New Energy Solutions from Biosciences: Research Activities at the Energy Biosciences Institute

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1 New Energy Solutions from Biosciences: Research Activities at the Energy Biosciences Institute BioRefine Annual Seminar November 2, 2011 Dr. Susan Jenkins, Managing Director

2 The Energy Bioscience Institute Partnership between UCB, UIUC, LBNL, and BP BP has committed $500M over 10 years Motivations Climate change mitigation Security of energy supply Increasing energy demands in future decades Renewable Fuel Standard (Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007) 16 billion gallons/year by 2022 from cellulosics Mission Apply biological knowledge to the energy sector Find total system solutions to biofuels that are cost effective and sustainable Educate scientists and engineers across the relevant disciplines 2

3 EBI Funding 3

4 Critical Design Factors Single organization doing open and proprietary work Open work in fundamental Energy Biosciences Best academic tradition Need faculty help in inventing the field A window for BP on worldwide Energy Biosciences Co-locate some BP researchers Live in and understand the open research community, but knowledgeable about BP s needs, goals Enhance industry connection to help motivate/guide open research Potential to demonstrate at scale A substantial and long-term commitment to engage quality researchers ($500m over 10 years)

5 Value for BP Access to 400+ academic researchers (full time) and ~120 faculty (part time) without responsibility of ~520 additional employees Ongoing access to state of the art laboratory and agricultural facilities at no additional capital cost First right to inventions Early insight into future developments strategies for corporate planning potentially more valuable than widgets

6 Challenges Negative public perception of an energy company funding university research Acceptance of the EBI within BP (business units have different priorities) Keeping the academic research agenda independent from BP s short-term goals Working between corporate and academic cultures (quarterly vs. annual goals) Establishing and maintaining trust and open communication between academic researchers and corporate researchers

7 Summary of IP & Licensing Terms All inventions made by UCB, UIUC or LBNL researches are owned by the academic partner Inventions made by academic and BP researchers together are jointly owned BP automatically gets a non-exclusive royalty-free license on all inventions BP can opt for an exclusive license and pay a capped royalty fee of $100K/year BP and academic partners will re-negotiate royalty fees blockbuster patents

8 Strategic Initiatives for Research Lignocellulosic biofuels Feedstocks Deconstruction/Depolymerization Biofuels production Environmental, social and economic dimensions Fossil fuel microbiology Microbially-enhanced hydrocarbon recovery Control of biosouring

9 Research progress years 1-4 Research disclosures 382 journal publications 300 meeting abstracts 400 presentations or posters 60 invention disclosures >20 patents filed/pending several exclusive licenses

10 Whole-system approach to biofuels Environmental, Social & Economic Dimensions Life-cycle assessment Land use Markets and networks Social impacts Environmental issues Biology & Chemistry Biomass pretreatment Enzyme discovery Chemical catalysis Systems biology Pathway engineering Support Services Analytical Chemistry Energy Farm Research & Analysis Lab Support Intellectual Property Agronomy & Agriculture Feedstock production Genetics & breeding Harvest, transport, storage Pests & pathogens Environmental factors

11 New models, organisms, processes, materials and patents Feedstocks Predictive models for biomass production/yields critical starting point Assessments of available land worldwide Mutant plants with 30-35% increased glucose yield (patent filed) Depolymerization Developed process for lignin depolymerization with nickel catalysts (patent filed) Fuels synthesis Engineered yeast capable of simultaneous utilization of cellobiose and xylose (patent filed) ABE fermentation and catalytic routes to fuels (patent filed) Fuel separation Block copolymer membranes for alcohol/water separation (patent filed)

12 BP s first cellulosic ethanol refinery Vercipia HQ, Tampa Highlands Energy cane plots in Florida Highlands County 36 million gallons per year from high-yielding energy grasses

13 Breakdown of Capital Costs for Biorefinery Source: Paul Willems from NREL design, May 2011

14 Batch processes have many inefficiencies Unused capital Unused capital Sugar concentration Catalyst Loss Wastewater Boiler Catalyst Loss Wastewater Boiler Fuel accumulation Time

15 Depolymerization of Lignin All of these C-O bonds can be cleaved by Ni-NHC complexes. Milder conditions than used with heterogeneous catalysts. Relative rates: Ar-OAr > RO-Bn > ArOR The important bonds to cleave are most reactive toward Ni-NHC A G Sergeev, J F Hartwig Science 2011;332:

16 Industrial yeast do not utilize xylose or cellobiose Second unit process Cellulases and ß-glucosidase

17 Neurospora is an excellent model for lignocellulose degrading fungi Papers on PubMed Full genome sequence Mutation in almost every gene Grows rapidly on cellulosic biomass Model genetic organism easily manipulated Closely related to fungi of industrial importance

18 Cellobiose and xylose can be co-utilized Ha et al PNAS (2)

19 Simultaneous fermentation of pentose and hexose sugars Ha et al PNAS (2)

20 Hypothetical alternative scenario Biomass grinding Lignin removal Enzymatic digestion Enzyme recovery Fermentation Solvent recovery Enzyme production Fuel separation and volume adjustment Fuel use Lignin use Waste management

21 Implications Reduced capital costs because only one unit process required and rate of throughput increased Simultaneous sugar utilization may allow development of continuous process Enzyme costs reduced substantially by eliminating need for -glucosidase

22 Concluding comments There are not technical barriers to production but there are many opportunities to fundamentally improve the production and diversification of biofuels Engineering and finance are the rate limiting step

23 Thank you energybiosciencesinstitute.org

24 Ethanol Production Flowchart Cellulosic Process Corn Process Sugar Cane Process Sugar Cane Sugar Fermentation Distillation Drying Ethanol Corn Kernels Starch Conversion Co-Product Recovery Cellulose Cellulose Pretreatment Cellulose Conversion Miscanthus Corn stover Switchgrass Wood chips Ag residues Forest residues MSW Sugar cane bagasse Heat and Power Fuels and Chemicals Source: Adapted from B. Dale

25 Future of Biorenewables Considerations US perspective Renewable fuel mandates (federal and state level) Tax incentives, loan programs, federal research funds EBI technology perspective Improvement in key steps in the process Cost per gallon near target range for competitiveness BP business perspective (energy companies will be key!) Pilot plant in Florida using energy cane Large investments in Brazilian sugarcane Multiple market opportunities Biomass to power Biomass to commodity chemicals and high-value co-products 25

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