Biofuel Feedstocks and Production

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1 Lecture Five Cellulose, Hemicellulose and Lignin Biological and Ecological Engineering Department

2 Summary of Lecture Four Synthesis of starch in plants. Amylose and amylopectin. Crystalline and amorphous regions in starch granules. Enzymatic hydrolysis is dependent on the composition of starch.

3 Cellulosic Feedstocks What are the main constituents of lignocellulosic feedstocks? Cellulose: Homopolymer of glucose consisting of β(1 4) bonds. It differs from another polymer of glucose, starch that consists of α(1 4) bonds Hemicellulose: Heteropolymer of pentoses (xylose and arabinose) and hexoses (glucose, galactose, mannose) and sugar acids (acetic). Hardwood hemicelluloses are xylans whereas softwood consists of glucomannans Lignin: A racemic, heteropolymer consisting of three hydroxycinnamyl alcohol monomers differing in their degree of methoxylation: p-coumaryl, coniferyl and sinapyl alcohols Ref: and GMIS, Oak Ridge National Laboratory

4 Percent mass Cellulosic Feedstocks Cellulose Hemicellulose Lignin Corn kernel Corn fiber Corn cob Corn stover Wheat straw Switch grass Sugarcane Bagasse Tall Fescue Hybrid Poplar Ref:

5 Plant Cells Plant cell wall structure Ref:

6 Plant Cells Ref:

7 Plant Cell Model A simplified model of plant cell wall Ref:

8 Cellulose Cellulose: Homopolymer of glucose consisting of β(1 4) bonds. It differs from another polymer of glucose, starch that consists of α(1 4) bonds. Callose is another polymer of glucose β(1 3) bonds Each glucose unit is rotated by approximately 180. Ref:

9 Cellulosic Synthesis Cellulose synthase complexes are involved in cellulose microfibril synthesis. These complexes called terminal complexes (TC) are arranged in different patterns in the cell membrane. Linear TC in Oocystis apiculata Ref: Rosette TC in Zea mays

10 Cellulosic Synthesis Cellulose synthase complexes are involved in cellulose microfibril synthesis. These complexes called terminal complexes (TC) are arranged in different patterns in the cell membrane. Ref: Delmer Rosette TC in Zinnia elegans

11 Cellulose Synthesis Model for microfibril formation with 36 glucan chains (elementary fibril) with each rosette subunit forming a sheet of 6 glucan chains. DP of the chains varies from Ref: Brown, 2003.

12 Cellulose Allomorphs Cellulose: There are six polymorphs of cellulose. Cellulose I occurs naturally while the polymorphs are formed by physical treatments. Cellulose II is thermodynamically most stable form. Allomorphs are identified by X-ray or electron diffraction. Cellulose I NH 3 (l) - NH 3 (g) Cellulose III I Heat Regeneration Mercerization Cellulose II NH 3 (l) - NH 3 (g) Cellulose III II Heat Cellulose IV 1 Ref: O Sullivan (1997) Cellulose IV II

13 Cellulose Allomorphs

14 Cellulose Allomorphs Cellulose I Cellulose II

15 Cellulose Development of tomato

16 Cellulose Hemicellulose Cellulose xyloglucan network

17 Thank you

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