Energy, Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration

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1 Energy, Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration Name: Period: Date: I. ATP: Energy In A Molecule All is broken down by the body into small molecules through digestion o By the time food reaches your, it has been broken down into nutrient molecules that can enter your cells. then break down the food molecules, energy for the biological work your cells need to perform. o = the ability to do work = energy storing molecule. o Cells STORE energy by bonding a third to (adenosine diphosphate) to form. o Cells RELEASE energy when ATP breaks down into and! Energy from food ATP ENERGY released for cells ADP + Phosphate 1

2 o Within a cell, of ATP from ADP and phosphate occurs over and over, each time! o Cells use energy for: Maintaining Eliminating Transmitting (nerve cells) Cellular (muscle cells) o Without ATP a cell would! I. OVERVIEW: "THE BIG PICTURE" = the process that provides energy for almost all life. = organisms that make their own food o Ex: plants Photosynthesis requires: o The, and to make and as byproducts. The process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS can be summarized by the following equation: The energy stored in glucose and other carbohydrates can be used later to produce during the process of. 2

3 o We ll discuss cellular respiration in more detail very soon! The process of photosynthesis does happen all at once; rather it occurs in 2 stages: 1. STAGE 1 Called the. is converted to Takes place is captured from in the of the chloroplasts of plant cells. A photosynthetic cell contains one to thousands of chloroplasts! is split into hydrogen ions, electrons, and oxygen (O 2 ) through the process called the electron transport chain. The is now converted to, which is temporarily stored in (energy molecules). The diffuses out of the chloroplasts (byproduct). 2. STAGE 2 Called the or. (CO 2 ) and the chemical energy stored in and powers the formation of (sugars, starch and cellulose). Takes place in the of a chloroplast 3

4 PHOTOSYNTHESIS Flow Chart Equation: I. OVERVIEW: "THE BIG PICTURE" = an energy (ATP) releasing process: Equation: o PLANTS: sugars (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) produced during are broken down so energy is released o ANIMALS: sugars (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) produced during are broken down so energy is released o The PRODUCTS of glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) and O 2, are the REACTANTS used in. The WASTE PRODUCTS of, CO 2 and water, are the REACTANTS used in. Processes: (Citric Acid Cycle) 3. (ETC) 4

5 II. TWO TYPES OF CELLULAR RESPIRATION: 1. = OXYGEN is present If OXYGEN is PRESENT, the of glycolysis ENTER the pathways of aerobic respiration. 2 major stages: & Produces large amounts of ATP 2. = No OXYGEN is present aka. additional is created AFTER glycolysis produces 2 ATP ~ Note: Both types of respiration BEGIN with. III. AEROBIC RESPIRATION PROCESSES: 1. GLYCOLYSIS: Occurs in the of the cell Starting molecule: ONE molecule of ( ) Produces: TWO or ( ) molecules Attaches H s to NAD + (electron carrier) and forms ( ) 2. KREB S CYCLE (Citric Acid Cycle) Aerobic respiration process (requires oxygen) Occurs in the Starting molecules: and Produces:, and molecules Attaches H s to NAD + and FAD to create NADH and FADH 2 (these will be used to make more in the ) 5

6 3. ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN (ETC) Aerobic respiration process (requires oxygen) Occurs in the of the Starting molecules: and o Uses the NADH and FADH 2 from the and another NADH from. Produces: and o FADH 2 and NADH, release H s so they can attach to and produce o Energy is released as a result of breaking down these molecules. Importance of Aerobic Respiration: To transfer chemical energy ( ) to a form of energy that is by cells ( )!!! Total net gain of ATP molecules per 1 glucose = Relationship of Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration: The of one reaction are the for the other reaction. Sunlight In an, photosynthesis and cellular respiration form a cycle. Photosynthesis (autotrophs) CO 2 + H 2 O O 2 + Glucose Cellular Respiration (heterotrophs) 6

