Head Loss in Pipe Flow ME 123: Mechanical Engineering Laboratory II: Fluids


 Della Edwards
 2 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 Head Loss in Pipe Flow ME 123: Mechanical Engineering Laboratory II: Fluids Dr. J. M. Meyers Dr. D. G. Fletcher Dr. Y. Dubief
2 1. Introduction Last lab you investigated flow loss in a pipe due to the roughness of the pipe s walls. Losses will also occur with the introduction of various components in fittings within the pipe system. The losses due to these fittings are strongly dependent on geometry, coupling methods between elements, and internal roughness. These loses are classified as minor losses but when enough components are added to a pipe system appreciable flow loss can be encountered. When designing a flow system where the knowledge of flow rates is important it is imperative that the design of said system includes an analysis of all potential loss mechanisms. In this lab you will learn how to determine the loss, which is normally called the head loss, of various components in the same pipe flow facility you used in the last lab. Unlike losses caused by friction, minor losses can be assumed independent of Reynold s number in turbulent flows (see Chapter 6 of White, Fluid Mechanics). Lab Objectives: Experimentally understand head loss analysis To understand how various tube fittings impact pipe flow loss Understand how head loss can be used to meter flow rates 2. Experimental Arrangement The pipe flow facility (Figure 1) has been modified to accommodate the 90 turns of the tube fittings. Recall the straight tube section has an internal diameter of 80 mm and is fitted with 11 access ports that provide an entry for Pitot measurements or can be fitted with a static pressure tap. Locations each tap and Pitot port is listed in Table 1. Bear in mind that the distance values beyond will change once a fitting is installed. A blower on the left side of the facility pulls air through the tube (flow is from right to left). A manometer is attached to the facility and is used to monitor atmospheric, Pitot, and static pressure levels. Note that the manometer bank can be tilted to increase pressure sensitivity, which can be useful for the Pitot pressure surveys. For these measurements the tilted angle influences the dynamic pressure as: 2 = h h cos (1) where is the density of air, h is the height of the manometer for the Pitot measurement, h is the height of the manometer for the static pressure measurement at the Pitot survey location, and is the manometer bank angle w.r.t. vertical. The manometer working fluid is a kerosene base with density of =787 kg/m 3. Be sure to write (in your own words!) a concise, yet sufficiently detailed, explanation of how the different components of the experiment work as this information will be used to describe your experiment in your report.
3 Figure 1: Pipe experiment Table 1: Locations of Pitot and static pressure tap stations 3. Measurements Each group will get about 20 to 30 minutes to perform measurements and afterward, if time allows after, groups needing/wanting more time may continue with measurements. The lab is always available outside of scheduled lab times if sufficient measurements cannot be performed in the allotted time. Refer to last lab handout (Turbulent Velocity Profile Development in a Pipe) for details on resolving Pitot measurements into velocities. For each measurement record your respective error in a column/space just to the right as ±. 3.1 Inlet Velocity Profile You are required to take a velocity profile at the inlet of the tube. This is required to determine your average velocity of the flow. Measure,, and at each measurement point with the Pitot probe (see Figure 2) just like last lab. Measure first these values at the centerline ( = 38.5 mm). Move the Pitot probe to the bottom surface ( = 0 mm) and measure again. Move up in 2.5 mm increments until you see a constant profile which should only be a few steps (give or take). At this point assume the velocity is constant and move to the next step of measurements.
4 Figure 2: Translating Pitot probe mm radius Elbow Losses A flanged 80 mm inside diameter 90 elbow (Figure 3) is to be inserted between station 6 and 7. Static pressure will be recorded upstream and downstream of this fitting. The bulk velocity acquired from your inlet velocity profile survey will be used as your average velocity,. With the pressure drop and average velocity value you will determine the head loss, h, and resistance coefficient,, for this fitting from Equations 5 and 6. For this measurement, you only need to take the static pressure before and after. Figure mm radius 90 bend 3.3 Mitered Elbow with Turning Vanes Remove the 200 mm elbow between stations 6 and 7 and replace with the mitered elbow (Figure 4). Static pressure will be recorded upstream and downstream of this fitting. The bulk velocity acquired from your inlet velocity profile survey will be used as your average velocity,. Again, with the pressure drop and average velocity value you will determine the head loss, h, and the resistance coefficient,, for this fitting from Equations 5 and 6.
5 Figure 4: 90 mitered elbow with turning vanes 3.4 Orifice Plate Restriction Meter The pipe flow orifice is one of a family of restriction meters which uses a pressure drop to measure flow rate. Remove the elbow and place the orifice between Station 6 and Station 7. Measure the pressure just upstream and downstream of this insert. Recall that ultimately this is a device to determine mass flow from pressure drop measurements. But this requires a calibration that quantifies the degree of deviation from the ideal Bernoulli equation. This deviation is defined as and is commonly called the discharge coefficient and is discussed more in Section 4.5. Figure 5: Orifice restriction meter insert.
