1 Thermo 1 (MEP 261) Thermodynamics An Engineering Approach Yunus A. Cengel & Michael A. Boles 7 th Edition, McGraw-Hill Companies, ISBN , 2008 Sheet 5:Chapter 5 5 1C Name four physical quantities that are conserved and two quantities that are not conserved during a process. 5-1C Mass, energy, momentum, and electric charge are conserved, and volume and entropy are not conserved during a process 5 7 Air enters a nozzle steadily at 2.21 kg/m 3 and 40 m/s and leaves at kg/m 3 and 180 m/s. If the inlet area of the nozzle is 90 cm 2, determine (a) the mass flow rate through the nozzle, and (b) the exit area of the nozzle. Answers:(a) kg/s, (b) 58 cm2
2 5 8 A hair dryer is basically a duct of constant diameter in which a few layers of electric resistors are placed. A small fan pulls the air in and forces it through the resistors where it is heated. If the density of air is 1.20 kg/m 3 at the inlet and 1.05 kg/m 3 at the exit, determine the percent increase in the velocity of air as it flows through the dryer.
3 5 10 A 1-m 3 rigid tank initially contains air whose density is 1.18 kg/m 3. The tank is connected to a high-pressure supply line through a valve. The valve is opened, and air is allowed to enter the tank until the density in the tank rises to 7.20 kg/m 3. Determine the mass of air that has entered the tank. Answer: 6.02 kg Solution 5 11 The ventilating fan of the bathroom of a building has a volume flow rate of 30 L/s and runs continuously. If the density of air inside is 1.20
4 kg/m 3, determine the mass of air vented out in one day. Solution 5 12 A desktop computer is to be cooled by a fan whose flow rate is 0.34 m 3 /min. Determine the mass flow rate of air through the fan at an elevation of 3400 m where the air density is 0.7 kg/m 3. Also, if the average velocity of air is not to exceed 110 m/min, determine the diameter of the casing of the fan. Answers: kg/min, m
5 5 13 A smoking lounge is to accommodate 15 heavy smokers. The minimum fresh air requirement for smoking lounges is specified to be 30 l/s per person (ASHRAE, Standard 62, 1989). Determine the minimum required flow rate of fresh air that needs to be supplied to the lounge, and the
6 diameter of the duct if the air velocity is not to exceed 8 m/s. Solution 5 15 Air enters a 28-cm diameter pipe steadily at 200 kpa and 20 C with a velocity of 5 m/s. Air is heated as it flows, and leaves the pipe at 180 kpa and 40 C. Determine (a) the volume flow rate of
7 air at the inlet, (b) the mass flow rate of air, and (c) the velocity and volume flow rate at the exit. Solution 5 16 Refrigerant-134a enters a 28-cm diameter pipe steadily at 200 kpa and 20 C with a velocity of 5 m/s. The refrigerant gains heat as it flows and leaves the pipe at 180 kpa and 40 C. Determine (a) the volume flow rate of the refrigerant at the
8 inlet, (b) the mass flow rate of the refrigerant, and (c) the velocity and volume flow rate at the exit. Solution 5 17 Consider a 300-L storage tank of a solar water heating system initially filled with warm water at 45 C. Warm water is withdrawn from the tank through a 2-cm diameter hose at an average velocity of 0.5 m/s while cold water enters the tank at 20 C at a rate of 5 L/min. Determine the amount of water in the tank after a 20-minute period. Assume the pressure in the tank remains constant at 1 atm. Answer: 212 kg
9 5 22 Refrigerant-134a enters the compressor of a refrigeration system as saturated vapor at 0.14 MPa, and leaves as superheated vapor at 0.8 MPa and 60 C at a rate of 0.06 kg/s. Determine the rates of energy transfers by mass into and out of the compressor. Assume the kinetic and potential energies to be negligible.
10 5 24 Air flows steadily in a pipe at 300 kpa, 77 C, and 25 m/s at a rate of 18 kg/min. Determine (a) the diameter of the pipe, (b) the rate of flow energy, (c) the rate of energy transport by mass, and (d) also determine the error involved in part (c) if the kinetic energy is neglected.
11 5 30 Air enters an adiabatic nozzle steadily at 300 kpa, 200 C, and 30 m/s and leaves at 100 kpa and 180 m/s. The inlet area of the nozzle is 80 cm 2. Determine (a) the mass flow rate through the nozzle, (b) the exit temperature of the air, and (c) the exit area of the nozzle. Answers: (a) kg/s, (b) C, (c) 38.7 cm 2
13 5 32 Steam at 5 MPa and 400 C enters a nozzle steadily with a velocity of 80 m/s, and it leaves at 2 MPa and 300 C. The inlet area of the nozzle is 50 cm 2, and heat is being lost at a rate of 120 kj/s. Determine (a) the mass flow rate of the steam, (b) the exit velocity of the steam, and (c) the exit area of the nozzle. Solution
14 5 34 Steam at 3 MPa and 400 C enters an adiabatic nozzle steadily with a velocity of 40 m/s and leaves at 2.5 MPa and 300 m/s. Determine (a) the exit temperature and (b) the ratio of the inlet to exit area A 1 /A 2.
