Sustainable production of biogas and bioethanol from waste

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1 Sustainable production of biogas and bioethanol from waste Waste - Resources on the wrong way Jens Ejbye Schmidt Head of programme NRG Biomass & Bioenergy Biosystem Division Risø The Technical University of Denmark

2 NRG-programme main competences 2 Risø DTU, Danmarks Tekniske Universitet

3 A step forward to fulfill the goal of sustainable development in the world is. to replace fossil fuel with renewable fuels and CO 2 neutral energy to replace fossil fuel with biomass based production of chemicals and materials 3 Risø DTU, Danmarks Tekniske Universitet

4 Biogas Definition: Biogas, which mainly consists of CH 4 and CO 2, is produced during anaerobic degradation (no oxygen present) of organic matter Using the energy content in the manure Recirculation of nutrients back on agricultural land 4 Risø DTU, Danmarks Tekniske Universitet

5 The average biogas plant Prestorage tanks Animal manure Organic waste: slaughterhouses, fish-processing, breweries, medical industies, food processing etc. (Mixing) Biogas Digestion (Sanitation) Storage tanks 5 Risø DTU, Danmarks Tekniske Universitet

6 Outputs from the biogas plant 6 Risø DTU, Danmarks Tekniske Universitet

7 Biogas rests on tree legs Biogas Energy Agriculture Environment 7 Risø DTU, Danmarks Tekniske Universitet

8 Economic conditions - Denmark Approx 9 US$ per tons of manure treated Guarantee prize of 1,2 US $ pr. kwh 0,3 US $ per m 3 biogas to heat and power plant Prize of plant approx. 3,5 5,5 mill US $ 30 m 3 biogas/m 3 of manure - the double when codigestion 1 Nm 3 of methane thus corresponds to 1.10 litre of petrol (biogas approx. 65% methane) 1 m 3 biogas contain 60 80% of the energy natural gas contains Manure potential: 40 mill tons = 300 plants at the average biogas plant (7600 M3).This can cover 20% of transport energy consumption, 14% of the electricity production or 19% of heat and power production. 8 Risø DTU, Danmarks Tekniske Universitet 8 Præsentationens titel 13- aug-

9 Bioethanol A: C2H5OH is the chemical formula for a compound known as alcohol. B: Bioethanol is made by fermenting sugar components of biomass under anaerobic conditions C: Bioethanol can be used as a fuel for cars in its pure form, or as a gasoline additive. Risø DTU, Technical University of Denmark

10 Bioethanol feedstocks Crops (Competing with food) Substrates: Corn, Grain, Sugarcane 1.st generation technology-mature Lignocellulose (Agricultural residues, forestry wastes.. - not used as food source) Substrates: Stover, Straw, Wood 2.nd generation technology-under development Risø DTU, Technical University of Denmark

11 The composition of lignocellulosic biomass Branched polymer of aromatic compounds Branched polymer of different sugars (Xylose, mannose, glucose, galactose, arabinose) Polymer of glucose Risø DTU, Technical University of Denmark Lignocellulose model showing lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose SOURCE: USDA Agricultural Research Service

12 Co-production of bioethanol animal fodder and electricity Inbicon/DONG/Risø concept 12 Risø DTU, Danmarks Tekniske Universitet

13 13 Risø DTU, Danmarks Tekniske Universitet

14 Anaerobic digestion as Waste eater 14 Risø DTU, Danmarks Tekniske Universitet

15 Conclusions Waste is not waste but a important resource in the modern society It is possible to produce of biogas and bioethanol from this resource in a sustainable way these technologies are waste eaters Used for treatment of agricultural wastes, organic industrial wastes, sewage sludge and the organic fraction of house hold waste Production of biogas and/or bioethanol in addition to fodder and fertilizer in the future also other compounds Important in relation to fulfilling EU s goal for use of renewable energy and reduction in CO 2 emissions 15 Risø DTU, Danmarks Tekniske Universitet

16 16 Risø DTU, Danmarks Tekniske Universitet

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