6 4. Reduction of Data 4.1 Bulk Velocity The bulk (average) velocity,, is the average pipe velocity that may be calculated based on a Pitottube inlet traverse and a ring wall static pressure reading at the pipe inlet accounting for the small boundary layer at the inlet station through the following relation: = 2!!! (2) Since the cross section area of the tube is constant, it follows that the average velocities are constant as well ( # = =). 4.2 Reynold s Number Reynold s number based on tube diameter, $, can be calculated using the average velocity through: Re ' = $ ( (7) Can you determine if the flow is laminar or turbulent? 4.3 Head Loss The energy equation, as derived/illustrated in class, between two cross sections of the pipe, can be written as: ) # * +, # # 2* + #. ) * +, 2* +.=h (3) Where,, and  are the pressure bulk/average velocity, and height respectively. The fluid density is and the magnitude of gravity is *. This gives a relation to determine the head loss, h, between sections 1 and 2. Keep in mind that head loss has units of length. With these simplifications it can be shown that the pressure drop measured between any two stations is equivalent to the head loss between them: # = =*h (4) 4.4 Head Loss Across a Fitting In class we defined a loss coefficient term,. This term can is related to the head loss through:
7 with: h = 2* (5) = 1 2 (6) The pressure difference = hcos * is taken between the pressure taps immediately upstream and downstream of the fitting. The density of air and manometer kerosene are denoted as and, respectively. The angle of the manometer bank with respect to the vertical is denoted as. 4.5 Restriction Meter Flow Rate Correction Factor The flow rate obtained by the modified Bernoulli equation for an orifice with flanged taps (to be derived in the report) is: 0=1 = where 0 is the volume flow rate, is the bulk velocity, is the variation of pressure across the orifice, is the density of the fluid, and 4 is the ratio of orifice diameter to pipe diameter. The orifice plate (see Figure 5) has a diameter of 50 mm and is also to be placed between stations 6 and 7 at ~1404 mm downstream from the inlet nozzle. The volume flow rate is to be determined from the bulk velocity flow and area cross section of the tube. Determine the discharge coefficient,, of the orifice with the above relation. Once the discharge coefficient is known, the expression in Equation 5 can be used to determine mass flow through a simple measurement of pressure drop using: 67 =0 (9) (8)
8 5. Analysis and Discussion for Report You are required to discuss the results based on the literature (compare with existing plots!!). You are also required to show all uncertainties. Show your measured entrance velocity profile and determine the average velocity for your head loss measurements. Determine tube diameterbased Reynolds number comment on whether the flow is laminar or turbulent. Your study of head loss for of the two bends and they should show uncertainties with nominal values compared to that of the literature. Perform a discharge coefficient analysis for the orifice. Calculate the mass flow through the orifice which ultimately gives you the constant mass flow through the tube. What is the sensitivity of this device? In other words, when you change mass flow by a certain amount, is there enough resolution in your pressure measurements to resolve this mass flow? Develop a velocity uncertainty equation derived from all measured parameters for both methods. Recall the general expression for uncertainty as explained in your notes: 8 9 =38 :; < =? +8 => < =? +8 # => :A < =? + +8 => :D < =? B => E (10) Determine which measured values affect the precision of your measurements the most (and least) using a measured parameter sensitivity analysis (described in Lecture 1).
FLUID FLOW Introduction General Description
FLUID FLOW Introduction Fluid flow is an important part of many processes, including transporting materials from one point to another, mixing of materials, and chemical reactions. In this experiment, you
More informationE 490 Fundamentals of Engineering Review. Fluid Mechanics. M. A. Boles, PhD. Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
E 490 Fundamentals of Engineering Review Fluid Mechanics By M. A. Boles, PhD Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering North Carolina State University Archimedes Principle and Buoyancy 1. A block
More informationExperiment 3 Pipe Friction
EML 316L Experiment 3 Pipe Friction Laboratory Manual Mechanical and Materials Engineering Department College of Engineering FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY Nomenclature Symbol Description Unit A crosssectional
More informationModule 2 : Convection. Lecture 20a : Illustrative examples
Module 2 : Convection Lecture 20a : Illustrative examples Objectives In this class: Examples will be taken where the concepts discussed for heat transfer for tubular geometries in earlier classes will
More informationExperiment # 3: Pipe Flow
ME 05 Mechanical Engineering Lab Page ME 05 Mechanical Engineering Laboratory Spring Quarter 00 Experiment # 3: Pipe Flow Objectives: a) Calibrate a pressure transducer and two different flowmeters (paddlewheel
More informationLift and Drag on an Airfoil ME 123: Mechanical Engineering Laboratory II: Fluids
Lift and Drag on an Airfoil ME 123: Mechanical Engineering Laboratory II: Fluids Dr. J. M. Meyers Dr. D. G. Fletcher Dr. Y. Dubief 1. Introduction In this lab the characteristics of airfoil lift, drag,
More information4.What is the appropriate dimensionless parameter to use in comparing flow types? YOUR ANSWER: The Reynolds Number, Re.