15 5 35 Air at 600 kpa and 500 K enters an adiabatic nozzle that has an inlet-to-exit area ratio of 2:1 with a velocity of 120 m/s and leaves with a velocity of 380 m/s. Determine (a) the exit temperature and (b) the exit pressure of the air. Answers: (a) K, (b) kpa
16 5 38 Carbon dioxide enters an adiabatic nozzle steadily at 1 MPa and 500 C with a mass flow rate of 6000 kg/h and leaves at 100 kpa and 450 m/s. The inlet area of the nozzle is 40 cm 2. Determine (a) the inlet velocity and (b) the exit temperature. Answers: (a) 60.8 m/s, (b) K
17 5 39 Refrigerant-134a at 700 kpa and 120 C enters an adiabatic nozzle steadily with a velocity of 20 m/s and leaves at 400 kpa and 30 C. Determine (a) the exit velocity and (b) the ratio of the inlet to exit area A 1 /A 2.
18 5 40 Air at 80 kpa, 27 C, and 220 m/s enters a diffuser at a rate of 2.5 kg/s and leaves at 42 C. The exit area of the diffuser is 400 cm 2. The air is estimated to lose heat at a rate of 18 kj/s during this process. Determine (a) the exit velocity and (b) the exit pressure of the air. Answers: (a) 62.0 m/s, (b) 91.1 kpa.
19 5 41 Nitrogen gas at 60 kpa and 7 C enters an adiabatic diffuser steadily with a velocity of 200 m/s and leaves at 85 kpa and 22 C. Determine (a) the exit velocity of the nitrogen and (b) the ratio of the inlet to exit area A 1 /A 2.
20 5 43 Refrigerant-134a enters a diffuser steadily as saturated vapor at 800 kpa with a velocity of 120 m/s, and it leaves at 900 kpa and 40 C. The refrigerant is gaining heat at a rate of 2 kj/s as it passes through the diffuser. If the exit area is 80 percent greater than the inlet area, determine (a) the
21 exit velocity and (b) the mass flow rate of the refrigerant. Answers: (a) 60.8 m/s, (b) kg/s Solution 5 44 Steam enters a nozzle at 400 C and 800 kpa with a velocity of 10 m/s, and leaves at 300 C and 200 kpa while losing heat at a rate of 25 kw. For an inlet area of 800 cm 2, determine the velocity and the volume flow rate of the steam at the nozzle exit. Answers: 606 m/s, 2.74 m 3 /s
23 5 49 Steam flows steadily through an adiabatic turbine. The inlet conditions of the steam are 10 MPa, 450 C, and 80 m/s, and the exit conditions
24 are 10 kpa, 92 percent quality, and 50 m/s. The mass flow rate of the steam is 12 kg/s. Determine (a) the change in kinetic energy, (b) the power output, and (c) the turbine inlet area. Answers: (a) kj/kg, (b) 10.2 MW, (c) m 2
25 5 51 Steam enters an adiabatic turbine at 10 MPa and 500 C and leaves at 10 kpa with a quality of 90 percent. Neglecting the changes in kinetic and potential energies, determine the mass flow rate required for a power output of 5 MW. Answer: kg/s
26 5 53 Steam enters an adiabatic turbine at 8 MPa and 500 C at a rate of 3 kg/s and leaves at 20 kpa. If the power output of the turbine is 2.5 MW, determine the temperature of the steam at the turbine exit. Neglect kinetic energy changes. Answer: 60.1 C
27 5 54 Argon gas enters an adiabatic turbine steadily at 900 kpa and 450 C with a velocity of 80 m/s and leaves at 150 kpa with a velocity of 150 m/s. The inlet area of the turbine is 60 cm 2. If the power output of the turbine is 250 kw, determine the exit temperature of the argon.
28 5 56 Refrigerant-134a enters an adiabatic compressor as saturated vapor at -24 C and leaves at 0.8 MPa and 60 C. The mass flow rate of the refrigerant is 1.2 kg/s. Determine (a) the power input to the compressor and (b) the volume flow rate of the refrigerant at the compressor inlet.
29 5 57 Air enters the compressor of a gas-turbine plant at ambient conditions of 100 kpa and 25 C with a low velocity and exits at 1 MPa and 347 C with a velocity of 90 m/s. The compressor is cooled at a rate of 1500 kj/min, and the power input to the compressor is 250 kw. Determine the mass flow rate of air through the compressor.
30 5 60 Helium is to be compressed from 120 kpa and 310 K to 700 kpa and 430 K. A heat loss of 20 kj/kg occurs during the compression process. Neglecting kinetic energy changes, determine the power input required for a mass flow rate of 90 kg/min.
31 5 61 Carbon dioxide enters an adiabatic compressor at 100 kpa and 300 K at a rate of 0.5 kg/s and leaves at 600 kpa and 450 K. Neglecting kinetic energy changes, determine (a) the volume flow rate of the carbon dioxide at the compressor inlet and (b) the power input to the compressor.
32 5 66 Refrigerant-134a is throttled from the saturated liquid state at 700 kpa to a pressure of 160 kpa. Determine the temperature drop during this process and the final specific volume of the refrigerant. Answers: 42.3 C, m3/kg
34 5 67 Refrigerant-134a at 800 kpa and 25 C is throttled to a temperature of -20 C. Determine the pressure and the internal energy of the refrigerant at the final state. Answers: 133 kpa, 80.7 kj/kg Solution 5 68 A well-insulated valve is used to throttle steam from 8 MPa and 500 C to 6 MPa. Determine the final temperature of the steam. Answer: C
35 5 71 Carbon dioxide gas enters a throttling valve at 5 MPa and 100 C and leaves at 100 kpa. Determine the temperature change during this process...
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