7 IV. ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION PROCESSES: Occurs glycolysis, only if oxygen is present additional is created after the 2ATP s from glycolysis! 2 Types: 1. : Occurs in Starting molecules: and (from glycolysis) Produces: and. Bakers use alcoholic fermentation of to make bread. Used to make wine and beer 2. : Occurs in Starting molecules: and (from glycolysis) Produces: Lactic acid fermentation by microorganisms plays an essential role in the manufacturing of food products such as and. DURING EXERCISE: breathing provide your body with all the oxygen it needs for aerobic respiration. o When muscles run out of, the cells switch to! o Provides your with the energy then need during exercise. o Side effects of lactic acid fermentation are,,, and. o Most lactic acid made in the muscles diffuses into the bloodstream, then to the liver; where it is converted back to PYRUVIC ACID when oxygen becomes available. 7

8 CELLULAR RESPIRATION flow chart: AEROBIC Respiration ( ) Equation: ANAEROBIC Respiration ( ) OR 8

9 Photosynthesis: Compare & Contrast Name: Period: Date: Characteristics: Light Reaction Types of Reactions: Dark Reaction (Calvin Cycle) Light (Is it needed?) Location (Where does it take place?) Sources (What is needed?) Products (What is made?) Role of Energy (What is energy used for?) QUESTIONS: 1. Write the complete chemical equation of photosynthesis? 2. How do these reactions depend on one another to carry out photosynthesis? 3. If the light reactions stopped, what would happen? How would this affect you? 4. If the dark reactions stopped, what would happen? How would this affect you? 9

10 Energy: Energy from food ATP ENERGY released for cells ADP + Phosphate 1. What is energy? 2. What is one difference between ATP and ADP? 3. How do cells store energy? 4. How do cells release energy? 5. Provide several examples of how cells use energy? 10

11 Cellular Respiration Worksheet 1) TRUE or FALSE: Cellular respiration helps us to breath. 2) What is the importance of cellular respiration? 3) What is the difference between aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration? Be specific. 4) Write the equation for aerobic cellular respiration below. 5) Describe the energy transformation that takes place during cellular respiration. 6) What are the 3 processes of aerobic cellular respiration? a. b. c. 7) Where in the cell does glycolysis take place? 8) Where in the cell does the Kreb s Cycle take place? 9) Where in the cell does the ETC take place? 10) What molecule starts glycolysis? a. Where do plants get this molecule from? b. Where do animals get this molecule from? 11) What are the products of glycolysis? a. b. c. 11

12 12) What molecules are needed to start the Kreb s Cycle? a. b. 13) What are the products of the Kreb s Cycle? a. b. c. 14) What molecules are needed to start the ETC? a. b. c. 15) What are the products of the ETC? a. b. 16) At the end of aerobic cellular respiration, how many ATP s were produced from one glucose molecule? 17) How are the chemical equations of photosynthesis and aerobic cellular respiration related? 18) What type of organism(s) would be able to complete photosynthesis? 19) What type of organism(s) would be able to complete aerobic respiration? 20) What are the two types of anaerobic respiration (fermentation)? What type of organisms can go through each type? a. b. 21) What are the starting molecules for EACH type of fermentation? a. b. 22) What is the product of lactic acid fermentation? 23) What are the products of alcoholic fermentation? & 12

13 Cellular Respiration Begins with Produces a net gain of Which is broken down during Which occurs in the Which produces Will be used in the NO oxygen is present Oxygen is present so it can be used in Such as Anaerobic Process Such as Aerobic Process Which occurs only in Which occurs only in Animals Which produces Which produces 1 13

14 Aerobic Process O 2 Starting with the Which occurs in the Which produces NADH & FADH 2 Is used in the ETC Which occurs in the Which produces AEROBIC RESPIRATION: C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6H 2 O + 6CO ATP 2 14

15 Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration Review Worksheet Name: Period: Vocabulary: Match the phrases on the left with the term that best fits. Use answers only one time. 1. Organisms that make their own food 2. Site of photosynthesis 3. Process occurs in a mitochondrion 4. C 6 H 12 O 6 5. Process does not require oxygen 6. Process requires oxygen 7. Adenosine diphosphate 8. Energy storing molecule 9. The anaerobic process of splitting glucose and forming two molecules of pyruvic acid 10. The ability to do work A. Chloroplasts B. Anaerobic C. Aerobic D. Glucose E. ATP F. Kreb s cycle G. Glycolysis H. Energy I. ADP J. Autotrophs Directions: Answer each of the following questions in a clear and concise manner. 1. Compare and discuss how cells store energy and release energy using ATP. Be specific! You may draw the cycle. 2. Compare lactic acid fermentation and alcoholic fermentation by describing what pyruvic acid is changed in to. Be sure to include what type of organism each one takes place in. What is pyruvic acid changed into? Organism: Alcoholic Fermentation Lactic Acid Fermentation 15