CHAPTER 08 1. What is most likely to be the main driving force in pipe flow? A. Gravity B. A pressure gradient C. Vacuum 2.What is a general description of the flow rate in laminar flow? A. Small B. Large
More informationUNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA DULUTH DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING ChE MEASUREMENTS WITH FLOW METERS
UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA DULUTH DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING ChE 32114211 MEASUREMENTS WITH FLOW METERS OBJECTIVE The purpose of this experiment is to calculate the coefficient of discharge from
More informationFIGURE P8 50E FIGURE P8 62. Minor Losses
8 48 Glycerin at 40 C with r 1252 kg/m 3 and m 0.27 kg/m s is flowing through a 4cmdiameter horizontal smooth pipe with an average velocity of 3.5 m/s. Determine the pressure drop per 10 m of the pipe.
More informationFluid Mechanics Definitions
Definitions 91a1 Fluids Substances in either the liquid or gas phase Cannot support shear Density Mass per unit volume Specific Volume Specific Weight % " = lim g#m ( ' * = +g #V $0& #V ) Specific Gravity
More informationChapter 10. Flow Rate. Flow Rate. Flow Measurements. The velocity of the flow is described at any
Chapter 10 Flow Measurements Material from Theory and Design for Mechanical Measurements; Figliola, Third Edition Flow Rate Flow rate can be expressed in terms of volume flow rate (volume/time) or mass
More informationMichael Montgomery Marketing Product Manager Rosemount Inc. Russ Evans Manager of Engineering and Design Rosemount Inc.
ASGMT / Averaging Pitot Tube Flow Measurement Michael Montgomery Marketing Product Manager Rosemount Inc. Russ Evans Manager of Engineering and Design Rosemount Inc. Averaging Pitot Tube Meters Introduction
More informationFigure 1. Head losses in a pipe
53:071 Principles of Hydraulics Laboratory Experiment #1 ENERGY AND HYDRAULIC GRADE LINES IN WATER PIPE SYSTEMS Principle The energy of a real fluid decreases as it moves through a pipe. The energy budget
More informationAir Flow Measurements
MEEM 30 ENERGY LABORATORY Air Flow Measurements Pitot Static Tube A slender tube aligned with the flow can measure local velocity by means of pressure differences. It has sidewall holes to measure the
More informationApplied Fluid Mechanics
Applied Fluid Mechanics 1. The Nature of Fluid and the Study of Fluid Mechanics 2. Viscosity of Fluid 3. Pressure Measurement 4. Forces Due to Static Fluid 5. Buoyancy and Stability 6. Flow of Fluid and
More informationmeasurement, but almost any pipe elbow can be calibrated Elbow meters are not as potentially accurate as venturi,
Lecture 14 Flow Measurement in Pipes I. Elbow Meters An elbow in a pipe can be used as a flow measuring device much in the same way as a venturi or orifice plate The head differential across the elbow
More informationCHE 253M Experiment No. 3 LIQUID FLOW MEASUREMENT
Rev 8/15 AW/GW CHE 253M Experiment No. 3 LIQUID FLOW MEASUREMENT The objective of this experiment is to familiarize the student with several types of flowmeasuring devices commonly used in the laboratory
More informationOutdated Publication, for historical use. CAUTION: Recommendations in this publication may be obsolete.
IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT S E R I E S Irrigation Water Measurement Danny H. Rogers Extension Agricultural Engineer Richard D. Black Extension Agricultural Engineers Cooperative Extension Service Kansas State
More informationApplied Fluid Mechanics
Applied Fluid Mechanics Sixth Edition Robert L. Mott University of Dayton PEARSON Prentkv Pearson Education International CHAPTER 1 THE NATURE OF FLUIDS AND THE STUDY OF FLUID MECHANICS 1.1 The Big Picture
More informationPressure drop in pipes...
Pressure drop in pipes... PRESSURE DROP CALCULATIONS Pressure drop or head loss, occurs in all piping systems because of elevation changes, turbulence caused by abrupt changes in direction, and friction
More informationTesting Protocol for Differential Pressure Measurement Devices API MPMS Chapter 22.2
Testing Protocol for Differential Pressure Measurement Devices API MPMS Chapter 22.2 Steve Baldwin Chevron Energy Technology Company Houston, Texas USA Casey Hodges CEESI Measurement Solutions. Nunn, Colorado
More informationThese slides contain some notes, thoughts about what to study, and some practice problems. The answers to the problems are given in the last slide.
