of matter You need to know this for the Chemistry Quiz Atoms Chapter 2: Fundamentals of Chemistry Dr. Amy Rogers Bio 139 Microbiology Some figures courtesy of Biology: A Guide to the Natural World by Krogh Building

More information

Preliminary MFM Quiz

Preliminary MFM Quiz Preliminary MFM Quiz 1. The major carrier of chemical energy in all cells is: A) adenosine monophosphate B) adenosine diphosphate C) adenosine trisphosphate D) guanosine trisphosphate E) carbamoyl phosphate

More information

Lecture Overview. Hydrogen Bonds. Special Properties of Water Molecules. Universal Solvent. ph Scale Illustrated. special properties of water

Lecture Overview. Hydrogen Bonds. Special Properties of Water Molecules. Universal Solvent. ph Scale Illustrated. special properties of water Lecture Overview special properties of water > water as a solvent > ph molecules of the cell > properties of carbon > carbohydrates > lipids > proteins > nucleic acids Hydrogen Bonds polarity of water

More information

IDENTIFICATION OF ALCOHOLS

IDENTIFICATION OF ALCOHOLS IDENTIFICATION OF ALCOHOLS Alcohols are organic compounds that which considered as derivatives of water. One of the hydrogen atoms of water molecule (H-O-H) has been replaced by an alkyl or substituted

More information

CHAPTER 21 Hydrocarbons Section 1 - Alkanes Example Problem 1 Naming Branched-Chain Alkanes Name the following alkane.

CHAPTER 21 Hydrocarbons Section 1 - Alkanes Example Problem 1 Naming Branched-Chain Alkanes Name the following alkane. CHAPTER 21 Hydrocarbons Section 1 - Alkanes Example Problem 1 Naming Branched-Chain Alkanes Name the following alkane. 1. Name the compound represented by each of the following condensed structural formulas.

More information

EXPERIMENT 1: Survival Organic Chemistry: Molecular Models

EXPERIMENT 1: Survival Organic Chemistry: Molecular Models EXPERIMENT 1: Survival Organic Chemistry: Molecular Models Introduction: The goal in this laboratory experience is for you to easily and quickly move between empirical formulas, molecular formulas, condensed

More information

Common functional groups. Common functional groups. INTRODUCTION to FUNCTIONAL groups 2/25/2012

Common functional groups. Common functional groups. INTRODUCTION to FUNCTIONAL groups 2/25/2012 INTRDUTIN to FUNTINAL groups It is useful to view a molecule as being composed of two parts. ne part only has s that are singly bonded to other s (and their associated s) This group of atoms is called

More information

Chapter 24 Organic Chemistry

Chapter 24 Organic Chemistry Chapter 24 Organic Chemistry Student: 1. The general formula for alkenes is A. C n H 2n+2 B. C 2n H 2n C. C n H n+2 D. C n H 2n E. C n H 2n-2 2. The general formula of an alkane is A. C n H 2n B. C n H

More information

Chemistry B11 Chapter Alcohols, Ethers, Thiols and Chirality

Chemistry B11 Chapter Alcohols, Ethers, Thiols and Chirality hemistry B11 hapter 14-15 Alcohols, Ethers, Thiols and hirality Alcohols: the functional group of an alcohol is an hydroxyl group -O. 3 O 3 2 2 O Naming alcohols: 1. Select the longest chain that contains

More information

Lecture. Review of Organic Chemistry and Herbicide Chemistry

Lecture. Review of Organic Chemistry and Herbicide Chemistry 1 Lecture Review of Organic Chemistry and Herbicide Chemistry 1. Basic herbicide chemistry most herbicides are organic compounds, i.e. they contain carbon the major elements contained in organic herbicides

More information

Molecular Models in Biology

Molecular Models in Biology Molecular Models in Biology Objectives: After this lab a student will be able to: 1) Understand the properties of atoms that give rise to bonds. 2) Understand how and why atoms form ions. 3) Model covalent,

More information

Chemical bonds hold molecules together. A chemical bond is a union between atoms formed when they give up, gain, or share electrons

Chemical bonds hold molecules together. A chemical bond is a union between atoms formed when they give up, gain, or share electrons Chemical bonds hold molecules together A chemical bond is a union between atoms formed when they give up, gain, or share electrons Chemical formulas indicate the numbers of atoms of each element that are

