# Heat Transfer From A Heated Vertical Plate

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1 Heat Transfer From A Heated Vertical Plate Mechanical and Environmental Engineering Laboratory Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering University of California at San Diego La Jolla, California MAE 171A/126: Winter Quarter 2014 Instructor: Kal Seshadri HEAT TRANSFER FROMAHEATEDPLATE IN A DUCT In the following we will consider the heat transfer from a vertical heated plate. The aim is to determine the heat transfer coefficient h and from that the dimensionless form which is the Nusselt number Nu. Thesurface ofthe plate iskept atafixedtemperature and airflows past the plate. Objective Tomeasure theheat flux asafunction oftheflow andthe plate temperature

2 Figure 1: Defintion sketch of a heated plate. Week 1 Objectives 1. To calibrate the heat flux meter 2. To measure the velocity profile across the duct Week 2 1. Measure the heat flux in forced convection, and free convection 2. Determine the heat transfer coefficient (h), Nusselt number (N u). 3. Plot Nusselt numbers (N u) against Reynolds number (Re) for forced convection, and against Raleigh Number (Ra) for free convection. Week 3 1. Complete any unfinished experiments from the flat plate heat transfer experiment from previous weeks 2. Determine the heat transfer coefficients for the fins 3. Plot Nusselt numbers (N u) against Reynolds Number (Re), or Rayleigh Number (Ra)

3 Outline Review of basic heat transfer Laminar forced convection Turbulent forced convection Free convection Mechanisms of Heat Transfer Conduction: Requires a medium. Medium is stationary Convection: Requires a medium. There is flow. Forced convection: Flow is driven by an external device Free (natural) convection: Flow induced by buoyancy forces Radiation: No medium.

4 Conduction Heat transported through a stationary medium (e.g. a crystal lattice) by vibrational energy of molecules that increase with temperature. Fouriers law: Conductive heat flux vector q (units W/(m 2 ) is proportional to the temperature gradient. The constant of proportionality is the thermal conductivity k (units W/(m K). Thus q = k T where is the gradient operator and T the temperature Convection Heat transported through a moving medium (e,g. a fluid) by motion of the medium. In general there is a solid surface, with the fluid flowing over the solid surface. The heat transport from the solid surface to the moving medium is q = k ( ) T n n=0 where q the local heat flux, k the thermal conductivity of the moving fluid, n is the coordinate normal to the surface of the plate. the value of ( T/ n) n=0 depends on the characteristics of the flow.

5 Convection Convective flux of heat transfer is generally expressed in terms a convective heat transfer coefficient h [units W/(m 2 K)] or a Nusselt Number Nu Lc [dimensionless]. The Newton s law of cooling is employed to define h and Nu. Thus q h(t w T ) Nu Lc k L c (T w T ) where L c is some characteristic length, T w local value of temperature at the interface between the solid surface and the fluid, and T is the free stream temperature of the fluid. In view of ( ) T q = k n n=0 it follows that and k h = T w T Nu Lc = L c T w T ( ) T n n=0 ( ) T = hl c n n=0 k Equations Describing Equations Conservation of Mass: Scalar equation Equation of motion (Newton s Second Law) Conservation of Energy (First law of Thermodynamics) Equation of State. Independent and Dependent Variables Independent variables: time (t), spatial coordinates, (x, y, z) Unknowns (dependent variables): density (ρ), pressure distribution (p), three components of flow velocity (u, v, w), temperature (T). Total number of unknowns six. Number of equations six. Solution Strategy Integrate the equations and apply the initial conditions and boundary conditions to obtain the velocity distribution and temperature distribution. Note T(t,x,y,z) Calculate heat flux using q = k( T/ n) n=0