Fluid Mechanics FE Review Carrie (CJ) McClelland, P.E. cmcclell@mines.edu Fluid Mechanics FE Review These slides contain some notes, thoughts about what to study, and some practice problems. The answers
More informationA Review of the Revisions to API 14.3 / AGA 3 Part 2
A Review of the Revisions to API 14.3 / AGA 3 Part 2 Tom Cathey Wedge Measurement & Control, Inc. 1415 Louisiana Suite 1500, Houston Texas 77056 Introduction In April of 2000, revisions to the specification
More informationCHME 302 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING LABOATORYI EXPERIMENT 3021 FLOW MEASUREMENT TEST
CHME 302 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING LABOATORYI EXPERIMENT 3021 FLOW MEASUREMENT TEST OBJECTIVE The purpose of the experiment is to demonstrate the working principles of four most common devices used to measure
More informationFluid Flow Instrumentation
Fluid Flow Instrumentation In the physical world, mechanical engineers are frequently required to monitor or control the flow of various fluids through pipes, ducts and assorted vessels. This fluid can
More informationApplied Fluid Mechanics
Applied Fluid Mechanics 1. The Nature of Fluid and the Study of Fluid Mechanics 2. Viscosity of Fluid 3. Pressure Measurement 4. Forces Due to Static Fluid 5. Buoyancy and Stability 6. Flow of Fluid and
More informationFluid Mechanics Prof. T. I. Eldho Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay. Lecture No. # 36 Pipe Flow Systems
Fluid Mechanics Prof. T. I. Eldho Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay Lecture No. # 36 Pipe Flow Systems Welcome back to the video course on Fluid Mechanics. In today
More informationHydraulic losses in pipes
Hydraulic losses in pipes Henryk Kudela Contents 1 Viscous flows in pipes 1 1.1 Moody Chart.................................... 2 1.2 Types of Fluid Flow Problems........................... 5 1.3 Minor
More informationCE 6303 MECHANICS OF FLUIDS L T P C QUESTION BANK PART  A
CE 6303 MECHANICS OF FLUIDS L T P C QUESTION BANK 3 0 0 3 UNIT I FLUID PROPERTIES AND FLUID STATICS PART  A 1. Define fluid and fluid mechanics. 2. Define real and ideal fluids. 3. Define mass density
More informationFlow Measurement Options for Pipeline and Open Channel Flow
Flow Measurement Options for Pipeline and Open Channel Flow October 2013 Presented by Molly Skorpik  2013 Montana Association of Dam and Canal Systems Conference Irrigation Training and Research Center
More informationME 305 Fluid Mechanics I. Part 8 Viscous Flow in Pipes and Ducts
ME 305 Fluid Mechanics I Part 8 Viscous Flow in Pipes and Ducts These presentations are prepared by Dr. Cüneyt Sert Mechanical Engineering Department Middle East Technical University Ankara, Turkey csert@metu.edu.tr
More informationGrant Agreement No. 228296 SFERA. Solar Facilities for the European Research Area SEVENTH FRAMEWORK PROGRAMME. Capacities Specific Programme
Grant Agreement No. 228296 SFERA Solar Facilities for the European Research Area SEVENTH FRAMEWORK PROGRAMME Capacities Specific Programme Research Infrastructures Integrating Activity  Combination of
More informationChapter 13 OPENCHANNEL FLOW
Fluid Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications, 2nd Edition Yunus A. Cengel, John M. Cimbala McGrawHill, 2010 Lecture slides by Mehmet Kanoglu Copyright The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. Permission required
More information2.0 BASIC CONCEPTS OF OPEN CHANNEL FLOW MEASUREMENT
2.0 BASIC CONCEPTS OF OPEN CHANNEL FLOW MEASUREMENT Open channel flow is defined as flow in any channel where the liquid flows with a free surface. Open channel flow is not under pressure; gravity is the
More informationFluid Mechanics Prof. T.I. Eldho Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay. Lecture  22 Laminar and Turbulent flows
Fluid Mechanics Prof. T.I. Eldho Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay Lecture  22 Laminar and Turbulent flows Welcome back to the video course on fluid mechanics. So
More informationChapter 8: Flow in Pipes
Objectives 1. Have a deeper understanding of laminar and turbulent flow in pipes and the analysis of fully developed flow 2. Calculate the major and minor losses associated with pipe flow in piping networks
More informationAveraging Pitot Tubes; Fact and Fiction
Averaging Pitot Tubes; Fact and Fiction Abstract An experimental investigation has been undertaken to elucidate effects of averaging stagnation pressures on estimated velocities for pressure averaging
More informationFLOW MEASUREMENT 2001 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE DERIVATION OF AN EXPANSIBILITY FACTOR FOR THE VCONE METER