More information

Lesson Overview. Carbon Compounds. Lesson Overview 2.3

Lesson Overview. Carbon Compounds. Lesson Overview 2.3 Lesson Overview 2.3 The Chemistry of Carbon Carbon atoms can form strong covalent bonds with many other elements. Molecules containing carbon are called organic. Living organisms are composed of molecules

More information

Chapter 10 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes

Chapter 10 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes hapter 10 Introduction to Organic hemistry: Alkanes 1 Organic hemistry An organic compound is a compound made from carbon atoms has one or more atoms has many atoms may also contain O, S, N, and halogens

More information

Organic Chemistry: Organic Halides and Alcohols

Organic Chemistry: Organic Halides and Alcohols Organic Chemistry: Organic Halides and Alcohols Today s Objectives: 1) Name and draw structural, condensed structural and line diagrams and formulas for organic halides and alcohols 2) Identify types of

More information

WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT?

WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT? CHAPTER 2 FUNDAMENTAL CHEMISTRY FOR MICROBIOLOGY Charles D. Winters / Science Photo Library WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT? An understanding of chemistry is essential to understand cellular structure and function,

More information

Organic Chemistry. Organic Chemistry Table. Alkane Single bond - Propane. Alkene Double bond = Propene. Alkyne Triple bond Propyne

Organic Chemistry. Organic Chemistry Table. Alkane Single bond - Propane. Alkene Double bond = Propene. Alkyne Triple bond Propyne Organic Chemistry Organic Chemistry Table Homologous Series Functional Group Structure of Group Name Example Alkane Single bond - Propane Alkene Double bond = Propene Alkyne Triple bond Propyne Chloroalkane

More information

AP BIOLOGY READING GUIDE: CHAPTER 05 THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF LARGE BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES

AP BIOLOGY READING GUIDE: CHAPTER 05 THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF LARGE BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES AP BIOLOGY READING GUIDE: CHAPTER 05 THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF LARGE BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES Name: Date: CONCEPT 5.1: Macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers CONCEPT 5.2: Carbohydrates serve

More information

The study of the structure and chemistry of stereoisomers is called stereochemistry

The study of the structure and chemistry of stereoisomers is called stereochemistry Structure and Properties of rganic Molecules Reading: Wade chapter 2, sections 2-7- 2-14 Study Problems: 2-35, 2-37, 2-39, 2-40, 2-41, 2-42, Key Concepts and Skills: Identify constitutional isomers and

More information

AP Chemistry Chapter 22 - Organic and Biological Molecules

AP Chemistry Chapter 22 - Organic and Biological Molecules AP Chemistry Chapter - Organic and Biological Molecules.1 Alkanes: Saturated Hydrocarbons A. Straight-chain Hydrocarbons 1. Straight-chain alkanes have the formula C n H n+. Carbons are sp hybridized The

More information

Chemistry Honors Lesson 3 Molecular Biology/Biochemistry

Chemistry Honors Lesson 3 Molecular Biology/Biochemistry Chemistry Honors Lesson 3 Molecular Biology/Biochemistry Noncovalent Interactions In Biology, the way molecules interact are determined by weak interactions that result in unique 3D structures and function.

More information

Chapter 10 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes. Chemistry: An Introduction to General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry, Eleventh Edition

Chapter 10 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes. Chemistry: An Introduction to General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry, Eleventh Edition 1 hapter 10 Introduction to Organic hemistry: Alkanes Organic hemistry and Organic ompounds 2 An organic compound is a compound made from carbon atoms has one or more atoms has many atoms may also contain

More information

I. Polymers & Macromolecules Figure 1: Polymers. Polymer: Macromolecule: Figure 2: Dehydration Synthesis

I. Polymers & Macromolecules Figure 1: Polymers. Polymer: Macromolecule: Figure 2: Dehydration Synthesis I. Polymers & Macromolecules Figure 1: Polymers Polymer: Macromolecule: Figure 2: Dehydration Synthesis 1 Dehydration Synthesis: Figure 3: Hydrolysis Hydrolysis: II. Organic Macromolecules Class I: Carbohydrates:

More information

Chapter 3 Molecules of Cells

Chapter 3 Molecules of Cells Bio 100 Molecules of cells 1 Chapter 3 Molecules of Cells Compounds containing carbon are called organic compounds Molecules such as methane that are only composed of carbon and hydrogen are called hydrocarbons