16 3. Name the three processes of aerobic cellular respiration. How many ATP s does each process produce, and what is the total ATP produced from one glucose? 3 Processes of Cellular Respiration: # ATP produced: Total ATP per 1 glucose = 4. Name the two stages of photosynthesis and list the starting molecule(s) and ending molecule(s) of each. Stages Starting Molecule(s) Product(s) 5. What is the general chemical equation of photosynthesis? 6. When and why does our body use lactic acid fermentation? 7. Explain how the equations for photosynthesis and aerobic respiration compare. 16

17 Unit Learning Map (8 days) -Photosynthesis & Respiration Mrs. Hostetter Class: Biology B: PA standard: : Describe and explain the chemical and structural basis of living organism. Explain cell functions and processes in terms of chemical reactions and energy changes. Unit Essential Question(s): How is energy transmitted through the environment? Optional Instructional Tools: Photosynthesis spinach Lab Respiration mapping Exercise Lab Pictorial activity Concept Concept Concept Concept ATP Photosynthesis Respiration Fermentation Lesson Essential Questions: Lesson Essential Questions: Lesson Essential Questions: Lesson Essential Questions: How is energy transferred on a cellular level? How do the light & dark reactions depend upon one another? How do organisms generate energy? How do organisms generate energy when oxygen is not present? Vocabulary: Vocabulary: Vocabulary: Vocabulary: Energy ATP ADP Photosynthesis Autotroph Chlorophyll Light Reactions Dark Reactions Stroma Glycolysis Aerobic Pyruvic Acid Kreb Cycle Citric Acid ETC NADH FADH Anaerobic Alcoholic Fermentation Lactic Acid Fermentation 17

18 Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration Vocabulary: 1) Energy = the ability to do work 2) ATP = (adenosine triphosphate); energy storing molecule 3) ADP = adenosine diphosphate 4) Photosynthesis = the process that provides energy for almost all life 5) Autotroph = organisms that make their own food (plants) 6) Heterotroph = organisms that DO NO make their own food (animals) 7) Chlorophyll = green pigment in chloroplasts that traps sunlight 8) Light Reactions = Light energy is converted to chemical energy; Energy is captured from sunlight in the chlorophyll of the chloroplasts of plant cells. 9) Dark Reactions = (Calvin Cycle); Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and the chemical energy stored in ATP and NADPH powers the formation of carbohydrate molecules (sugars, starch and cellulose) 10) Stroma = specific location on a chloroplast where the dark reactions occur 11) Glycolysis = Occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell Starting molecule: ONE molecule of glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) Produces: TWO pyruvic acids or pyruvates (C 3 H 6 O 3 ); 2 ATP molecules Attaches H s to NAD + (electron carrier) and forms NADH (high energy molecule) 12) Aerobic = requires oxygen 13) Pyruvic Acid = (pyruvate) C 3 H 6 O 3 14) Kreb Cycle = also called the citric acid cycle Aerobic process (requires oxygen) Occurs in the mitochondrial matrix Starting molecules: 2 pyruvates and oxygen Produces: NADH and FADH 2, CO 2 and 2 ATP molecules 15) ETC = Electron Transport Chain Aerobic process (requires oxygen) Occurs in the inner membrane folds of the mitochondria Starting molecules: NADH and FADH 2 and oxygen o Uses the NADH and FADH 2 from the Kreb s Cycle and another NADH from Glycolysis. Produces: Water and 32 ATP s o FADH 2 and NADH, release H s so they can attach to oxygen and produce water 16) NADH & FADH = high energy molecules 17) Anaerobic = no oxygen present 18) Alcoholic Fermentation = Occurs in plants Starting molecules: 2 pyruvates and NADH (from glycolysis) Produces: ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide. Bakers use alcoholic fermentation of YEAST to make bread. Used to make wine and beer 19) Lactic Acid Fermentation = Occurs in animals Starting molecules: 2 pyruvates and NADH (from glycolysis) Produces: lactic acid Lactic acid fermentation by microorganisms plays an essential role in the manufacturing of food products such as yogurt and cheese. 18

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