FLOW MEASUREMENT 200 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE DERIVATION OF AN EXPANSIBILITY FACTOR FOR THE VCONE METER Dr D G Stewart, NEL Dr M ReaderHarris, NEL Dr R J W Peters, McCrometer Inc INTRODUCTION The VCone
More informationCustody Transfer Measurement. with the VCone Flowmeter
Custody Transfer Measurement with the VCone Flowmeter Stephen A. Ifft McCrometer Inc. Hemet, California, USA Abstract This paper will discuss the approval of the McCrometer VCone flowmeter for custody
More informationPractice Problems on Boundary Layers. Answer(s): D = 107 N D = 152 N. C. Wassgren, Purdue University Page 1 of 17 Last Updated: 2010 Nov 22
BL_01 A thin flat plate 55 by 110 cm is immersed in a 6 m/s stream of SAE 10 oil at 20 C. Compute the total skin friction drag if the stream is parallel to (a) the long side and (b) the short side. D =
More informationEVALUATION OF EXHAUST VENTILATION SYSTEMS
HSCI 348 Industrical Hygiene Instrumentation Techniques Laboratory No. 5 EVALUATION OF EXHAUST VENTILATION SYSTEMS INTRODUCTION: Of major concern to the Industrial Hygienist is the evaluation and control
More informationHeat Transfer Prof. Dr. Ale Kumar Ghosal Department of Chemical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati
Heat Transfer Prof. Dr. Ale Kumar Ghosal Department of Chemical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati Module No. # 04 Convective Heat Transfer Lecture No. # 03 Heat Transfer Correlation
More informationCO 2 41.2 MPa (abs) 20 C
comp_02 A CO 2 cartridge is used to propel a small rocket cart. Compressed CO 2, stored at a pressure of 41.2 MPa (abs) and a temperature of 20 C, is expanded through a smoothly contoured converging nozzle
More informationTHEORETICAL UNCERTAINTY OF ORIFICE FLOW MEASUREMENT page 1 THEORETICAL UNCERTAINTY OF ORIFICE FLOW MEASUREMENT INTRODUCTION COEFFICIENT OF DISCHARGE
THEORETICAL UNCERTAINTY OF ORIFICE FLOW MEASUREMENT page 1 DANIEL MEASUREMENT AND CONTROL WHITE PAPERS THEORETICAL UNCERTAINTY OF ORIFICE FLOW MEASUREMENT www.daniel.com INTRODUCTION Orifice meters are
More informationPractice Problems on Bernoulli s Equation. V car. Answer(s): p p p V. C. Wassgren, Purdue University Page 1 of 17 Last Updated: 2010 Sep 15
bernoulli_0 A person holds their hand out of a car window while driving through still air at a speed of V car. What is the maximum pressure on the person s hand? V car 0 max car p p p V C. Wassgren, Purdue
More informationTransient Mass Transfer
Lecture T1 Transient Mass Transfer Up to now, we have considered either processes applied to closed systems or processes involving steadystate flows. In this lecture we turn our attention to transient
More informationAdvanced Differential Pressure Flowmeter Technology VCONE FLOW METER TECHNICAL BRIEF
Advanced Differential Pressure Flowmeter Technology VCONE FLOW METER TECHNICAL BRIEF Table of Contents Section 1  General Introduction 1.1 1 Principles Of Operation 1.2 1 Reshaping The Velocity Profile
More informationViscous Flow in Pipes
Viscous Flow in Pipes Excerpted from supplemental materials of Prof. KuangAn Chang, Dept. of Civil Engin., Texas A&M Univ., for his spring 2008 course CVEN 311, Fluid Dynamics. (See a related handout
More informationPipe Loss Experimental Apparatus
Pipe Loss Experimental Apparatus Kathleen Lifer, Ryan Oberst, Benjamin Wibberley Ohio Northern University Ada, OH 45810 Email: bwibberley@onu.edu Abstract The objective of this project was to develop
More informationStudents Manual for the Exam
Students Manual for the Exam General Engineering and Mechanical Engineering Discipline  March 2014  COPYRIGHT NOTICE COPYRIGHTS 2013 NATIONAL CENTER FOR ASSESSMENT IN HIGHER EDUCATION (QIYAS) UNLESS
More informationChapter 3.5: Fans and Blowers
Part I: Objective type questions and answers Chapter 3.5: Fans and Blowers 1. The parameter used by ASME to define fans, blowers and compressors is a) Fan ration b) Specific ratio c) Blade ratio d) Twist
More informationBLOWERS EXHAUSTERS CONTINENTAL INDUSTRIE ASME PTC 10 PERFORMANCE TEST PROCEDURE. Blowers & Exhausters. Page 1 of 6 PURPOSE STANDARDS INSTRUMENTS
PURPOSE Page 1 of 6 Test purpose is the measure of the following compressor operating parameters: flow of gas handled pressure rice produced shaft power requirement efficiency surge limit STANDARDS Test
More informationPractice Problems on Pumps. Answer(s): Q 2 = 1850 gpm H 2 = 41.7 ft W = 24.1 hp. C. Wassgren, Purdue University Page 1 of 16 Last Updated: 2010 Oct 29