More information

12. Alcohols and Phenols. Based on McMurry s Organic Chemistry, 6 th edition

12. Alcohols and Phenols. Based on McMurry s Organic Chemistry, 6 th edition 12. Alcohols and Phenols Based on McMurry s Organic Chemistry, 6 th edition Alcohols and Phenols Alcohols contain an OH group connected to a saturated C (sp 3 ) They are important solvents and synthesis

More information

Survival Organic Chemistry Part I: Molecular Models

Survival Organic Chemistry Part I: Molecular Models Survival Organic Chemistry Part I: Molecular Models The goal in this laboratory experience is to get you so you can easily and quickly move between empirical formulas, molecular formulas, condensed formulas,

More information

Classification of organic compounds By solubility

Classification of organic compounds By solubility Classification of organic compounds By solubility In this experiment we begin the process of determining the structural composition of organic compounds based upon interpretation of simple solubility tests

More information

CH 102 Practice exam. See you all Monday. Ted Michelini

CH 102 Practice exam. See you all Monday. Ted Michelini CH 102 Practice exam This represents the new material that will be on the exam, for review of the older material refer to the two previous exams and the previous practice exams, and of course, the homework.

More information

Laboratory 22: Properties of Alcohols

Laboratory 22: Properties of Alcohols Introduction Alcohols represent and important class of organic molecules. In this experiment you will study the physical and chemical properties of alcohols. Solubility in water, and organic solvents,

More information

Chapter 12 Organic Compounds with Oxygen and Sulfur

Chapter 12 Organic Compounds with Oxygen and Sulfur Chapter 12 Organic Compounds with Oxygen and Sulfur 1 Alcohols An alcohol contains a hydroxyl group ( OH) that replaces a hydrogen atom in a hydrocarbon. A phenol contains a hydroxyl group ( OH) attached

More information

WEEK ONE VOCABULARY. Adhesion- the attraction between water molecules and other molecules

WEEK ONE VOCABULARY. Adhesion- the attraction between water molecules and other molecules WEEK ONE VOCABULARY Acid- hydrogen donors; acids increase the hydrogen ion concentration in solution Adhesion- the attraction between water molecules and other molecules Alpha (α) helix- secondary protein

More information

4.5 Physical Properties: Solubility

4.5 Physical Properties: Solubility 4.5 Physical Properties: Solubility When a solid, liquid or gaseous solute is placed in a solvent and it seems to disappear, mix or become part of the solvent, we say that it dissolved. The solute is said

More information

NAME. EXAM I I. / 36 September 25, 2000 Biochemistry I II. / 26 BICH421/621 III. / 38 TOTAL /100

NAME. EXAM I I. / 36 September 25, 2000 Biochemistry I II. / 26 BICH421/621 III. / 38 TOTAL /100 EXAM I I. / 6 September 25, 2000 Biochemistry I II. / 26 BIH421/621 III. / 8 TOTAL /100 I. MULTIPLE HOIE (6 points) hoose the BEST answer to the question by circling the appropriate letter. 1. An amino

More information

Chemistry 110. Bettelheim, Brown, Campbell & Farrell. Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry Chapter 14 Alcohols, Ethers and Thiols

Chemistry 110. Bettelheim, Brown, Campbell & Farrell. Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry Chapter 14 Alcohols, Ethers and Thiols Chemistry 110 Bettelheim, Brown, Campbell & Farrell Ninth Edition Introduction to General, rganic and Biochemistry Chapter 14 Alcohols, Ethers and Thiols Alcohols have a ydroxyl Group, -, bonded to tetrahedral

More information

Introduction to Oil Chemistry and Transesterification. John Bush Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO

Introduction to Oil Chemistry and Transesterification. John Bush Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO Introduction to Oil Chemistry and Transesterification John Bush Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO john.a.bush@gmail.com Atoms and Elements Elements are the fundamental substances that compose matter

More information

Properties of Ionic and Covalent Compounds. Intermolecular Forces

Properties of Ionic and Covalent Compounds. Intermolecular Forces Properties of Ionic and Covalent Compounds Intermolecular Forces Physical Properties & Bond Types Physical properties of substances are affected by the attractive forces between particles Greater attraction

More information

Basic chemistry for A level Biology

Basic chemistry for A level Biology Basic chemistry for A level Biology Make a list of the missing words from the text please. Chose from this list; MISSING WORDS Neutrons, arrangement, carbon-14, charge, weak, alkaline, covalently, number,

More information

AP Biology Review: The Chemistry of Life Chapter 2: The Chemical Context of Life

AP Biology Review: The Chemistry of Life Chapter 2: The Chemical Context of Life AP Biology Review: The Chemistry of Life Chapter 2: The Chemical Context of Life You Must Know 1. The three subatomic particles and their significance. 2. The types of bonds, how they form, and their relative

More information

ALCOHOLS: Properties & Preparation

ALCOHOLS: Properties & Preparation ALLS: Properties & Preparation General formula: R-, where R is alkyl or substitued alkyl. Ar-: phenol - different properties. Nomenclature 1. ommon names: Name of alkyl group, followed by word alcohol.