6 Conservation of Mass ρ t + (ρw) where w = iu+jv +kw. With i,j, and k, being unit vectors along the x, y, and z coordinates. Consider co-ordinate x parallel to plate, co-ordinate y normal to the plate. For a vertical plate the direction of the gravitational force is parallel to the plate in the i direction. For constant density (but unsteady), and two-dimensional u x + v y = 0 ρ w t Equation of Motion +ρ(w ) w = p+ τ +ρf where τ is the stress tensor and F is the body force per unit mass. Consider steady, two dimensional flow with constant viscosity. Employ the so-called Boussinesq approximation where changes in density are considered only for estimating the buoyancy forces, otherwise density is constant. Thus the equation of motion in the x direction parallel to the plate is u u x +v u y = ν ( 2 u x u y 2 ) +g T T T where ν is the kinematic viscosity (units m 2 /s), and g acceleration due to gravity.

7 Conservation of Energy ( ) T T ρc p t +ρc V DP p(w T) = q+ V T p Dt +µφ v Consider low speed, steady, two dimensional flow with constant density, viscosity and thermal conductivity. The energy equation is u T ( 2 ) x +v T y = α T x T y 2 where α = k/(ρc p) is the thermal diffusivity (units m 2 /s). Nondimensionalization Introduce the nondimensional quantities Independent variables Velocities Temperature x = x/l c ; y = y/l c ; u = u/u ; v = v/u ; T = (T T )/(T w T )

8 Nondimensional Numbers Introduce the nondimensional quantities Reynolds Number Re = U L c ν Prandtl number Pr = ν α Grashof number Gr = gl3 c (T w T ) ν 2 T Describing Equations Employing Boundary Layer Approximations Mass Conservation u x + v y = 0 Equation of Motion Conservation of Energy Note: Forced Convection when Gr (Re) 2 u u x +v u y = 1 2 u Gr + Re 2 y (Re) 2T u T x +v T y = 1 2 T RePr y 2 Free Convection when Gr is of the same order of (Re) 2

9 Forced Convection Results of Boundary Layer Analysis At any location (local) Nu x = 0.332(Re x) 1/2 Pr 1/3 where the characteristic length employed in the definition of Nusselt Number and Reynold Number is L c = x Average Nusselt Number Nu L = 0.664(Re L ) 1/2 Pr 1/3 where the characteristic length employed in the definition of Nusselt Number and Reynold Number is the length the plate L c = L For Free convection, the empirically obtained average Nusselts Number is Nu L = (Ra L ) 1/4 [1+(0.492/Pr) 9/16] 4/9 where the Raleigh Number Ra = Gr Pr. The experiments The objectives of the experiments are 1. To calibrate the apparatus 2. To measure the heat transfer from the plate 3. To compare the results with theory

10 Theexperiment consists ofheated plate inan airflow. Heat is supplied tothe plate tomaintain it atagiven temperature. By measuring the power required to maintain the plate temperature the heat fluxisdetermined. Theaim istomeasure the heat transfer coefficient for a range of temperatures and air flow rates, covering free convection, laminar and turbulent forced convection. A labview VI controls the heater so that the temperature rapidly reached the setvalue. Once this isreached the systemisset to manualand the heater ismaintained atafixedpower. Theheat transfer coefficients and the Nusselt number are determined from the measurements ofthe power andthe temperatures if theair and the plate. Figure 3: An overview showing the duct and the control electronics.

11 Figure 4: A close-up showing the heated plate and the velocity probe. Figure5: A close-up of the controlunit.

12 1. Week 1 Calibration Objective To calibrate the power meter and measure the velocity profile Method Thepower tothe plate isset byacontrol knobwithapanel display. Measure the voltage and current drawn by the power supply andcalibrate the panel display from0 20W. Measure the velocity profile across the duct at different flow speeds. Weeks 2and 3 Heat flux measurements Objective Tomeasure the heatfluxtothe plate for different plate temperatures and flow speeds in the duct To compare the results with theory Method Set the flow rate and plate temperature to desired values. Measure the powerto the plate. Plot the results of the Nusselt number against the flow parameters and check the theoretical results.

13 REFERENCES LIENHARD, J.H A heat transfer textbook. Prentice-Hall.

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