_02 A centrifugal with a 12 in. diameter impeller requires a power input of 60 hp when the flowrate is 3200 gpm against a 60 ft head. The impeller is changed to one with a 10 in. diameter. Determine the
More informationINDUSTRIAL PROCESS AIR HANDLING & MEASUREMENT. Air Velocity/Volume Measurement
306 INTRODUCTION INDUSTRIAL PROCESS AIR HANDLING & MEASUREMENT Air Velocity/Volume Measurement The movement of air is a factor in almost all modern industrial facilities. Industrial air movement is usually
More informationHEAT TRANSFER AUGMENTATION THROUGH DIFFERENT PASSIVE INTENSIFIER METHODS
HEAT TRANSFER AUGMENTATION THROUGH DIFFERENT PASSIVE INTENSIFIER METHODS P.R.Hatwar 1, Bhojraj N. Kale 2 1, 2 Department of Mechanical Engineering Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar College of Engineering & Research,
More informationEXPERIMENT NUMBER 6 PERFORMANCE TEST OF AN IMPULSE TURBINE
EXPERIMENT NUMBER 6 PERFORMANCE TEST OF AN IMPULSE TURBINE OBJECTIVES The primary objective of this experiment is to determine the characteristics of a small impulse turbine and to compare these characteristics
More informationEffects of Beta Ratio and Reynold s Number on Coefficient of Discharge of Orifice Meter
J Agric Rural Dev 7(&2), 556, June 29 ISSN 886 K wl I cj x Dbœqb zj Available online at http://www.banglajol.info/index.php/jard JARD Journal of Agriculture & Rural Development Effects of Beta Ratio
More informationhosetohose coupling pumptohose coupling
pipe_02 A homeowner plans to pump water from a stream in their backyard to water their lawn. A schematic of the pipe system is shown in the figure. 3 m 1 m inlet pipetopump coupling stream reentrant
More informationLecture 6  Boundary Conditions. Applied Computational Fluid Dynamics
Lecture 6  Boundary Conditions Applied Computational Fluid Dynamics Instructor: André Bakker http://www.bakker.org André Bakker (20022006) Fluent Inc. (2002) 1 Outline Overview. Inlet and outlet boundaries.
More informationThe University of Toledo Soil Mechanics Laboratory
The University of Toledo Soil Mechanics Laboratory Permeability Testing  1 Constant and Falling Head Tests Introduction In 1856 the French engineer Henri D arcy demonstrated by experiment that it is possible
More informationWhat is the most obvious difference between pipe flow and open channel flow????????????? (in terms of flow conditions and energy situation)
OPEN CHANNEL FLOW 1 3 Question What is the most obvious difference between pipe flow and open channel flow????????????? (in terms of flow conditions and energy situation) Typical open channel shapes Figure
More informationHEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS IN A 3D SQUARE CHANNEL LAMINAR FLOW WITH USING BAFFLES 1 Vikram Bishnoi
HEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS IN A 3D SQUARE CHANNEL LAMINAR FLOW WITH USING BAFFLES 1 Vikram Bishnoi 2 Rajesh Dudi 1 Scholar and 2 Assistant Professor,Department of Mechanical Engineering, OITM, Hisar (Haryana)
More informationCivil Engineering Hydraulics Mechanics of Fluids. Flow in Pipes
Civil Engineering Hydraulics Mechanics of Fluids Flow in Pipes 2 Now we will move from the purely theoretical discussion of nondimensional parameters to a topic with a bit more that you can see and feel
More informationGOOD PRACTICE GUIDE AN INTRODUCTION TO DIFFERENTIALPRESSURE FLOW METERS
GOOD PRACTICE GUIDE AN INTRODUCTION TO DIFFERENTIALPRESSURE FLOW METERS www.tuvnel.com Introductory guide to differentialpressure flow meters This introductory guide to differentialpressure (Δp) flow
More informationParticle Time of Flight: Reflections on Gas Flow Measurement in Hazardous Environments
1 Abstract The goal of this project was to create precise optical flow meters for the oil & gas industry optimized for measuring flare gas flow in explosive atmospheres. The flow meters had to incorporate
More informationUNIT CONVERSION  Inches of Water to PSF
PROPERTIES OF AIR/VELOCITY UNIT CONVERSION  Inches of Water to PSF PURPOSE: To Illustrate to the student the procedure for converting Inches Of Water to PSF and canceling units. 1) Often times in the
More informationFig 9.1 Illustration of fully developed flow along a pipe
9. FRICTION LOSS ALONG A PIPE Introduction In hydraulic engineering practice, it is frequently necessary to estimate the head loss incurred by a fluid as it flows along a pipeline. For example, it may
More informationThe Unique Accelabar Flow Meter
The Unique Accelabar Flow Meter The Accelabar is a new and unique flow meter that combines two differential pressure technologies to produce operating ranges never before attainable in a single flow meter.