More information

Nomenclature of organic compounds

Nomenclature of organic compounds P.1 Nomenclature of organic compounds A. Alkanes (C n H 2n+2 ) i. The following table give the names of some root names different number of carbon atoms of hydrocarbon. CH 4 methane C 6 H 14 hexane C 2

More information

Atoms Atom smallest part of an element that has the characteristics of that element. Each element has a distinct atom based on structure.

Atoms Atom smallest part of an element that has the characteristics of that element. Each element has a distinct atom based on structure. Atoms Atom smallest part of an element that has the characteristics of that element. Each element has a distinct atom based on structure. Nucleus- positively charged contains protons (p+), neutrons(n0),

More information

Ch17_PT MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Ch17_PT MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Ch17_PT MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Which molecule is a carboxylic acid? A) 1) B) C) D) E) CH3 CH2 CH2 NH2 2) Which molecule

More information

Non-Covalent Bonds (Weak Bond)

Non-Covalent Bonds (Weak Bond) Non-Covalent Bonds (Weak Bond) Weak bonds are those forces of attraction that, in biological situations, do not take a large amount of energy to break. For example, hydrogen bonds are broken by energies

More information

Name Lab #3: Solubility of Organic Compounds Objectives: Introduction: soluble insoluble partially soluble miscible immiscible

Name  Lab #3: Solubility of Organic Compounds Objectives: Introduction: soluble insoluble partially soluble miscible immiscible Lab #3: Solubility of rganic Compounds bjectives: - Understanding the relative solubility of organic compounds in various solvents. - Exploration of the effect of polar groups on a nonpolar hydrocarbon

More information

Page 1. 6. Which hydrocarbon is a member of the alkane series? (1) 1. Which is the structural formula of methane? (1) (2) (2) (3) (3) (4) (4)

Page 1. 6. Which hydrocarbon is a member of the alkane series? (1) 1. Which is the structural formula of methane? (1) (2) (2) (3) (3) (4) (4) 1. Which is the structural formula of methane? 6. Which hydrocarbon is a member of the alkane series? 7. How many carbon atoms are contained in an ethyl group? 1 3 2 4 2. In the alkane series, each molecule

More information

Name: Hour: Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms

Name: Hour: Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms Name: Hour: Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms Most common elements in living things are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. These four elements constitute about 95% of your body weight. All compounds

More information

Building Macromolecules

Building Macromolecules Building Macromolecules NGSSS: SC.A.912.L.18.1 Describe the basic molecular structures and primary functions of the four major categories of biological macromolecules. (AA) Background: Biological macromolecules

More information

Chemistry Entrance Examination Topics

Chemistry Entrance Examination Topics Chemistry Entrance Examination Topics 1. General characteristics of the group 6 elements of the main subgroups on the basis of the position in the Periodic table and of atomic structure. Sulfuric acid,

More information

Chapter 2 Polar Covalent Bonds; Acids and Bases

Chapter 2 Polar Covalent Bonds; Acids and Bases John E. McMurry http://www.cengage.com/chemistry/mcmurry Chapter 2 Polar Covalent Bonds; Acids and Bases Javier E. Horta, M.D., Ph.D. University of Massachusetts Lowell Polar Covalent Bonds: Electronegativity

More information

18.2 Protein Structure and Function: An Overview

18.2 Protein Structure and Function: An Overview 18.2 Protein Structure and Function: An Overview Protein: A large biological molecule made of many amino acids linked together through peptide bonds. Alpha-amino acid: Compound with an amino group bonded

More information

Functional Groups and Chemical Families

Functional Groups and Chemical Families Functional Groups and Chemical Families Although there are a wide variety of organic compounds, most of them are composed of the elements from the upper right hand portion of the periodic chart: C, H,

