FLUID DYNAMICS. Intrinsic properties of fluids. Fluids behavior under various conditions

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1 FLUID DYNAMICS Intrinsic properties of fluids Fluids behavior under various conditions Methods by which we can manipulate and utilize the fluids to produce desired results

2 TYPES OF FLUID FLOW Laminar or streamline flow Turbulent flow

3 LAMINAR FLOW Laminar or Streamline Flow, is a well-ordered flow and is characterized by the smooth sliding of adjacent fluid layers (or lamina) over one another, with mixing between layers occurring only on a molecular level.

4 TURBULENT FLOW Turbulent Flow, is an erratic (irregular) flow and is characterized by the transfer of small packets of fluid particles between layers. Thus it is accompanied by fluctuations in velocity.

5 Transition from Laminar to Turbulent Flow When fluid flow is intensified, it tends to switch from laminar to turbulent flow. The transition from laminar to turbulent flow was studied by Reynolds in He suggested a parameter (i.e., Reynolds number) as the criterion for predicting the type of flow in round tubes.

6 Reynolds Number (Re( D ) DV Re = = D ν DρV η where D = pipe diameter (m), = the average fluid velocity (m/s), V v = the kinematic viscosity (m 2 /s), ρ= fluid density, η = fluid or dynamic viscosity Reynolds, 1883 If Re D < 2100 then laminar flow If Re D > 2100 then turbulent flow External factors such as surface roughness and initial disturbances in the fluid may change the critical Reynolds number!!!

7 Velocity Profiles for Laminar and Turbulent Flows For laminar flow the velocity profile is parabolic; in turbulent flow, the curve is somewhat flattened in the middle. Notice that for both cases the e velocity is zero at the fluid-wall interface, this is known as the no-slip boundary condition.

8 Newton s Law of Viscosity-I At steady state, for plates of area A, and laminar flow, the force is expressed by F/A=η(V/Y) where Y is the distance between plates and η=constant of proportionality (viscosity).

9 Newton s Law of Viscosity-II F/A = shear stress = τ = momentum flux (V/Y) = the constant velocity gradient =dυ X /dy when the velocity profile is linear at steady state. direction of momentum transport τ = η yx direction of velocity component Flux of x-momentum x in the y direction ν d x dy Reflects the momentum is transferred from the lower layers of fluid to the upper layers in the positive y- direction. In this case, dv X /dy is negative.

10 Facts about Newton s Law of Viscosity It is only valid in the regime of laminar flow. It does not apply in the regime of turbulent flow. Fluids that obey Newton s law of viscosity are called Newtonian Fluids. All gases and simple liquids (e.g., water, molten metals, molten semiconductors, and many molten salts) are Newtonian, while pastes, slurries and polymeric melts are non-newtonian.

11 Fluid (or Dynamic) Viscosity (η)( The cgs (centimeter-gram-second) unit of stress is dyn.cm -2 or g.cm -1.s -2. Therefore, the cgs unit of viscosity is g.cm -1.s -1 = Poise (P) 1 Centipoise (cp) = the viscosity of water at 20 C and 1 atm. 1cP = 0.01 P In mks system, the corresponding unit of viscosity is Pa.s (N.s.m -2 ) or kg.m -1.s -1, and is equivalent to 10 3 cp (or 10 P).

12 Kinematic Viscosity (v)( The kinematic viscosity is a fundamental quantity. It is a measure of momentum diffusivity, analogous to thermal and mass diffusivities. In mks system, the unit of kinematic viscosity is m 2.s -1, while in the cgs system it is usually cm 2.s -1, sometimes called the stoke.

13 Viscosity of Gases-I I (Mean Free Path Approach) Based on the collision theory of gases; 2 = 3π ( mκ τ B yx 3 / 2 2 η = 3π 2 3 / 2 ( dν where m, mass of fluid molecules, K B, the Boltzmann constant, T, absolute temperature, d, the center to center distance of two molecules. d T ) mκ B T Viscosity of a gas is independent of pressure and depends only on temperature. This conclusion is valid up to about ten atmospheres ( x 10 5 Pa). Usually for real gases, η α T n ; n= rather than 0.5 d 2 1/ 2 ) 1/ 2 dy x

14 Viscosity of Gases-II (Molecular Force Field Approach) Based on the force of attraction and repulsion between molecules; the potential energy of interaction, Lennard-Jones potential, between a pair of molecules in the gas is used to predict the η. η = 2.67 x 10 1/ 2-5 ( MT) 2 σ Ωη where M, gram-molecular weight, σ, the characteristic diameter of the molecule in Å, T, absolute temperature ( K), Ω η, the collision integral of the Chapman-Enskog theory which is a function of a dimensionless parameter K B T/ε, η in poises. This equation is applicable only for the viscosity of nonpolar liquids at low pressures.

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TYPES OF FLUID FLOW. Laminar or streamline flow. Turbulent flow

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