More informationExperimental Evaluation of the Discharge Coefficient of a CentrePivot Roof Window
Experimental Evaluation of the Discharge Coefficient of a CentrePivot Roof Window Ahsan Iqbal #1, Alireza Afshari #2, Per Heiselberg *3, Anders Høj **4 # Energy and Environment, Danish Building Research
More informationFRANCIS TURBINE EXPERIMENT
FRANCIS TURBINE EXPERIMENT 1. OBJECT The purpose of this experiment is to study the constructional details and performance parameters of Francis Turbine. 2. INTRODUCTION Turbines are subdivided into impulse
More informationCEE 370 Fall 2015. Laboratory #3 Open Channel Flow
CEE 70 Fall 015 Laboratory # Open Channel Flow Objective: The objective of this experiment is to measure the flow of fluid through open channels using a Vnotch weir and a hydraulic jump. Introduction:
More informationAirflow through Mine Openings and Ducts Chapter 5
Airflow through Mine Openings and Ducts Chapter 5 Fundamentals of Airflow Ventilation the application of the principles of fluid mechanics & thermodynamics to the flow of air in underground openings Fluid
More informationdu u U 0 U dy y b 0 b
BASIC CONCEPTS/DEFINITIONS OF FLUID MECHANICS (by Marios M. Fyrillas) 1. Density (πυκνότητα) Symbol: 3 Units of measure: kg / m Equation: m ( m mass, V volume) V. Pressure (πίεση) Alternative definition:
More informationFlow Loss in Screens: A Fresh Look at Old Correlation. Ramakumar Venkata Naga Bommisetty, Dhanvantri Shankarananda Joshi and Vighneswara Rao Kollati
Journal of Mechanics Engineering and Automation 3 (013) 934 D DAVID PUBLISHING Ramakumar Venkata Naga Bommisetty, Dhanvantri Shankarananda Joshi and Vighneswara Rao Kollati Engineering Aerospace, MCOE,
More informationCOMPUTATIONAL FLOW MODEL OF WESTFALL'S 4000 OPEN CHANNEL MIXER 4115271R1. By Kimbal A. Hall, PE. Submitted to: WESTFALL MANUFACTURING COMPANY
COMPUTATIONAL FLOW MODEL OF WESTFALL'S 4000 OPEN CHANNEL MIXER 4115271R1 By Kimbal A. Hall, PE Submitted to: WESTFALL MANUFACTURING COMPANY FEBRUARY 2012 ALDEN RESEARCH LABORATORY, INC. 30 Shrewsbury
More informationLab 5: Projectile Motion
Description Lab 5: Projectile Motion In this lab, you will examine the motion of a projectile as it free falls through the air. This will involve looking at motion under constant velocity, as well as motion
More informationFor Water to Move a driving force is needed
RECALL FIRST CLASS: Q K Head Difference Area Distance between Heads Q 0.01 cm 0.19 m 6cm 0.75cm 1 liter 86400sec 1.17 liter ~ 1 liter sec 0.63 m 1000cm 3 day day day constant head 0.4 m 0.1 m FINE SAND
More informationApplication of the Orifice Meter for Accurate Gas Flow Measurement page 1. Application of the Orifice Meter for Accurate Gas Flow Measurement.
Application of the Orifice Meter for Accurate Gas Flow Measurement page 1 DANIEL MEASUREMENT AND CONTROL WHITE PAPER Application of the Orifice Meter for Accurate Gas Flow Measurement www.daniel.com Summary
More informationEntrance Conditions. Chapter 8. Islamic Azad University
Chapter 8 Convection: Internal Flow Islamic Azad University Karaj Branch Entrance Conditions Must distinguish between entrance and fully developed regions. Hydrodynamic Effects: Assume laminar flow with
More informationLaminar and Turbulent flow. Flow Sensors. Reynolds Number. Thermal flow Sensor. Flow and Flow rate. R = Mass Flow controllers
Flow and Flow rate. Laminar and Turbulent flow Laminar flow: smooth, orderly and regular Mechanical sensors have inertia, which can integrate out small variations due to turbulence Turbulent flow: chaotic
More informationME 305 Fluid Mechanics I. Part 4 Integral Formulation of Fluid Flow
ME 305 Fluid Mechanics I Part 4 Integral Formulation of Fluid Flow These presentations are prepared by Dr. Cüneyt Sert Mechanical Engineering Department Middle East Technical University Ankara, Turkey
More informationFLUID MECHANICS. TUTORIAL No.7 FLUID FORCES. When you have completed this tutorial you should be able to. Solve forces due to pressure difference.