More information

Lab 3 Organic Molecules of Biological Importance

Lab 3 Organic Molecules of Biological Importance Name Biology 3 ID Number Lab 3 Organic Molecules of Biological Importance Section 1 - Organic Molecules Section 2 - Functional Groups Section 3 - From Building Blocks to Macromolecules Section 4 - Carbohydrates

More information

Topic: Intermolecular forces. 7. Which compound would you expect to have the lowest boiling point? A) NH 2 B) NH 2

Topic: Intermolecular forces. 7. Which compound would you expect to have the lowest boiling point? A) NH 2 B) NH 2 SS2009-08-24 MULTIPLE CICE QUESTIS Part 2: unktionella grp intermolekylära krafter (Answers on pages 17-18) Topic: Intermolecular forces 1. Which compound would you expect to have the lowest boiling point?

More information

E1. Write the structural formula of the heptane and 2,2,4-trimethylpentane molecules. EA1.

E1. Write the structural formula of the heptane and 2,2,4-trimethylpentane molecules. EA1. E1. Write the structural formula of the heptane and 2,2,4-trimethylpentane molecules. EA1. E2. What is the name of the straight-chain hydrocarbon that has same molecular formula as 2,2,4-trimethylpentane?

More information

CHAPTER 3 THE CHEMISTRY OF ORGANIC MOLECULES

CHAPTER 3 THE CHEMISTRY OF ORGANIC MOLECULES CHAPTER 3 THE CHEMISTRY OF ORGANIC MOLECULES 3.1 Organic Molecules The chemistry of carbon accounts for the diversity of organic molecules found in living things. Carbon has six electrons, four of which

More information

II cm -1. Carbon hydrogen bonds absorb here. Alkanes absorb cm-1, Akene C-H cm-1 Aromatic C-H shorter and spikey

II cm -1. Carbon hydrogen bonds absorb here. Alkanes absorb cm-1, Akene C-H cm-1 Aromatic C-H shorter and spikey How to Interpret an IR Spectrum The IR may be broken down into 5 distinct regions. I. 3100-3600cm -1. Alcohols, Carboxylic Acids, Amines and Terminal Alkynes absorb here. The shape and exact location of

More information

AP Biology Summer Assignment Chapter 2 Quiz

AP Biology Summer Assignment Chapter 2 Quiz AP Biology Summer Assignment Chapter 2 Quiz 2016-17 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which six elements provide most of the mass of the

More information

Nature s Chemistry Oxidation of Food

Nature s Chemistry Oxidation of Food Kirkcaldy High School CfE Higher Chemistry Nature s Chemistry Oxidation of Food Page 1 of 18 No. Learning Outcome Understanding? 1 Branched-chain alcohols with no more than 8 carbon atoms in the longest

More information

1.4: Carbohydrates and Lipids pg. 29 38

1.4: Carbohydrates and Lipids pg. 29 38 UNIT 1: Biochemistry 1.4: Carbohydrates and Lipids pg. 29 38 Carbohydrates Function, primary energy source for the cell, can also be a structural component of cells and organisms. Carbohydrates are the

More information

Nomenclature. IUPAC nomenclature for organic chemistry

Nomenclature. IUPAC nomenclature for organic chemistry Nomenclature IUPAC nomenclature for organic chemistry What is IUPAC nomenclature? A systematic method of naming organic chemical compounds as recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied

More information

Covalent Bonding Notes

Covalent Bonding Notes Covalent Bonding Notes Ionic vs Covalent Bonding Ionic: electron(s) leave one atom & gained by another atom to satisfy both atoms octets, this results in the formation of ions. The resulting opposite charges

More information

Biological Molecules

Biological Molecules Biological Molecules I won t lie. This is probably the most boring topic you have ever done in any science. It s pretty much as simple as this: learn the material deal with it. Enjoy don t say I didn t

More information

Assessment Schedule 2013 Chemistry: Demonstrate understanding of the properties of organic compounds (91391)

Assessment Schedule 2013 Chemistry: Demonstrate understanding of the properties of organic compounds (91391) NCEA Level 3 Chemistry (91391) 2013 page 1 of 8 Assessment Schedule 2013 Chemistry: Demonstrate understanding of the properties of organic compounds (91391) Evidence Statement Q Evidence Achievement Achievement

More information

Chapter 2 - Chemical Foundations

Chapter 2 - Chemical Foundations Chapter 2 - Chemical Foundations I. Introduction By weight, cells are about 70% water, about 1% ions, about 6% small organic molecules (including amino acids, sugars, nucleotides), and about 23% macromolecules.

More information