FLUID MECHANICS TUTORIAL No.7 FLUID FORCES When you have completed this tutorial you should be able to Solve forces due to pressure difference. Solve problems due to momentum changes. Solve problems involving
More informationFluid Dynamics Basics
Fluid Dynamics Basics Bernoulli s Equation A very important equation in fluid dynamics is the Bernoulli equation. This equation has four variables: velocity ( ), elevation ( ), pressure ( ), and density
More informationINTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS
INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS SIXTH EDITION ROBERT W. FOX Purdue University ALAN T. MCDONALD Purdue University PHILIP J. PRITCHARD Manhattan College JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. CONTENTS CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
More informationExperiment (13): Flow channel
Introduction: An open channel is a duct in which the liquid flows with a free surface exposed to atmospheric pressure. Along the length of the duct, the pressure at the surface is therefore constant and
More informationSIZING AND CAPACITIES OF GAS PIPING
APPENDIX A (IFGS) SIZING AND CAPACITIES OF GAS PIPING (This appendix is informative and is not part of the code.) A.1 General. To determine the size of piping used in a gas piping system, the following
More informationAPPENDIX A CONTROL VALVE TESTING PROCEDURES AND EQUATIONS FOR LIQUID FLOWS
APPENDIX A CONTROL VALVE TESTING PROCEDURES AND EQUATIONS FOR LIQUID FLOWS Section A.1. Flow Coefficients Definition The flow coefficient or pressure loss coefficient is used to relate the pressure loss
More informationEXPERIMENT NUMBER 7 PERFORMANCE TEST OF A CENTRIFUGAL PUMP
EXPERIMENT NUMBER 7 PERFORMANCE TEST OF A CENTRIFUGAL PUMP OBJECTIVE The primary objectives of this experiment is to measure the performance of a centrifugal pump and compare the results to the manufacturers
More informationExperimental investigation of fluid flow in horizontal pipes system of various crosssection geometries
EPJ Web of Conferences 67, 006 (014) DOI: 10.1051/ epjconf/ 01467006 C Owned by the authors, published by EDP Sciences, 014 Experimental investigation of fluid flow in horizontal pipes system of various
More informationCommercial CFD Software Modelling
Commercial CFD Software Modelling Dr. Nor Azwadi bin Che Sidik Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Universiti Teknologi Malaysia INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS 1 CFD Modeling CFD modeling can be
More informationDifferential Relations for Fluid Flow. Acceleration field of a fluid. The differential equation of mass conservation
Differential Relations for Fluid Flow In this approach, we apply our four basic conservation laws to an infinitesimally small control volume. The differential approach provides point by point details of
More informationME 144: Heat Transfer Convection Relations for External Flows. J. M. Meyers
ME 144: Heat Transfer Convection Relations for External Flows Empirical Correlations Generally, convection correlations for external flows are determined experimentally using controlled lab conditions
More informationOpen Channel Flow. M. Siavashi. School of Mechanical Engineering Iran University of Science and Technology
M. Siavashi School of Mechanical Engineering Iran University of Science and Technology W ebpage: webpages.iust.ac.ir/msiavashi Email: msiavashi@iust.ac.ir Landline: +98 21 77240391 Fall 2013 Introduction
More informationPressure Measurements
Pressure Measurements Measurable pressures Absolute pressure Gage pressure Differential pressure Atmospheric/barometric pressure Static pressure Total Pressure Pressure Measurement Mechanical Pressure
More information1 Theoretical Background of PELTON Turbine
c [m/s] linear velocity of water jet u [m/s) runner speed at PCD P jet [W] power in the jet de kin P T [W] power of turbine F [N] force F = dj Q [m 3 /s] discharge, volume flow ρ [kg/m 3 ] density of water
More informationPART IB EXPERIMENTAL ENGINEERING. SUBJECT: FLUID MECHANICS & HEAT TRANSFER EXPERIMENT T2 LOCATION: HYDRAULICS LAB (Gnd Floor Inglis Bldg) PIPE FLOW
PART IB EXPERIMENTAL ENGINEERING SUBJECT: FLUID MECHANICS & HEAT TRANSFER EXPERIMENT T2 LOCATION: HYDRAULICS LAB (Gnd Floor Inglis Bldg) (SHORT) PIPE FLOW OBJECTIVES increased. 1) To note the changes in
More informationFLUID FLOW STREAMLINE LAMINAR FLOW TURBULENT FLOW REYNOLDS NUMBER
VISUAL PHYSICS School of Physics University of Sydney Australia FLUID FLOW STREAMLINE LAMINAR FLOW TURBULENT FLOW REYNOLDS NUMBER? What type of fluid flow is observed? The above pictures show how the effect
More informationUsing CFD to improve the design of a circulating water channel
27 December 27 Using CFD to improve the design of a circulating water channel M.G. Pullinger and J.E. Sargison School of Engineering University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, 71 AUSTRALIA Abstract Computational
More informationA MTR FUEL ELEMENT FLOW DISTRIBUTION MEASUREMENT PRELIMINARY RESULTS
A MTR FUEL ELEMENT FLOW DISTRIBUTION MEASUREMENT PRELIMINARY RESULTS W. M. Torres, P. E. Umbehaun, D. A. Andrade and J. A. B. Souza Centro de Engenharia Nuclear Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares
More informationAN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF EXERGY IN A CORRUGATED PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET) Volume 6, Issue 11, Nov 2015, pp. 1622, Article ID: IJMET_06_11_002 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijmet/issues.asp?jtype=ijmet&vtype=6&itype=11
More information